Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cm-hv : B[p-\nI ae-bmf \ms-i-th-zn-bnse thdn Ah-X-c-Ww

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1 Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cm-hv : B[p-\nI ae-bmf \ms-i-th-zn-bnse thdn Ah-X-c-Ww Remyamol G Assistant Professor, Pavanatma College, Murickassery kw{klw B[p-\nI ae-bmf \ms-ikmln-xysø \h]co- -W-߃sIm v kº- -am- nb \ms-i-ir-ømwv ]n.- _m-e-n-{µ. Bhn-jvIm-c-co-Xn-sIm pw {]tab khn-ti-jx sim pw thdn p \nev p Ct±-l-Øns \ms-i-amwv "Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cm-hv'. B[p-\nI kaq-l-øn ]cn-h Ø-\-hn-t[-b-am-bn-s m- n-cn- p {]W-b-k- -ev]-søbpw \ms-i-i-e-bpss A\- -km-[y-x-i-sfbpw Bhn-jvI-cn- p Cu \msiw A\p-hm-NI lrz-b-ß-fn ckm-kzm-z-\-øns hn`n am\-߃ krjvsn- p- p. kl-{km-_vz-ß-tfmfw {]mno-\-amb am\h kwkvim-c-øns hnf-\n-e-øn \n p-x-s -bmwv Ie-bpsS ]nd-hn. a\p-jys ] -bmb Pohn-Xm-\p-`-h-ß-fn \n pw Dcphw sim Ie-Iƒ v aæns K hpw hnb ns al-xz-hp-am-wp- -Xv. Ah Pohn-X-hp-ambn At`-Zy-ambn _ -s - n-cn- p- p. A\p-`-h-Øns \\-hq-dp \mtsm-sn-i-e-iƒ apx B[p-\n-I-km-t -Xn-I-hn-Zy-bpsS krjvsn-bmb kn\n-a-bpƒs ss hnikn- p-sim- n-cn- p hnim-e-`q-an-i-bm kº- -amwv \ΩpsS `mc-xob Zriy-I-em-]m-c-º-cyw. AXn kpzo L-am-sbmcp Iem-kwkvIrXn ae-bm-f-\m-sn\pw Ah-Im-i-s -Sm-\p- v. Ime-K-W\ IrXy-ambn \n Æ-bn- m-\m-hmø \mtsmsn A\p-jvTm\ \ms-i-ßfpw GI-tZiw c m-bn-c- Øn-e-[nIw h j-ß-fpss ]mc-ºcyw Ah-Im-i-s -Smhp mkn- Ie-Ifpw Dƒs -Sp AXn-hn- ]p-e-amb ] m-ø-e-amwv ae-bm-f-\m-s-i-th-zn-bp-ts-xv. \mtsm-sn- \m-s-i-ß-fn-em-cw-`n v kwkvir-x- -]m- m-xy-k-º -Øn-eqsS kzx-{ -\m-s-i-th-zn-bn-tebv v k -cn Ncn-{X-amWv ae-bm-f-øn-t -Xv. {]lk-\-ßfpw Ncn-{X- -k-ap-zm-b- -km-aq-ln-i- -cm-jv{sob \thm- m\ \ms-i-ß-fp-sa mw Cu hnim-k-øn\v B w Iq n. Ime-L- -Øns Ne-\-ßsf Dƒs m v ]cn-wm-a-hn-t[-b-am-hp-ibpw X\n- p-np- p-ap kaq-lsø ]cn-h Ø\ ]mx-bn-tebv v \bn pibpw P\-lr-Z-b-ß-fn Bkzm-Z-\-Øns hn`n am\-߃ Xo pibpw snbvxv \ms-i-thzn B[p-\n-I-Xbpw IS v DØ-cm-[p-\n-I-X-bn FØn \nev p- p. Ccp-]Xmw \q m- ns Ah-km-\-Z-i-I-߃ a-e-bm-f-\m-s-i-th-znsb kw_- n- n-s-tømfw \h ]co- -W-߃ p thzn-bm-bn-cp- p. bmym-ÿn-xn-i-k- -ev]-ß-sf-sb mw Xncp-Øn-sb-gpXn \ms-i-øns A\- -km-[y-x-i-sf- p-dn pw Bhn-jv m-c-am-\-z-wvu-ß-sf- p-dn pw thdn At\z-jW ]mx-bn-eqss-bm-bn-cp p B[p-\n-I-\m-S-I-Øns apt w. Cu At\z-j-W-Øn\v t\xrxzw simsp-ø-h-cn {]ap-j-\mb \ms-i-ir-ømwv ]n.-_m-e-n-{µ. AXp-hsc Iem-km-ln-Xy-Øn\p ta B[n-]Xyw ]pe Øn h n-cp ]mc-ºcy Nn m-k-xn-i-sfbpw ]ptcm-k-a-\-sa t]cn Im n- q- p sim -cp-xmbva-i-sfbpw tnmzyw snbvxv, Ch-bpsS ka-rvp-k-amb Ie n \n v kzx-{ -am-sbmcp \h \ms-ith-znbv v cq]w simsp- p-i-bm-bn-cp p At±-lw. kmaq-lni Ne-\-ß-tfmSv hnap-jx {]I-Sn- n v {]kvxmhnx amaq-ep-iƒ p- n HXp n \n -Øm {ian- p-tºm-gmwv Ie-bpsS hf apc-sn- p- -sx hy -amb [mcw _me-n-{µ-\p- m-bn-cp- p. ]cn-wm-asø Du -am- n-bm am{xta AXn-Po-h\w km[y-amiq F v a\- n-em- n \ms-i-sa am[y-asø \ho-\-]-co- -W-߃ p thzn-bm- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p At±lw. AXm-bXv B[p-\nI a\-kns ka-ky-m]q-c-w-øn-\p CS-am n am p-i-bm-bn-cp- p. "P\-ß-tfmSv t\cn v kwh-zn- p Ie' F \msi khn-ti-j-xsb {]tbm-p-\-s -SpØn \msi k ev]w Xs Xncp-Øn-sb-gp-Xn. LS-\, PESQUISA- International Journal of Research Vol.2, Issue-1, November

2 Ac-ßv, A`n-\bw F n-h-bnse AXn-]-cn-Nn-X-amb ImgvN- m-sp-isf tnmzyw snbvxv \qx-\hpw DXvIrjvShpamb `mh-x-e-øn-tebv v FØn- p-hm\p {ia-amwv _me-n-{µs \ms-i-߃. Bkzm- Z-\-Øns hn`n- -`m-h-߃ krjvsn- p- -Xn-\mbn ImenIkt -X-߃s m w \mtsm-sn- -A-\pjvTm-\- - m- n- Awi-ßfpw A\p-tbm-Py-amw-hn[w kzoi-cn- p- p. ]mhw Dkvam, a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cmhv, ambm-ko-xm- w, Ieym-W-ku-K- n-iw, amdm-a-d-bm w F o \ms-i-߃ CXn\p \nz i-\-ß-fm-wv. kviqƒ Hm^v set -gvkn A[ym-]-I-\m-bn-cn-s, Pn. i -c- n- -bpss Nc-am-\p-kva-c-W-Zn-\-Øn A[ym- ]-Icpw Ip n-i-fp-a-s-ßp \ms-i-kw-l-øn\v Ah-X-cn- n- p- -Xn-\mbmWv \ms-i-c-n-\-i-f-[n-ihpw \n ln- -Xv. \ms-im-nm-cy\mb At±lØn\p khn-ti-j-am-sbmcp ka Ww IqSn-bm-bn-cp p Cu \ms- I-߃. Ime-tZi kwkvim-c-z i-\-߃ -\p-k-c-w-ambn \ms-i-c-n\ \n -ln- n-s - n ]cm-p-b-s -Sm-\p km[y-x-bp v F Nn -Iƒ p adp-]-sn-bm-bn-cp p _me-n-{µs \ms-i-߃. ]c-º-cm-k-x-amb aqey-`m-h-\-i-fp-ssbpw temimw-ko-imcw t\snb Iem-kn- m- -ß-fp-sSbpw \ncm-i-c-w-øn-eqss ]pxnsbmcp Z i-\-øn\v cq]w \ Ip ka-im-eni \msy-i-e-bpss km[y-x-sf mw {]Xn-^-en- p Ct±lØns \ms-i-amwv Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cm-hv. I pw ti pw t{] -I-a-\- n ÿnc-{]-xnjvt-t\-snb hnjym-x-ir-xn-i-sf- - n-bp kmam-\y-[m-c-w-isf ti{µÿm\-øp-d- n v, s]mfn-s -gp-xns m v Ah-bpsS sshcp- ym-fl-ihpw ka-rvp-k-hp-amb taf-\-øn-eqss B[p-\n-I-co-Xn-bn ]p\xkrjvsn \S-Øp-I-bm-Wv. tjivkv]n-b-dpss F anuvk-ω ss\ v {Uowkv F \ms-i-ønse A p-x-kn- n-bp ] ns\ ti{µ-i-ym-]m{xam n-s m- mwv \msiw ]ptcm-k-an- p- -Xv. IqSmsX Imfn-Zm-ks A`n- m-\-im-ip- -fønse Zpjy-, iip- f XpS-ßn-b-h-scbpw Nß-ºp-g-bpsS ca-w-\nse ca-w-s\bpw N{µn-I-sb-bp-sa mw Ie ns Iem-X-{ -Øn-eqsS Htc Ime-Øn, Htc Ac-ßn GtIm-]n- n- p- -Xn-eqsS hyxykvx Ime-tZ-i-kw-kvIm-c-Øns ka-\zbw IqSn-bmWv \ms- I-IrØv km[y-am- p- -Xv. tjivkv]n-b-dpss F anuvk-ω ss\ v {Uowkv F \ms-i-øn Uyq ns hnhmlmtlm-j-th-f-bn Hcp \msiw Ah-X-cn- n- m-\mbn P\-hn-`mKw Xocp-am-\n- p- p. XpS v \ms- I-sØ- p-dn pw Ah-X-c-W-ssi-en-sb- p-dn- p-sa mw hni-z-amb N \S- p- p. CØ-c-samcp \ms-i- N -bpss ]n _-e-tøm-ss-bmwv _me-n-{µs Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cmhpw Bcw-`n- p- -Xv. tj-ivkv]n-b \ms-i-ønse {][m\ IYm-]m-{X-ß-fmb sl an-b- -sse-km-, slen-\- -Zn-an-{Xn-bmkv F o Imap-Io-Im-ap-I- m p ]Icw _e-n-{µ XnI pw A\p-tbm-Py-amb Hcp ]I-cw-sh- n-eqss iip- -f- -Zp-jy-, N{µn-I- -c-a-w F n-hsc D]-\n-th-in- n- n-cn- p- p. Zpc- -]-cy-h-km-bn-bmb {]Wb-Zz-µ-ßsf A\p-tbm-Py-amb hn[-øn tn Øp-h- p-sim v IYm-]m{X D]-\n-th-i-Øn-eqsS t{] - I-a-\- n Bkzm-Z-\-Øns hyxykvx Xe-߃ Bhn-jv -cn- p-i-bmwv Cu \ms-i-øn. D]-cn-π-h-amb hmb-\-bn Hcp lmky-ir-xn-bm-sw v txm m-sa- nepw ssk m- n-i-amb At\z-j- W-Øn Nne k o Æ-{]-iv\-ßsf \msiw Dƒs m- p- p- v. AKm-[-amb Pohn-X-X-Xz-Z i-\-ßfpw bmym-ÿn-xni kmaq-lni cmjv{sob ho -W-tØm-Sp hntbm-pn pw Iem-hn-jv m-c-ønse hn`n km[y-x-isf p-dn- p hywkym {][m-\-amb {]tbm-k-ßfpw Cu \ms-i-øns i n-ssn-x-\yß-fmbn h Øn- p- p. \ms-i-øns hnhn[ kmt -Xn-Ih- -i-sø- - nbpw hn`n Ime-L- -ß-fnse {]Wb k -ev]-sø- p-dn pw AXn\p kw`-hn A]-N-b-sØ- p-dn pw Cu \msiw N snøp- p. BZy-ambn \ms-i-sa v? F ]q ni k -ev]-sø-ø-s -bmwv hnnn- -\-hn-t[-b-am- p- -Xv. \ms-i- Øns A\- -km-[y-x-isf Bhn-jv -cn- p- -Xn-s\m w ]cn-an-xn-i-sfbpw {]iv\-ß-sfbpw bmsxmcp adbpw IqSmsX t{] -I-k-hn-[-Øn Bhn-jvI-cn- p- p. AXn-\mbn \ms-i-øn-\-i-sømcp \msiw F tjivkv]n-b-dn-b kt Xw _me-n-{µ kzoi-cn- p- p. \msiw kzbw {]Xn-^-e-\m-fl-I-ambn amdn, kzbw F m-sw pw kz`m-h-k-hn-ti-j-x-iƒ Fs m-s -bm-sw- pw, t\cn-ts- n-h-cp {]iv\- ߃ GXp-hn-[-Øn-ep- -Xm-sW pw At\z-jn- p- p. \ms-i-sa kmln-xy-cq]w kz w Aÿn-XzsØ- p-dn v Nn n- p-ibpw N snøp-ibpw snøp {]h-wx a p \ms-i-ß-fn \n v thdn ÿm\w Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cmhpw t\sns msp p p. \ms-i-ønse km{º-zm-bn-i-amb ImgvN- m-sp-isf tnmzyw snøn v Ahbv v ]pxnb `mjyw Na-bv m\pw ] n-eqss At±lw {ian- p- p. "\mstim p-h m t{] -I-cpsS kui-cy-øn\v X n- q- n-sb-sp- p Hcp-Xcw G m-smwv' F pw "F mw Hcp-Xcw DUm-bn- m-'sw pw hy -am- p- -Xn-eqsS \ms-i-sa ]cn-nn-x-amb k -ev]sø XI p-i-bm-wv.tjivkv]n-b-dpss F anuvkω ss\ v {Uowknse {][m\ IYm]m{Xamb ] ns\ Ima-tZ-h-\n-te v A[n-\n-thiw \S-Øn \ms-im-h-x-c-w-øns Dt±-iy-e- y-߃ hy -am n kq{x-[m-c F ]cnthjw IqSn Iev]n- p-\ Ip- p. Htc kabw H n-e-[niw PESQUISA- International Journal of Research Vol.2, Issue-1, November

3 tdmfp-iƒ ssiimcyw snøp Cu IYm-]m{Xw Hcp-Xcw k -c-kz-`mhw ]pe Øp- p- v. ae-bmf \ms-ith-zn-bn A]q -ambn krjvsn- -s Cu IYm-]m-{X-Øn-eq-sS-bmWv \msiw apt m p t]mip- -Xv. Ac-ßv, AWn-b-d, t{] -I F o {XbsØ Htc Nc-Sn _ n- n v At\z-j-W-hn-t[-b-am- p- p. F pw GXpw Fß-s\bpw Fhn-sSbpw Ah-X-cn- n- mw. ImWp- Xv `mh-\m-fl-i-ambn Nn n- m Ign-bp t{] -I-cm-bn-cn- Ww F pam{xw. AXm-bXv \ms-isø bmym-ÿn-xni Ip n-bn \n gn v t{] -I-`m-h\ F kzx-{ -tem-i-øn hnl-cn- m A\p-h-Zn- p- p. A\p-hm-N-I-lr-Z-b-ßfn-emWv ckm-\p-`qxn krjvsn- -s -Sp- -sx `c-x-z i\w Xs -bmwv _me-n-{µs Nn -bv -Snÿm-\w. DØ-a-cmb klr-z-bcpw \ms-i-øns Ahn-`m-Py-L-S-I-am-sW- -t±lw t_m[y-s -Sp-Øp- p. ]c-º-cm-k-x-ambn \ms-im-h-x-c-w-øn ]men- p-t]m-cp e -W-ßtfm \nb-a-ßtfm Nn -Itfm H pw ]men- msx {Ia-c-ln-X-amb Bhn-jvIm-c-ssi-en-bmWv Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cm-hn kzoi-cn- n-cn- p- -Xv. kwkvir-x-\m-s-i-ssi-ensb A\p-h Øn v kq{x-[m-cs {]th-i-tømss Bcw-`n- p- p. F m \mµn, {]kvxm-h\ F n-ßs\ XpS p-t]m-ip- -Xn\p ]Icw \mtsmsn A\p-jvTm-\-I-em-cq-]- amb sxø-ønse txm w snm -en\p kam-\-amb tπ dounwkv F kt -X-Øn-te-bv p Xzcn-Xam w t{] -I-`m-h-\-bn hnizm-k-a n- m-wv. \msimcw`øn Hcp a[y-th-\ cm n-\mhv F t]cn Imhmew \mcm-b-w- -Wn- ]cn-`m-j-s - Sp-Ønb tjivkv]nb \msiw t{] -I-k-a w \S- m hmbn- p- p. Hcp ]pxnb ]co- Ww F - Xn-ep-]cn ap -dn-hns\ DW ØpI F e ywiqsn CXn-\p- v. hnp-bhpw ]cm-p-bhpw km[y-x-ifmbn \n p Ah-k-c-ß-fn apºv hnpbw t\snb IrXn-bn-eqsS Bcw-`n- p-i-bm-sw- n Bcpw Ip w ]d-bn F p am{x-a B[n-Im-cn-IX IqSn D m-ip-sa v kqnn- n- p- p. Ie-bpsS ]pxn-sbmcm-hn-jvimc a\ximkv{xw IqSn-bmWv \ms-i-irøv {]tbm-p-\-s -Sp-Øp- -Xv. tπ dounwkv Bcw-`n- p- -Xn-\p-ap-ºmbn t{] -I-tcmSv cl-ky-sa-t mww Ac-ßnse \S- m v Xs ImWmt\m tiƒ mt\m Ign-bn-s p ] v kqnn- n- p- p. ] v : kxyw ]d-bww \nß-sfs ImWp- pt m? \S- m : C ] v : Fs i_vzw tiƒ p- p-an- t m? \S- m : C. CØcw kw`m-j-w-߃ A\p-hm-N-I-cn Nncn-bp-W Øp-sa- nepw t{] -I-`m-h-\-bv m-wn-hnss {]m[m- \yw. ImtW- -Xn-s\bpw tiƒt - -Xn-s\bpw sim m\pw X m-\p-ap Xocp-am\w t{] -I v hn p-sim-sp-øp-sim v t{] -Isc \ms-i-ønse {][m\ `mk-am- p- p. "sim thwn-sbmcp c p-\m-esn \S- -Xn- -b-xn\p ap ]p-xm sim p Z `-ap\ Imen-sem v' F t«miw "Imen Z `-ap\ sim nt m, amdn ]pjv]-i-cw sim nt m' F kn\nam ]m n-tebv v Nph-Sp-h-bv p- p. H n-e-[niw kµ `-ß-fn Bh Øn p Cu ]cnh Ø\w t{] -I-`m-h-\-bn hnizm-k-a n- m-wv. Hcp \ms-i-{]-h Ø-I F -Xn-\- pdw Xs kn\nam-po-hn-xm-\p-`-h-ß-fp-am-bp- mb AXn-k-º -Øns ^e-am-bn-cn mw CØcw ]mt-t`-z-ß-fn-tebv v At±-lsØ \bn- p- -Xv. "DØa kwkvim-c-øn \n v P\-{]nb kwkvim-c-øn-tebv pw Xncn pw kzm sx n-am-dp {]h-wx _me-n-{µs \ms-i-øns Poh-\mWv'. AXv {]Im-in- p- -Xm-Is t{] -I-`m-h-\-bn-epw. knwl-søbpw \nem-hn-s\bpw Npa-cn-s\-bp-sams Fßs\ cwk-ø-h-x-cn- n- p-sa ck-i-c-amb N \ms-i-th-zn-bp-ssbpw cwk-k- o-i-c-w-øn-s bpw A\- -km-[y-x-i-fn-te-bv mwv hnc Nq- p- -Xv. "Hcp-Ø apƒs -Sn-Ifpw ]nsn v Hcp dm -ep-ambn hc-ww. F n v ]d-bww Xm \nem-hns thjw Ah-X-cn- n- p-i-bm-sw- v'. A{]-Imcw Xs Npa-cn-s\bpw \nem-hn-s\-bp-sa mw kµ `-hm-nn-hy nkq- N-I-Øn-eqsS cwk-ø-h-x-cn- n- p- p.. cwkøv sim epw Nmh-ep-sam pw ]msn-s \ms-i-k- -ev]sø tnmzyw snbvxv "sime \S- p- n ' F \mµn-]-d- n axn-sb v kqnn- n- v lmkymfliambn hna in p p. \ms-i-øns ]cn-an-xn-isf t{] -I-cpsS apºn t\cn- m-hn-jv -cn- p- -Xn-eqsS Acßv Xpd- -h-x-c-w-øn-\p thzn-bm-ip- p. GXp ]cn-an-xn-i-sfbpw `mh-\-sim v AXn-Po-hn- m-sa v _me- PESQUISA- International Journal of Research Vol.2, Issue-1, November

4 N-{µ Cu \ms-i-øn-eqss hy -am- p- p. Ac-ßv, t{] -I F -Xp-t]mse Xs AWn-b-dbpw \ms-i-ønse Hcp {][m\ CS-am-sW v \ms-i- IrØv t_m[ys SpØp p. Acßn \So\S m IYm]m{Xßfmbn `mjyw Nabv ptºmƒ AXn\p ]n n Hcp Iq w BfpIfpsS ]cn{iaap v. I -\p-]n- n-ep kw`-h-ß-fpss Xpd- -h-x-c-w-øneqss AWn-bd kw`-h-߃ pw \ms-i-øn hy -amb {]mxn-\n[yw I n- n-cn- p- p. AWnbdbnse ]cnanxniƒ t{] I a\knem mxncn ptºmgmwv \msiw hnpbn p sx v \msiirøv Cu \msiøneqss hy am p p. cwkthznbnse mƒ ka-im-eni hnj-b-߃ N bv n-s-am-ip- Xv AWn-b-d-bn-em-Wv. AXv t{] -I-cn \n p ad- p-h-t - -X F Nn Xs bmwv Acßv, AWn-bd F t`zw \ms-i-th-zn- m-h-iy-an F v At±lw Nn n p Xv. "Fs mcp kuicyw Hdn-Pn-\ Nphcpw th, \nemhpw th,knwlhpw th m. sim epw Nmhepw H pw th. F mw Hcp-Xcw DUm-bn- m. AXp-sIm v ÿe-im-e-ß-sf mw Ie- n-a-dn- mw. Ahÿm- -c-߃sim- -Ωm-\-am-Smw. ÿe-p-e-hn-{`a-߃ krjvsn- mw. Akm-[y-am-b-sX mw km[y-am- mw. Akw-`-hy-ß-sf mw kw`-hy-ß-fm- mw'.g hpw ]cn-an-x-amb kml-n-cy-øn t{] -I-`m-h-\- bn hnizm-k-ap-s - n \s mcp \msiw krjvsn- m-sa km[y-xsb km[q-i-cn- p-i-bmwv Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cmhv F \ms-i-øn-eq-ss. ae-bmf \ms-i-th-zn-bn A]q -ambn kw`-hn- m-dp k -c-ho- Ww {]I-S-am-Ip \ms-i-amwv Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cm-hv. CXnse Hmtcm IYm-]m-{Xhpw k -enxho- -W-Øns {]Xn-\n-[n-I-fm- Wv. {][m\ IYm-]m-{X-amb ] v Htc kabw H n-e-[niw IYm-]m-{X-ß-sf Ah-X-cn- n- p- p. tjivkv]nb \ms-i-ønse ] v, Ima-tZ-h-\n-tebv v A[n-\n-thiw snøp ] v, kq{x-[m-c, kwhn[mbi F o \ne-i-fn A`n-\-bn- p- -Xn-s\m w Xm Xs F bym -hy- n-bmbpw cwkøv IS- ph-cp- p. km\p-axn `m\p-a-xn-bm-ip- Xpw BSv am\m-ip- Xpw am BSm-Ip- Xpw BSpw am\p-ambn thj-a-wn-bp- -bmƒ tpm Pv F bym t]cnepw \ms-i-øn {]Xy- -s -Sp- p. Cu \ms-i-ønse Hmtcm IYm-]m-{Xhpw H n-e-[niw Bi-b-ß-fpsS {]Xn-\n-[n-I-fm-tI n h -h-cm- Wv. hyxy-kvx-amb Bi-b-߃ krjvsn- p kwl jw ]e-t mgpw A`n-\-b-Ønepw {]I-S-am-Ip- p. A[p\nIbpKØn kn\na, {In v XpSßnbh P\-{]nbambn hf -txmss Iemkvt\lnIfpsS FÆw {Iam-Xo-X-ambn Ipd- p. IetbmSp t{]asø mƒ PohntXm]m[n F \nebn kao]n pi, Xp amb \nc n A`n-\-bn- m XømdmImXncn pi, k KmflI A`nt\Xm fpss A`mhw F nh \msithznsb {]iv\ønem p p. At m-gmwv Hcmƒ H n-e-[niw IYm-]m-{Xßsf kzoi-cn- m \n _- n-x-\m-ip- -Xv. IYm-]m-{X-hp-ambn XmZmflyw {]m]n- m A`n-t\-Xm-hn- \m-ip- n. thjw amdp- -Xn-s\mØv `mhw amdp- n-. Cu {]iv\w G hpw IqSp-X t\cn-ts- n-h- Xv BSv F IYm-]m-{X-ambn \n p Bƒ m-wv. H e[niw IYm]m{Xßsf kzoicnt n hcptºgp mip am\knikwl jw A]q ÆXbnemWv FØn p sx XXzw Cu IYm]m{XØnepsS AhXcn n p p. ] v : BtS BtS, CsX-hn-sS-t mbn InS- p p BtS? BSv : F m km? ] v : kabw If-b-cp-Xv. s]s v am\m-bnt m.. BSv : Aßs\ s]s -s m pw ] -Øn-. BSn\v BSns `mhhpw am\n\v am\ns `mh-hp-sam-s bp -Xm. AsXms amdn-amdn Bhn-jv -cn- p-hm p h m.. ] v : Xm ap m-t m pw ]d-t m- p-\n m \msiw Chn-sS h ßp Xo pw. thkw am\m-bn-t m.. thk-am-i-s. AXp-t]mse km\p-axn `m\p-a-xn-bm-ip- p. "Al-lm Fs -fp- w F{XA\m-bmkw n{]-km-[yamw {]Xn-`mkw Xs \ms-iw. k -hhpw W-{]-`m-N- ew' F v ] n-eqss ]d-bn- p-tºmƒ A\pZn\w amdns m ncn p \msik ev]sø Xs bmwv {]iv\hxvicn p Xv. Ie-sb hmwnpyhxvicn m {ian p- hsc ]tcm- -ambn hna in- pi IqSnbmWv. F m am\ns thj-øn \n v BSn-s\-t mse Ic-bp IYm-]m{Xw Nne Zm i-\ni Zm i-\ni {]iv\-ß-sf qsn Bhn-jvI-cn- p- p.\msihpw PohnXhpw XΩn Iq nap pibmwnhnss."a_ w ] n-t m-b-xm-sw- nepw AsXmcp Zm i-\ni {]iv\-am-bn- Im-WWw. am\n-\p- n BSpw BSn-\p- n PESQUISA- International Journal of Research Vol.2, Issue-1, November

5 am\p-ap- v. am ao kv am\-h, a\p-jy '. B[p-\nI kap-løn bym kzxzw ad v apjw-aq-sn-[mcn-i-fmbn \S- p a\p-jy-s kq va{kmlnbmb ZriymhnjvImcw IqSnbmWnXv. F{X aqsn-h-bv m {ian- mepw bmym yw \mw t]mep-a-dn-bmsx ]pd-øp-hcpw F temi-xxzw IqSn ChnsS {it -b-am-wv. CXm B{i-a-arKw. AXns\ sim -cp-sx v ]d im M- -im-c-zz- m Xs AXns\ am n- -d-bp- p. ap\n-ip-am-c- m "Acp-tX AcptX CXv B{i-a-ar-K-a- m. CXns\ sim m-xn-cn- -cp-tx sim m-xn-cn- cptx' F p-]-d-bp-tºmƒ \jvs-s - p-sim- n-cn- p aqey-t_m-[-sø- p-dn pw \msiw N snøp p. {]Wbw, kvt\lw, ]c-kv]-c-hn-izm-kw, kl-pohn kvt\lw F mw \jvs-s - n-cn- p- p F v _me-n-{µ hy -am- p- p. thdn \ms-im-h-x-c-w-øn-eqss A`n-\-b-Øns khn-ti-j-x-isf ]q Æ-ambpw {]tbm-p-\-s -Sp-Øp- -Xn-s\m w A`n-t\-Xm- ƒ v kz -am-sbm-cnsw \ Ip p. at\m-[ Ωm-`n-\-b-Øn-\p km[y-x-iƒ krjvsn- p- p.f m \msiw Hcp kwliebmwv F p ad v Xs {]Xn` am{xw sxfnbn m {ian p hsc kwhn[mbis at\m`mhtømss ] v \nb{ n p p ëcßs\ IYm-]m-{X-ßfpw A`n-t\-Xm- fpw XΩn-ep _ sø Hcp {]txy-i-co-xn-bn \msiw {]iv\-h-xv -cn- p- p. CXv km[y-am- p kzmx{ yw Cu \ms-i-øn\v Hcp-Xcw ssph-kz-`mhw ]I p-\ Ip- p.- Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cmhv F \ms-i-w ssiimcyw as mcp {]tabw {]W-b-Øn\p kw`-hn A]- N-b-am-Wv. c v Ime-L- -ß-fn-embn {]W-b-k- -ev]-øn\p h p-tn A[x]X\w Cu \msiw ]cntim-[n- p- p. Zpc- -Øn apßn-t m-ip c v {]W-b-_- -ßsf Ima-tZ-h-\n-tebv v A[n-\n-thiw \S-Ønb ] v hyxy-kvx-am-sbmcp ho -W-Øn-eqsS am n-sb-gp-xp- p. ChnsSbmWv A ]mtyx F k ev]\w {]k amip Xv. Hmtcm ]mthpw ap ]mtßfpambn _ s ncn p p F ]m mxy k ev]w Xs bmwv _men{µs \msiønepw ImWm\mIp Xv.iIp- -f- -Zp-jy-, N{µn-I- -c-a-w F o {]W-b-_- -ßsf XnI pw B[p-\n-IcoXn-bn tn Øp-h v N{µn-I- -Zp-jy-, iip- f c-a-w F o Zzµzk -ev]-øn-tebv v am n-sb-gp-xp-tºmƒ {]W-b-Øn\p kw`-hn XI -bpss apjw hy -am-ip- p. iip- -f, caw F n-h bym {]W-b-Øns h m- -fmbpw Zpjy-, N{µnI F o IYm- ]m-{x-߃ `uxn-i-amb kpj-tem-ep-]-x-bv p am -ambn {]W-bsØ ho n kaq-l-øns {]Xn- \n-[n-i-fmbpw {]Xy- -s -Sp- p. ap n-cn- m-dp-t]m-ep Pohn-X-am-kz-Zn- m ca-ws {]Wbw hens -dn v Ahƒ v tbmpy iip- -f-sb Km hn[n {]Imcw hnhmlw Ign v NXn Zpjy- -\msw v ] v Xncn- -dn-bp- p. AXp-sIm- m-a-t m. N{µn-Ibv p ]Icw iip- -fsb NXn Zpjy- \pw CXp tncp-a-t m? "N{µntI IjvS-an- n-\m-hns\ sb n-t\hw NXn p \o?' F hcn-iƒ Zpjy- \pw tncp-sa v ] v ]d-bp- p. {]W-b-h- -I-cmb Ch p in N{µn-Ibv v ca-w-t\mspw Zpjy- \v iip- -f-tbmspw A\p-cmK hnh-i-x-bp- m- pi F Xm-Wv. AXn-\mbn a\ n kzm`mhniambp mti {]WbsØ Ir{Xnaambn ]p\xkrjvsn m km\paxnbpss \n t±i{]imcw ] v {]W-b- mdv D m- p- p. F m Akzm`mhnIambp mb {]Wbw A_- -ß-fn-te- mwv \bn p sx v hnzq-j-i am F {]W-b-tPm-Un-I-fn-eqsS Bhn-jvI-cn- p- p. XpS v kw`-hn- p CXn-hrØ ]ptcm-k-xn-h v ho n- p t{] -I-cn Nncn-bp-W Øp-sa- nepw {]W-bsØ `uxn-i-x-e-øn ho n p kam-\-kz-`m-h-øns DS-a-Iƒ GXp Ime-L- -Ønepw D v F v kqnn- n- p- p. A v Zpjy- -\m-bn-cp- p-sh- n C v N{µn-I-bmbn thj- -I \SØn F p am{xw. Zpjy i-ip- -f-bpss {]W-bm-S-bmfw ap{z-tam-xn-c-am-bn-cp-s - n Zpjy N-{µn-IbptSXn t^mt m Bbn ]cnwmaw kw`hn p p.kzm`m-hn-i-am-bp- m-ip {]W-bsØ Nne am\-z- WvU-ßsf ti{µo-i-cn- m- p B[p-\n-I-X-bpsS Im]-Syw Xs -bmwnhnss {]I-S-am-Ip- -Xv.F m- \njvi-f- -cmb iip- -f-bp-ssbpw caw-s bpw {]Wb-tPm-Un-Isf H n- n- m-\mbn ] pw km\pa-xnbpw {ian- p- p. F m {]W-b- m-dns tem]-\-tijw Zpjy- Z in- p- Xv N{µn-I-sb-bm- Wv. N{µnI Xncn pw. Ccp-hcpw ]c-kv]-cm-\p-cm-k-h-i-cm-ip- p. F m iip- -f-bn {]W-b-k-Zr-iamb Nne am -߃ kw`-hn- p- p-s - nepw ca-w\v ac-w-tøm-smwv {]W-b-ap- m-ip- -Xv. {]W-b-Øn a\- n-\ PmXn pw ax-øn\pw kº-øn-\p-sam-s -bmwv kzm[o-\-sa v \ms-i-irøv PESQUISA- International Journal of Research Vol.2, Issue-1, November

6 kqnn- n- p- p. B[p-\nI kaq-l-øn {]W-b-Øn\p kw`-hn XI hy -am- p- p. ca-w-k-hn-[- Øn-tebv p t]mim-\m-bp iip- -fsb XS- p-sim v im MvKch : \n\ p t{]an- m\pw IeymWw Ign- m\pw Ch-s\ v tbmky-xbm- D- Xv? imc-zz-x : Ipe-a-ln-a-sbmt m? B`n-Pm-Xy-samt m? kmº-øn-i-ti-jnsbmt m? im MvK-c-h : FSo Al- m-co t{]an- p-s - n _p n-]q w t{]an- - Ww. ] v : IogvØ- n-ep c p-t] XΩnepw ta Ø- n-ep c p-t] XΩnepw {]W-b-Øn-te s - m h K-]-c-amb kwl jw Hgn-hm- m-sa m Rm Icp-Xn-b- Xv. CXn w Chn-sSbpw {]iv\-am-wt m? {]W-b-I-Y-bpsS Ah-km\w N{µn-I-bpsS ASp-tØ-bv p-h-cp ca-ws\ Zpjy- ASn- p-sim- p- p. F m acn- p-in-s- p ca-w Hcp {]iv\-ambn amdp- p. "ad-hp-sn-ø-s -SmØ Hcp ih-i-cocw Nne-t mƒ Zm i-\n-ihpw cmjv{so-b-hp-sam-s -bmb Iodm-ap- n {]iv\-ambn hf t - mw'. Nne-t mƒ kwl j-øn-tebv pw FØmw F p a\- n-em- n Zpjy- \pw amv-h\pw IqSn ac-øns Nm simºn si n Bfl-l-Xy-bm- n am p- p. X߃ v XS- -ambn hcp- -h-sc-sb- mw C m-xm n sime- ]m-x-isøhsc Bfl-l-Xy-bm n am m Ign-hp A[n-Im-cn-h -Øns {]Xn-\n-[n-I-fmbn Zpjy- -s\bpw hnzq-j-i-s\bpw Ah-X-cn- n- p- p. A[xÿnXcmbh v kaqløn bmsxmcp hnebpw Iev]n mø hyhÿnxntbmsp i amb FXn pw Cu \msiøn hnjbamip p. taemf m v hnsp-]wn snøp- -h-cmbn \nb-a-]m-e-icpw amdp p F kxyw bmsxmcp asnbpw IqSmsX _me-n-{µ hnfn- p-]-d-bp- XneqsS kmwkvimcni cmjv{sobhÿifn \ne\n p Ac nxmhÿsb t{] Ika w Xpd pimwn p p. {]Wbw Xo{hhpw [ochpw a[p-c-hp-sams Bbn-cn- p- -Xp-t]mse H m-tem-nn- m ^en-x-hp-amsw bmym yw At±lw Bhn-jvI-cn- p- p. {]W-bw, kvt\lw F n-hbv v bmsxm-cp hnebpw I ]n- mø B[p-\nI kaq-l-øn\v {]W-b-Øns ktµiw \ In \msiw Ah-km-\n- p- p. temim kakvxm {]Wtbm `h- p temim kakvxm {]Wtbm `h- p. klm-bi {KŸ-߃ v v 1. ]n. _me-n-{µ, Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cmhv, Id _pivkv, F. B. {Kma-{]-Im-iv, {]Xy-b-im-kv{Xhpw \ms-ihpw,\ho-\-zr-iy-i-e, Fcp-taen ]c-ta-iz-c ]n-, ae-bmf kmlnxyw Ime-L- -ß-fn-eq-sS, Id _pivkv, Pn. i -c- n-, ae-bmf kmln-xy-n-cn{xw, ticf kmlnxy A- m-z-an, ]n. Pn. kzm\µ, \msiw:iebpw ImgvNbpw, ticf`mjm C Ãn yq v, 2013 B\p-Im-en-I-߃ 1. tum. cmpm hmcy, P\-Iob \ms-i-k- -ev]-øn\v txm n `mkn \ Inb km m-xvim-cw, hn m\ ssic-fn, BKÃv 2. hn n]ounb PESQUISA- International Journal of Research Vol.2, Issue-1, November

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