Executive Summary of Climate Change MALAYALAM. Reconsidered

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Executive Summary of Climate Change MALAYALAM. Reconsidered"

Transcription

1 Executive Summary of Climate Change MALAYALAM Reconsidered

2 Climate Change Reconsidered Lead Authors Craig Idso (USA), S. Fred Singer (USA) Contributors and Reviewers Warren Anderson (USA), J. Scott Armstrong (USA), Dennis Avery (USA), Franco Battaglia (Italy), Robert Carter (Australia), Piers Corbyn (UK), Richard Courtney (UK), Joseph d'aleo (USA), Don Easterbrook (USA), Fred Goldberg (Sweden), Vincent Gray (New Zealand), William Gray (USA), Kesten Green (Australia), Kenneth Haapala (USA), David Hagen (USA), Klaus Heiss (Austria), Zbigniew Jaworowski (Poland), Olavi Karner (Estonia), Richard Alan Keen (USA), Madhav Khandekar (Canada), William Kininmonth (Australia), Hans Labohm (Netherlands), Anthony Lupo (USA), Howard Maccabee (USA), H. Michael Mogil (USA), Christopher Monckton (UK), Lubos Motl (Czech Republic), Stephen Murgatroyd (Canada), Nicola Scafetta (USA), Harrison Schmitt (USA), Tom Segalstad (Norway), George Taylor (USA), Dick Thoenes (Netherlands), Anton Uriarte (Spain), Gerd Weber (Germany) Editors Joseph L. Bast (USA), Diane Carol Bast (USA) 2009 Report of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) Published for the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) 2010, Science and Environmental Policy Project and Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change Full Copy of the report can be downloaded from Published by THE HEARTLAND INSTITUTE 19 South LaSalle Street #903 Chicago, Illinois U.S.A. phone +1 (312) fax +1 (312) With permission, reprinted in India by LIBERTY INSTITUTE C-4/8 Sahyadri, Plot 5, Sector 12, Dwarka New Delhi India phone

3 BapJw Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w BapJw H-cp {]-[m-\ i-kv-{x-{inb- v hn-t[-b-\mipw ap-ºv c- ma-sxm-cp A`n-{]m-bw tx-sp -Xv \ X-t? H-cp cmpyw A-Xn-s km-ºøn-i `m-hntbbpw ]- cn-ÿn-xn-tbbpw Ip-dn- v Xo-cp-am-\n- p-tºmƒ Xo - bmbpw c- m-a-sxm-cp A-`n-{]m-bw tx-s-ww. im-kv- {XØn C-Xv Xn-I pw km-[m-c-w-amwv. C-Xn-\mbn cq- ]o-i-cn- p- c m-asø Sow H-tc sx-fn-hpi-fp-ss A-Snÿm-\-Øn hy-xykvx \n-k-a-\-ß-fn F-Øp- Xpw ]p-xp-a-b. The Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (F.sF.]n.kn.kn) sf-iy-cm-{ kw-l-s-\-bp-ss ]n -_-e-tøm-ss {]-h -Øn- p- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (sf.]n.kn.kn)s ssi-h-i-ap- A-tX hn-h-c-߃ ]- cn-tim-[n- m H-cp kw-hn-[m-\w H-cp- n-bxv Cu km-l- N-cy-Øn-emWv sf.]n.kn.kn Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\w Climate Change 2007 (IPCC-AR4, 2007) F- aq p hmey-ap \mem-asø dn-t m - v {]-kn- o-i-cn p. A- m-u-an-iv, k - m, hy-hkm-b X-e-ß-fn e`yam-b G- hpw hn-iz-k-\o-b-am-b K-th-j-W-ß-fp-sSbpw sx-fnhp-i-fp-ssbpw A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv Cu dn-t m - v X-ømdm- n-bn-cn- p- -sx- mwv sf.]n.kn.kn A-h-Im-i-s - Xv. ]-s Cu I-s -Ø-epIƒ F-{X-am{Xw i-cn-bmwv? G- hpw {][m-\ {]-iv-\w ]cn-tim-[n- mw. sf.]n.kn.kn dn-t m - vvv A-\p-k-cn- vvv C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-s a[yw ap-x B-cw`n- Xm-]\ne h - -\-hn-s {][m-\ Imc-Ww am-\pjn-i C-S-s]-S-emWv. F- m F.sF.]n.kn.kn-bp-sS I-s -Ø A-\p-k-cn- vvv {]- IrXn- {]-Xn-`m-k-ß-fm-Wv Xm-]-\n-e-bn-ep- m-bn-s m- ncn- p- h - -\-hn-\v Im-cWw. a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-S Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-\v Im-c-W-am-Ip- n-s - C-Xn-eq-sS A - -am- p- -Xv. ]-s A-h-bp-sS kzm-[o- \w Xp-temw Xp- -amwv. B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn-s tzm-jß-sf Ip-dn v sf.]n.kn.kn hn-e-bn-cp-ø C-{]-Im-c-amWv: Nq-Sp-Im- v, sh- -s m w, sim-sp- m v, Im- pxo, h-cƒ- Xp-S-ßnb-h-bn-eq-sS-bp- A-]-I-S-ßfpw a-c-w-ßfpw h - n- pw. F- m R-ß-fp-sS \n-ka-\w Xn-I pw hy-xy-kv-x-amwv. Nq-Sp tem-i-am-wv a-\p-jy-cp-ssbpw ar-k-ß-fp-ssbpw B- tcm-ky-øn\pw Po-h\pw D-Øaw. B-tKm-f Xm-]-\-Øn-\v a-\p-jy-cn-tem a- v Po-h-Pm-e-ß-fn-tem H-cp kzm-[o-\hpw C-s. Kp-WI-ctam tzm-ji-ctam B-b {]-`m-hw D- m-imw. F- m Xm-]\n-e h- - -\-hn-s bpw CwKmemæ hmx-i-øns Db -bp-tsbpw ^-ew sam-ø-øn ]cn-tim-[n- m A-Xv a-\p-jy pw a- v Po-hPme߃ pw Kp-W-I-c-am-sW- v sx-fn-hp-iƒ kq-nn- n- p p. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss \memw dn-t m - n-s H pw c pw hm y-߃- vvv B-[m-cam-b F m sx-fn-hp-i-fpw R-߃ ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am n. sf.]n.kn.kn X-ß-fp-sS \n- K-a-\-Øn F-Øm D-]-tbm-Kn- ]-e sx-fn-hp-ifpw hnhm-z-]-chpw Ah-cpsS hmzsø km[q-i-cn- m am{xw Xn-c-s -Sp- -s - -h-bp-am-sw- vvv I-s -Øm-\m-bn. H-cp ]- -]m-x-hp-an m-sx e-`yam-b G- hpw an-i- im-kv-{xob ]T-\-ß-fp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-em-Wv dn-t m - vvv X-ømdm- n-bn-cn- p- -sx- mwv sf.]n.kn.kn A-h-Im-i-s - Sp- -Xv. F- m ]-e Im-cy-ß-fpw Du-Xn-s -cp- n- pw h- kvv-xp-xi-sf h-f-s m-sn pw {][m-\ im-kvvvv-{x ]T-\ß-sf A-h-K-Wn- p-am-wv Cu \n-k-a-\-ß-fn F-Øn-bn-cn- p- sx v \n- wi-bw a-\- n-em- mw. R-ß-fp-sS I-s -Ø-ep-Iƒ- v B-[m-cam-b B-bnc- -W- n-\v im-kv-{x te-j-\ß-sf Ip-dn- v hn-h-cn- p- Ibpw Ah-sb ]-cn-n-b-s -Sp-Øp-I-bp-am-Wv C-hnsS. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss {][m-\ I-s -Ø-ep-I-sf-sb mw X- In-Sw a-dn- p- -h-bmw-h. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn- \v Imc-Ww a-\p-jy-cm-sw pw A-Xn-s ^-ew `o-i-cam-bn-cn- p-sa- p- \n-k-a-\-ß-sf mw No p-sim- m-cw t]mse X-I - p-ho-gp-i-bmwv. BZyw sf.]n.kn.kn-sbbpw F.sF.]n.kn.knsbbpw ]-cn-n-b-s -Smw. H-tc sx-fn-hp-i-fp-ss A-Sn-ÿm- \-Øn Xn-I pw hy-xy-kv-xam-b \n-k-a-\-ß-fn C-h Fß-s\ F-Øn-sb- v a-\- n-em- m C-h-bp-sS N-cn{Xw k-lm-b-am-ipw. A-Xn-\v ti-jw \memw A-\p-t -Z-Øn Dƒ-s 31,478 A-ta-cn- im-kv-{x- -am-sc ]-cn-nb-s -Smw. Cu dn-t m - n-eq-ss R-߃ F- m-wv e- yan-sp- -sx- v hy- -am- p-i-bm-wv ]n sø L w. 3

4 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss e-lp N-cn{Xw 1970 ap-x B-cw`n- ]-cn-ÿn-xn kwc- W t_m- [-Øn-\v ]n- n \n-ch-[n Zp-c- -߃ k-ωm-\n- th-z-\- I-fp v. cm-k-h-kv-xp- -fn \n- p m-b Iym -k _m- [Iƒ, Io-S-\m-in-\n-Iƒ A-{]-Xy- -cm n-b ]- n-ifpw {]m-wn-i-fpw, Hm-tkm ]m-fn-bn-se hn, B-kn-Uv a-g-bn \-in- Im-Sp-Iƒ, G- hpw H-Sp-hn-em-bn Im-emhÿm hy-xn-bm-\-hpw. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø ]-cnÿn-xn apdn-hpifp-ss am-xm-hv F- m-wv B-tcm hn - Um-hv-kv-In hn-ti-jn- n- Xv se tem-i- `u-a-zn-\w, se kv-t m v-tlmw k-tω-f-\w, 1980se-bpw 85sebpw hn m v (Villach) k- tωf-\w F- n-h-bmwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss ÿm-]-\-øn- \v h-gn-a-cp- n- -Xv Pq-em-bn United Nations Environment Program (bp.f.c.]n), World Meteorological Organization (U-_v-fyp.Fw.H) F o kwl-s-\-iƒ tn v sf-iy-cm-{ -k-`-bp-ss `m-k-sa- \n-e-bn sf.]n.kn.kn ÿm-]n p. sf.]n.kn.kn-bn-se {]-[m-\n-i-sf-bpw im-kv-{x-imc -am-scbpw \n-b-an- p -Xv k - m-cp-i-fmwv. C-Xv `-c- W-I -Øm- ƒ- v \ -Ip- c-xv-\- p-cp w (summaries for policymakers-spm) sf-iy-cm-{ k- -bn-se Aw-Kcm-Py-ß-fp-sS A-\p-a-Xn- v hn-t[-b-am- Ww. sf.]n kn.kn-bp-am-bn _- -s - v {]-h -Øn- p- im-kv-{x- - v K-th-j-W-Øn-\v ]pd-sa A-h-cp-sS bm-{x pw BUw- _cpohn-x-øn\pw D- sn-e-hp-ifpw h-ln- p -Xv k - m-cp-i-fmwv. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss N-cn-{X-sØ- p-dn- v \n-ch-[n te- J-\-߃ {]-kn- o-i-cn- -s - n- p v. F- m XpS- w ap-x cm-{ o-b Xm-Xv-]-cy-߃ D- m-bn-cp- H-cp kw- L-S-\-bm-Wn-sX- Imcyw ]-ecpw Nq- n- m- n-bn- n. l- cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss ]p-dw-x- \n-b-{ n- p- -Xns\ \ym-bo-i-cn- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p C-Xn-s {][m-\ AP-. {]-txy-in- v Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s \n-b- { Ww. Im-e-{Ita-W A-h-cp-sS taj-e a-\p-jy C-S-s]- S-en-eq-sS-bp- Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\sø km-[q-i-cn- p- -Xn-te- v am-dn. tem-i-øv e-`yam-b h-kv-xp-\n- hpw kz-x-{ -hpam-b im-kv-{xo-b, km-t -Xn-I, km-aq-ln-i km- º-Øn-I- ta-j-e-i-fnse ]T-\-ß-fp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn a-\p-jy C-S-s]-S-en-eq-sS-bp- Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\- sø Ip-dn- v a-\- n-em- p-ibpw A-Xn-s\ Fß-s\ t\- cn-sm-sa- -Xn-s\ Ip-dn- v tem-i-øn F m-bn-søpw {]-tbm-p-\-s -Sp-Øm-hp- am - -߃ hn-i-kn- n- p-i-bpamwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss Np-a-Xe. (sf.]n.kn.kn 2008) sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss X-e- -Øp- m-bn-cp- aq- v {]- ap-j-cm-bn-cp- p s{]m-^. s_ - v t_m-fn, tum. tdm-_ - v hm- vk, tum. tpm tlm F- nh. kv-t m vtlmw k -Δ-I-em-im-e-bn-se an- ocn-tbm-f-pn-kv- m-bn-cp- t_mfn C-t mƒ Po-hn- n-cn- n. \m-k-bn A v-tamkv-^n-dn-iv si-an-ãv B-bn-cp- tdm-_ - v hm- v-k ]n- o-sv tem-i -_m- n tn p. C-t mƒ A-t±-lw {_n- - Wn-se F -h-tbm -sa, ^p-uv B Uv dq-d A-^-tb-gv-kv Un- m - v-sa n-se No-^v k-b n-ãmwv. Hm-Ivkv-t^m-Uv k -Δ-I-em-im-e-bn A v-tam-kv-^n-dn-iv td-un-tb-j ^n-knkn-ãv B-bn-cp tpm tlm C-t mƒ bp.si sa v Hm-^o-kn-s X-e-h-\mWv. kv-{sm-t m-kv-^n-b-dnse Hm-tkm-Wn-s\ a-\p-jy-s C- S-s]-S Fß-s\ _m-[n- p- p F- v I-s -Øm kzbw \n-b-an- hn`m-k-øn-s X-e-h-\m-bn-cp- p hm- vk. C-h-cp-sS I-s -Ø-ep-I-fp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv 1987 se tam -{So t{]m-t m-t m-fn IqSn t mtdm ^v-fqtdm Im -_-Wp-I-fp-sS (kn.-f-^v.-kn) ]p-d- - \n-b-{ n- -m Xo-cp-am-\n- Xv. C-Xn-s A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn \m- zd dn-tkm-gvk-kv Un-^ -kv Iu -kn-en-se A-`n`m-j- I\m-b tu-hn-uv tum-wn-k l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-߃ \n-b-{ n- m-\pw H-cp cq-]tc-j X-øm-dm- n. A-[n-Iw ssh- Im-sX C-Xv tiymt m t{]m-t m-t mƒ Bbn kzo-i-cn- s p. B-cw-`-Im-ew apx sf.]n.kn.kn-bn-se im-kv-{x- A-h-cp-sS cm-py-ß-fn-se k - m-cp-i-fp-ss Xm-Xv- ]-cy-߃ kw-c- n- m-\m-wv {i-an- n- p- Xv. A-s - n A-h-cp-sS I-s -Ø-ep-Iƒ Aw-Ko-I-cn- m AX-Xv k - m-cp-i-sf- t{]-cn- n- pw. `c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- p- AXn- {]-[m\ dn-t m - p-iƒ (Fkv.]n.Fw) X-øm-dm- p- -Xv cm- { o-be- y-ß-fp H-cp sndn-b kw-l-am-bn-cp p. B-bn-c- -W- n-\v im-kv-{x- -cp-ss K-th-j-W-ßfp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv Cu dn-t m - p-iƒ X-øm-dm- p- -sx- m-wv ]-d-b-s -Sp- Xv. F- m C-h-cn _- lp-`q-cn-]- -Øn\pw A-hkm-\ \n-k-a-\-ß-fn F-Øp- -Xn H-cp ]- p-an-s - -Xm-Wv k-xyw. `-c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- p- dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- p -Xv {]-[m-\-ambpw sf.]n.kn.kn-bn-se H-cp ti-{μ-hn-`m-k-amwv. Cu dn-t m - nse Hmtcm hm pw h-cnbpw AX-Xv k - m-cp-iƒ Aw- Ko-I-cn- - ti-j-am-wv {]-kn- o-i-cn- p- Xv. H-cp im-kv- {X {]_- w hn-e-bn-cp-øp- co-xn-bn-e C-Xv sn-øp- -sx- v hy- -amwv. `-c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- p- dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- p- Xpw c-k-i-c-am-wv. B-bn-c- -W- n-\v t]-pp-i-fn-em-bn- -]-S - p-in-s- p- dn-t m - n \n- v Nn-e `m-k-߃ A-S - Øn-sb-Sp-Øm-Wv C-h - v \ -Ip- Xv. ]-e-t mgpw C-Xn kq-n-\ (index) t]mepw Im-Wm-dn ]p-d-øn-dßn-b dn-t m - v am-{x-am-wv CXn-s\m-cp A-]- hmzw. im-kv-{x-cw-k-øp- -h - m-sx a- m pw C-Xv a-\- n-em- m\pw I-gn-bn. Xm-]-\n-e-bn-se h - -\-hn-s\ l-cn-xkrl am-xr-i- I-fp-am-bn _- -s -Sp-Øn-bmWv sf.]n.kn.kn A-Xn-s B-Zy dn-t m - v (IPCC-FAR 1990) {]-kn- o-i-cn Xv. l- cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss _-ln -Ka-\w C-c- n-bm-bm Xm- ]-\n-e-bn 1.5 Un{Kn sk -jy-kv apx 4.5 Un{Kn sk jy-kv h-sc h - -\ hcpsa v Iq-Sp-X ]T-\-sam pw \-S-Øm-sX \n-co- n- p-ibpw sn-bv-xp dntbm Un P\o-tdm-bn \-S- F -Øv k-ωn- n Kv-tfm-_ 4

5 BapJw Iv-ssfa- v {So- n kzo-i-cn- m Im-c-W-am-bXpw Cu I-s -Ø-emWv. sf.]n.kn.kn-bpss Cu dn-t m - n-s\-xn-sc tem-ihym-]-i-am-bn hn-a -i-\-ß-fp- mbn. Cu dn-t m - n-s\-xnscbpw sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss {]-h -Ø\ ssi-en-s -Xnsc-bpw {]ikvx imkv{x-am-knibmb Nature c- v F-Un-t m-dn-b-ep-iƒ F-gp-Xn-bn-cp p. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss c- ma-sø dn-t m - v 1995em- Wv ]q -Øn-bm-b-Xv C-Xv {]-kn- o-i-cn p. `-c-w- I -Øm- ƒ- p- dn-t m - v c mw X-h-Wbpw {i-t b-ambn. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-\v a-\p-jy-s C-Ss]-S Im-c-W-am-sW- m-bn-cp- p dn-t m - n-se \n-k-a\w. ho pw hn-a -i-\-ß-fp-b- - p. dn-t m - v X-øm-dm n-b imkv-{x- -cp-ss k-ω-x-an m-sx {]-[m-\ `m-k-ß-fn am- -߃ h-cp-øn-b-xm-wv hnhmz sim-sp- m- v D-b -Øn-hn- Xv. dn-t m - n am-{x-a C-tXm-sSm- w tn -Øn-cp- H-cp {Km-^nepw am- -߃ h-cpøn. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xnbm-\-hp-am-bn a-\p-jy-s\ _- n- n- m-\m-bn-cp p Cu _- - m-ss mw. C-tXmsS sf.]n.kn.kn X-ß-fp-sS \n-ka-\-øn F-Øn-t -cm D-]-tbm-Kn- sx-fn-hp-iƒ ]-expw si- n- -a- -Xm-sW- v hy- -am-ip-ibpw sn-bvxp. dn-t m - n sf.]n.kn.kn h-cpøn-b Ir-{Xn-a-߃ hy- -am- p- \n-ch-[n te-j-\-ßfpw a pw e`y-amwv. tum. s{^-u-dn-iv sk-bv- v-kv Wall Street Journal F- gpxn-b F-Un-t m-dn-b B - n- nfpw C-h-bn Dƒ-s - Sp p. Xp-S v sf.]n.kn.kn-sb ]n- p-w-bv p- -hcpw a-dp-]- hpw X-Ωn Nq-tSdn-b N - -Iƒ \-S p. sf.]n.kn.kn-sb A-\p-Iq-en pw {]-Xn-Iq-en- p-ap- Nn-e I-Øp-Iƒ American Meteorological Society-bpsS _p- - n-\n {]-kn- o-i-cn- n- p- v. (Singer et al. 1997) \q-dn-e-[n-iw Im-emh-ÿm im-kv-{x- km- ys -Sp-Øn-b 1996se se-bv-]v-knkv (Leipzig) {]-Jym-]-\- søbpw sf.]n.kn.kn-bpss Cu dn-t m - v {]-tim-]n- n p. Xp-S - v 2007 The Scientific Case Against the Global Climate Treaty F- ]p-kvx-iw {]-kn- o-i-cn- p-ibpw \n-ch-[n `m-j-i-fn-te- v sam-gn-am- p-ibpw snbv-xp. (SEPP 2007, \n-ch-[n A-_- ߃ I-S- p-iq-sn-bn pw Cu ]T-\-Øn-s A-Sn-ÿm-\-Ønem-Wv tiym-t m t{]m-t m-t mƒ kzo-i-cn- Xv. C-Xn-s ]- mø-ew lq-h C -Ãn- yq-j {]-kn- o-i-cn- Climate Policy From Rio to Kyoto F- ]p-kv-x-i- Øn hn-h-cn- n- p- v. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss aq mw dn-t m - pw (IPCC- TAR 2001) sx m-b sx-fn-hp-i-fp-ss A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-embn-cp- p X-øm-dm- n-bxv. a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-Sepw Im-emhÿm hy-xn-bm-\hpw X-Ωn-ep- _ -sø Ip-dn- v ]p- Xn-bXpw i- -hpam-b sx-fn-hp-iƒ D-s - m-bn-cp p Cu dn-t m - n-s ImX. I-gn- B-bn-cw h -j-øn-\n-s-bv- v G- hpw Nq-Sp-IqSn-b \q- m- v C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- m-bncp-s - v dn-t m - v A-h-Im-i-s p. sx m-b hn-h-c-ß-fpss A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn F-Øn-t - Cu \n-k-a\w tlm- n kv- n-iv t]- F- m-wv A-dn-b-s -Sp- Xv. ÿn-xn hn-h-c- -W- p-i-ƒ hn-i-ie-\w sn-bv-x-xn A-Sn-ÿm- \-]-cam-b sx- p-iƒ I-S- p-iq-sn-bn-cp- -Xm-bn ]n- o-sv I- s -Øp-I-bm-bn-cp- p. 1940\v ap-ºv D m-b NqSpw a-\pjy-\n -ΩnXam-sW pw l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fm-wv A- Xn-\v Im-c-W-am-b-sX pw sf.]n.kn.kn k-a - n- ncp p. C-Xnepw A-Sn-ÿm-\-]-cam-b ]n-i-ip-iƒ I-S- p- Iq-Sn-bn-cp p. The Kyoto Protocol is Not Backed by Science F- _p- v-se- n-eq-ss-bm-wv SEPP CXn-t\m-Sv {]-Xn-I-cn- Xv. (SEPP 2002) 2007 B-Wv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss \memw dn-t m - v ]p-d-øp-h-cp- Xv. -`c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- p- dn-t m - v s^-{_p-h-cn-bnepw Nn-e am -ß-tfm-sS ]q -Æ am-b dn-t m - v ta-bnepw ]p-d-øp-h- p. F- m Cu dn-t m - n-s G- hpw hen-b {]-txy-i-x ap dn-t m - ns Im-X-em-bn-cp tlm- n kv- n-iv t]- -tdm 1940\v ap-ºp- m-bn-cp- Nq-Sn-s\ Ip-dn- p- hn-h-c-ßtfm D-]- tbm-kn- n F- -XmWv. ho pw hn-hm-z-ap-b - p. F- m CØ-h-W dnhyq \-S-Øn-b-h-cp-sS A-`n-{]m-b-߃ ]- ph-bv- m sf.]n.kn.kn hn-k-ω-xn p. A-Xn-\v tijw Cu A-`n-{]m-b-߃ \-ho-i-c-w-øn-\m-bn A-S- H-cp sse- {_-dn- v A-b- p-sim-spøp. k-ω -±w i- -am-b-t mƒ a- v h-gn-i-fn msx Cu hn-h-c߃ Hm -sse-\m-bn {]- kn- o-i-cn-t - n-h p. CXn a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-SemWv C-t m-gp- m-bn-s m- n-cn- p- Xm-]\n-e h - -\-hn\p Imc-W-sa p ka n- p `mkøv tcj-s -Sp-Ø-s A-`n-{]m-b-ßfn ]Ip-Xn-bn-e-[n-Ihpw c-n-bn-xm- ƒ X n- -f-bp- Xp Im-Wmw. \m-emw dn-t m - v A-\p-k-cn- v C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- ns a[yw ap-x-ep- m-bn-s m- n-cn- p- Xm-]-\n-e-bn-se h - -\-hn-\v Imc-Ww a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-S aq-ew D mb l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss km- n-[y-øn-ep m-b h - -\-bmwv. Ct m-gsø Xm]-h [-\-hn\v Imc-W-amb am\p-jn-i-cs-s]-s-ep-i-sfbpw kq-cys {]-h -Ø-\߃ (solar activity) aq-ew Im-em-h-ÿ-bn-ep- m-ip- am- ßsf Ip-dn- p- ]T-\-ßsfbpw A-h-K-Wn- m-wv \memw dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- n-b-sx pw Hm -t - -XmWv. F p-sim- mwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss I-s -Ø-ep- Iƒ hn-hm-z-ß-fn Ip-Sp-ßp- Xv? Xp-S ]T-\-ß-fn sf.]n.kn.kn dn-t m - p-iƒ tnmzyw sn-ø-s -Sp -Xv F p-sim- mwv? Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-søbpw a- \p-jy-s {]-h -Ø-\-ß-sfbpw X-Ωn _- n- n- -Wsa- sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss A-P- X-s -bm-wv C-Xn-\v {][m-\ Im-c-Ww. H-cp cm-{ o-b kw-hn-[m-\-sa- \n-ebn A-Xn-\v cm-{ o-b e- y-ß-fp-s -Xv c- ma-sø Im-cWw. hy- n-]-cam-b t\- -߃- v th- n im-kv-{xsø h-f-s -m-sn- m a-sn-bn m-ø im-kv-{x- -amcpw DtZym-K-ÿcp-am-Wv aq- ma-sø Im-cWw. dnhyq \-S- ]T-\ß-sf B-[n-Im-cn-I-am-bn Aw-Ko- I-cn- p- Xpw sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss hn-izm-kyx-sb tzmj-i-c-am-bn _m-[n- n- p v. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø 5

6 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w Ip-dn- p- ]-e ]T-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw sd-^-dnw-kv Ãm -tu - Uv A-]-cym-]v-X-amWv. A-Xn-\m X-s dn-hyq-hn-\v hnt[-bam-b H-cp ]T-\w B-[n-Im-cn-I-am-sW- v I-cp-Xp - Xv Xn-I pw _p- n-iq-\y-am-bn-cn- pw. Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss \memw dn-t m - n-se Kp-cp-X-camb sx- p-iƒ {i- -bn s]- -Xn-s\ Xp-S - m-wv Fkv.C.]n.]n H-cp _n Sow cq-]o-i-cn- m Xo-cp-am-\n- Xv. e-`yam-b sx-fn-hp-i-fp-ss A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn kz-x-{ amb hn-e-bn-cp-ø \-S-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp- p ]pxn-b So-an-s Np-a-X-e s^-{_p-h-cn-bn Sow {]-h Ø-\w Xp-Sßn. G-{]n-en So-an-s t]cv Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change F- v am- p-ibpw hn-b- -bn A- m-cm-{ Im-emh-ÿm in - im-e kw-l-sn- n- p- Ibpw sn-bvxp. hn-b- -bn \-SØn-b in - -im-ebpw Xp-S - v \- SØn-b Kth-j-Wßfp-amWv Cu ]T-\-Øn-\v B-[mcw. A- m-cm-{ -X-e-Øn {]-i-kv-xcm-b \n-ch-[n K-th-jI Cu kw-cw-`-øn k-l-i-cn- n- p v. ss{i-kv CUv-tkmbm-Wv A-h-cn {]-[m\n. A-t±-lw ti-j-cn- hn-h-c-߃ Centre for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Changes sh_v-ssk- n ( e-`y-amwv. `-c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- p- dn-t m - v Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Planet (Singer 2008) F- t]-cn lm - v-em v C -Ãn- yq- v 2008 ]p-d-ønd n. Cu c- v tc-j-ifpw Cu ta-j-e-bn-se kz-x-{ hpw B-[n-Im-cn-I-hpam-b sx-fn-hp-i-fm-bn \n-e-\n - p-i-bmwv. F- m-wv R-ß-fp-sS {]-tnm-z\w? km-ºøn-i Xm-Xv-]-cy-ß-f C-Xn-\v ]n- n. ss{i-kv CUvtkm dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- p- -Xn-\m-bn \-SØn-b ]-cn-{i-a-ß-ƒ- v R-߃ H pw hm-kvzm-\w sn-bv-xn-cp- n, sndn-sbmcp {Km v A msx. kw-l-s-\-bv- v cm-{ o-b-an. k - m G-P -kn-i-fp-ss ]n- p-wbpw R-߃- n. cm-{ o-b- m- v ]n- p-wtbm k-lm-btam \ -Ip- Xpw R-ß-fp-sS e- ya. sx m-b hn-h-c-ß-fp-ss A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn sf.]n.kn.kn D- m- p- `bm-i- Iƒ- v A-dp-Xn h- cp-øp-ibpw Im-cy-ß-fp-sS \n-p-ÿn-xn P-\ß-sf t_m- [y-s -Sp-Øp-I-bp-am-Wv F.sF.]n.kn.kn-bp-sS {]-h - Ø-t\m-t±-iyw. B-tKm-f-Xm-]\-sØ Ip-dn- p- B-i- - Iƒ ]m-c-º-tcyx-c Du - D-Xv-]m-Z\w, Im-cy- -a-xtbdn-b hm-l-\-߃ Xp-S-ßn-b A-`n-{]m-b-߃- v henb ]n p-w e`n- m Im-c-W-am-bn. Du- - D-d-hn-S-߃ ssh-hn- y-h-xv-i-cn- p- Xpw hm-l-\-ß-fp-ss {]-h -Ø- \ -a-x Iq- p- Xpw \ Im-cy-߃ X-s. F- m C-Xn-eq-sS Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø sn-dp- m-sa- {]-Nmc-Ww \ym-bo-i-cn- -Ø- X. l-cn-xkr-l hm-x- I-ßfp-sS \n-b-{ -W-Øn-\v B-h-iy-am-bn h-cp- `o-aamb sn-e-hpw im-kv-{x-øn-s ]n -_-e-øn \ym-bo-icn- m-\m-in. Iv-fo su-h-e-]v-sa v sa- m-\n-khpw Im _ Hm-^v-sk- vkpw t]m-ep- kv-io-ap-iƒ _-lp- `q-cn-]- -Øn-s - sn-e-hn Ip-d- p-t]-sc k-º- -cm-im k-lm-bn- p-sa- m-sx th-sd {]-tbm-p-\-ß-sfm- p-an. km-[m-c-w- mc-s km-ºøn-i Xm-Xv-]-cyßsf tzm-j-i-c-am-bn _m-[n- p- Xo-cp-am-\-߃ F-Sp- m im-kv-{x-sø I-cp-hm- p -Xv I- m-wv C-Xn-s\-Xn-sc {]-h -Øn- m F.sF.]n.kn.kn- Xo-cp-am-\n- Xv. im-kv-{xtem-i-øn-\v ]p-d-øp- hen-sbm-cp k-aq-l-øn- \v C-Xn-s\ Ip-dn- v hy- am-b [m-c-w-bn m-ø-xpw im-kv-{x-cwk-sø _-lp`q-cn-]- -Øn\pw sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss {]-h -Ø-\ß-sf Ip-dn- v hy- am-b [m-c-wbps - nepw Ah v sf.-]n.-kn.-kn-s -Xnsc kwkmcn- p-hm-\p ss[cytam Ah-k-ctam C m-ø-xp-amwv Cu dnt m v Xøm-dm- p- -Xn-\p {][m\ Imc-Ww. t]-cv kq-nn- n- p -Xp t]mse F.sF.]n.kn.kn- A- m-cm-{ X-e-Øn {]-h -Øn- p- K-th-j-I-cp-sS Iq- m-bv-a-bmwv. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø p-dn- pw A-Xn-s ^-e-ß-sf p-dn pw ]Tn- m-\m-bn cq-]o-ir-xamb H-cp Iq- m-bv-a. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-\v Imc- Ww l-cn-xkr-lhm-x-i-ß-fm-sw- ap -[m-c-w R-߃- n. sf.]n.kn.kn A-h-K-Wn- sx-fn-hp-ifpw R-߃ {]-tbm-p-\-s -Sp-Øp- p v. Imc-Ww R-߃ {]-h -Øn- p -Xv k - m-cp-iƒ- v Io-gne. k m-cp-iƒ p th n-bp-a-. R-߃- v ]- -]m-x-hp-an. The Petition Project Cu dn-t m - n- \memw A-\p-_- -am-bn* tn -Øncn- p- Xv s]- o-j t{]m-p-œn-s Hcp hn-i-zo-i-c-whpw Xm-sg-s m-sp- p- {]-kv-xm-h-\-bn H- p-h- n-cn- p 31,478 A-ta-cn- im-kv-{x -sc Ip-dn- p- hn-h-c-ßfp-amwv P- m-\n-se tiym-t m-bn H- p-h- B-tKm-f- Xm-]-\ D-Sº-Snbpw k-am-\am-b a p \n -t±i-ßfpw X- n- -f-bm A-ta-cn- k - mcn-t\m-sv R-߃ B- h-iy-s -Sp p. \n -t±-in- -s - n-cn- p- l-cn-xkr-lhm- X-I-ß-fp-sS n]vx]-cn-[n ]-cn-ÿn-xn \m-i-øn-\v Im-c- W-am-Ipw. am-{xa im-kv-{x km-t Xn-I hn-zy-bp-ss ap-t -tøbpw a-\p-jy-s B-tcm-Ky-sØbpw \- sbbpw C-Xv tzm-j-i-c-am-bn _m-[n- p-ibpw sn-øpw. B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn\pw A-Xph-gn `q-an-bp-ss Im-emh-ÿ-sb _m-[n- p- -X-c-Øn-epw a-\p-jy-s {]-h -Ø- \-߃ l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss ]p-d- - -en-\v Ct mtgm kao-]-`m-hn-bntem Im-c-W-am- psa v sx-fnbn- m D-X-Ip- im-kv-{xo-b tc-j-iƒ e-`y-a. F- m A- -co- -Øn Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk- Un-s Af-hv Iq-Sp -Xv `q-an-bn-se Po-h-Pm-e-߃- v \n-ch-[n {]-tbm-p-\-߃ D- m- p- -Xm-bn ]T-\-ß-fn sx-fn- n- p- v. ap- -Xn-\m-bn-c-Øn-e-[n-Iw im-kv-{x- -am km- y-s -SpØn-b Cu {]-kv-xmh-\ sf.]n.kn.kn-bp- 6

7 BapJw ss I-s -Ø-epI-sf i- -am-bn F-Xn - p- -XmWv. A-tX-ka-bw X-s C-Xv F.sF.]n.kn.kn-bp-sS \n-e- ]m-spi-sf i-cn-h-bv- p- -Xp-amWv. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss \memw dn-t m - n-\v ]n- n {]-h -Øn- im-kv-{x- cp-ss ]-Øp-a-S-ßn-e-[n-Iw im-kv-{x Cu {]-kv-xmh-\-bn H- p-h- n- p-s - Xpw {i-t -b-amwv. K-th-j- W _n-cp-z-ap- ]-Xn-\m-bn-c-tØm-fw im-kv-{x Cu {]-kv-xm-h-\ Aw-Ko-I-cn- n- p- v. F- m \q-dn Xm-sg im-kv-{x- -cm-wv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss \memw dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- p- {]-h -Ø-\-ß-fn ]-s -Sp-Ø-Xv. \memw dn-t m - n A-\p-_- -am-bn tn -Øn-cn- p- en-kv- p- X-s -bmwv Cu \n-k-a-\-øn-\p- B-[m-cw. tem-i-øm- I-am-\-ap- \q-dv im-kv-{x- -sc- nepw sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss \memw dn-t m - v Aw-Ko-I-cn- n- p-t m-sb- pw R-߃- v D-d- n. sf.]n.kn.kn- v kw`-hn- sx v R-߃ B-h -Øn- n. C-Xn H- n- n-cn- p- F m-t]cpw Cu dn-t m - n-se I-s -Ø-ep-Isftbm \n-k-a-\-ßsftbm Aw-Ko-I-cn- p- -Xm-bn R-߃ A-h-Im-i-s -Sp- n. c-n-bn-xm- ƒ ]-d-bp- -Xp-t]m-se im-kv-{x- C-Xn H- n- p F-t -bp- q dn-t m - n-\v th- n. kw-km-cn- p -Xv dn-t m - v X-s -bm-wv. Cu dnt m - n kq-nn- n- n-cn- p- s]m-xp-ho- -W-Øn-\v im-kv-{x k-aq-l-øn \n v e-`n- ]n p-w kq-nn- n- m-\m-wv A-\p-hm-Z-tØmsS Cu t]-cp-iƒ dn-t m - n Dƒ-s -Sp- Øn-bXv. F.sF.]n.kn.kn-bpw sf.]n.kn.kn-bpw X-Ωn-ep- hy-xym-kw F-Sp-Øp-Im- p-ibpw C-Xn-s ]n- n-se D-t±-iy-amWv. s]- o-j t{]m-p-œn-s\ Ip-dn- p- Iq-Sp-X hn-h-c߃ v \m-j-w A- mu-an H-^v k-b -k-kn-s {]-kn-u pw tdm- v -s^ k -Δ-I-em-im-e-bn-se F-and -kv {]-kn-u p-am-bn-cp- ]-tc-x\mb tum. s{^-u-dn- Iv sk-bv- n-kn-s IØv Dƒ-s -ss-bp- hn-h-c-߃- pambn F- sh_v-ssk- v k-μ -in- p-i. ap-t m- p- bm{x a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-S aq-e-ap- B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn- \v am-[y-a-߃ h hm -Øm {]m-[m-\y-am-wv \ -In-bncp- -Xv. C-Xp-aq-ew P-\-ß-ƒ- p m-b B-i- -Iƒ Ip-d- p-h-cn-i-bm-wv. 34 i-x-am-\w A-ta-cn- - m am-{x-ta B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn-\v Imc-Ww a-\p-jy-cm-sw- v hn-izkn- p- p q (Rasmussen Reports, 2009). `q-an-bp-ss Nq- Sv Iq-Sp-I-bm-sW- v hn-iz-kn- p- -h-cp-ss F-Æhpw Ip-dbp-I-bmWv (Pew Research Centre, 2008). [-\-Im-cy ÿm-]-\am-b HSBCbpw ]-cn-ÿn-xn kwc- -W {Kq- p- I-fpw kw-bp- -am-bn ]-Xn-s\m- v cm-py-ß-fn 12,000 t]cpss A-`n-{]mb thm-s -Sp- v \-S-Øp-I-bp- mbn. C-Xn 20 i-x-am-\w t] am-{x-am-wv Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w sn-dp- m A-[n-I]-Ww sn-e-hm- m X-øm-dm-sW- v {]-Xn-I-cn- Xv. H-cp h -jw ap-ºv C-tX A`n-{]m-b-ap- -h-cp-ss F-Æw 28 i-x-am-\-am-bn-cp p (O Neil, 2008) B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn-s `o-i-cx-sb Ip-dn- p im-kv-{xo-b N - -I-ƒ h-gn-xn-cn- p-hn-sm Cu dn-t m - n- \m-bn- p v. cm-{ o-bam-b N - -Iƒ Xp-S-cp- -Xnepw R-߃- v k-t mj-ap v. B-tKm-f-Xm-]\-sØ Ip-dn- p- R-ß-fp-sS I-s -Ø-epI-sf F-Xn - p- `cwcwk-sø {]-[m-\n-iƒ 2009 bq-tdm-]y bq-wnb-s Iu -kn {]-kn-u pw sn- v dn- -_v-fn- n-s {]-kn- U pam-b hm-iv-fm-hv Iv-fmkv, ap P -Ω Nm -k-edmb sl a- v kvanøv, ap {_n- o-jv [\-Im-cy-a{ n \n-k tem-k F- n-h-cmwv. tem-i-sø-ºm-sp-ap- `c-w-i -Øm- -sf mw l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss ]p-d- - \n-b-{ n- p- -Xn-\v \n-b-a-߃ cq-]o-i-cn- m- \p- Xo-cp-am-\w ]p-\-x]cn-tim-[n- p-i-bmwv. ]-ecpw im-kv-{x-øn \n- v am-dn N - -Iƒ ap-t m- v sim p-t]m-ip- -Xn R-߃- v A-Xnbm-b hn-jaap- v. Cu dn-t m - n-s\ F-Xn - p- -h-cp-ss D-t±iyip nsb tnmzyw sn-øp- Xpw Ah-sc hy- n-]- c-am-bn B-{I-an- p- Xpw icn-b-. Im-em-hÿ-sb Ip-dn- p N - -Iƒ bm-ym y-t_m-[-tøm-ss ap-t m- v t]m-ip- -Xn Ah-cpsS tzjy-amwv Im-Wp- Xv. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø Ip-dn- p- N - -Iƒ i-cnbm-b Zn-i-bn ap-t m- v sim p-t]m-im Cu dn-t m - v k-lm-b-i-am-ip-sa- v R-߃- v D-d- p v. A-Xph-gn A-\m-h-iyam-b ]-cn-ÿn-xn \-b-߃ A-Sn-t - n- p- `m-c-ß-fn \n- v tem-ip-\x-sb c- n- m\pw I-gn-bp-sa- v {]-Xym-in- p p. h-cm t]m-ip- ]T-\ßsf hn-i-ie-\w sn-øm\pw \n-k-a-\-ß-ƒ cq-]o-i-cn- m\pw R-߃ X-øm-dmWv. Xpd a\- p `-c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- v D-]-tZ-iw \ -Im\pw R-߃ k-zm k- - -cmwv. Fkv. s{^-uv knw-k ]n. F v. Un {]-kn-u v, k-b -kv B v F -h-tbm -sa t]m-fn-kn t{]mp-œv s{]m-^-k F-an-d -kv H-^v F -h-tbm -sa k-b kv, bq-wn-th-gv-kn- n H-^v hn -Po\nb s{i-bn-kv Un. CUvtkm ]n. F v. Un sn-b -am, sk t^m Z kv -Un H-^v Im - _ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv B v Kv-tfm-_ sn-bv v Acknowledgments: Z lm - v-em v C -kv- n- yq- nse tpm-k-^n\pw su-bv _m-ãn\pw A-h-cp-sS F-Un- nw-kn-ep- I-gnhv Cu dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- m D-]-tbm- Kn- n- p v. A-h - v \μn. km-t Xn-I k-lm-bw \ Inb B. hm-c B -tu-gv-kwpw \μn. 7

8 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w References Anonymous IPCC's ritual on global warming. Nature 371: 269. IPCC-AR Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. IPCC-FAR Scientific Assessment of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the First Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. IPCC-SAR Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press. IPCC-TAR Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. Maddox J Making global warming public property. Nature 349: 189. McIntyre, S. and McKitrick, R Corrections to Mann et al. (1998) proxy data base and northern hemisphere average temperature series. Energy & Environment 14: McIntyre, S. and McKitrick, R Hockey sticks, principal components and spurious significance. Geophysical Research Letters 32 L McKitrick, R Independent Summary for Policymakers IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Ed. Fraser Institute. Vancouver, BC. O'Neil, P Efforts to support global climate-change falls: Poll. Canwest News Service, 27 Nov. Pew Research Center A deeper partisan divide over global warming, summary of findings. 8 May. Rasmussen Reports Energy Update. April Seitz, F A major deception on global warming. The Wall Street Journal, 12 June. SEPP The Greenhouse Debate Continued: An Analysis and Critique of the IPCC Climate Assessment. ICS Press, San Francisco, CA. SEPP The Scientific Case Against the Global Climate Treaty. GW.html [Also available in German, French, and Spanish]. Singer, S.F. 1997, Hot Talk Cold Science. The Independent Institute, Oakland CA. Singer, S.F Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate. The Heartland Institute, Chicago, IL. Wegman, E., Scott, D.W. and Said, Y Ad Hoc Committee Report to Chairman of the House Committee on Energy & Commerce and to the Chairman of the House sub-committee on Oversight & Investigations on the Hockey-stick Global Climate Reconstructions. US House of Representatives, Washington DC. Climate Change Reconsidered The Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), had produced the 800-page report Climate Change Reconsidered in This was a collaborative effort of 37 scientists from 14 countries and contains more than 4,000 references to peer reviewed scientific literature. It is a comprehensive and authoritative response to the alarmist reports issued by the UN s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The second edition of the NIPCC report is expected to be published in The progress of this initiative may be monitored at Additional information about global warming can also be found on two websites maintained by the report s publisher, The Heartland Institute, at and Liberty Institute, based in New Delhi, is an independent think tank dedicated to empowering the people by harnessing the power of the market. Liberty, in partnership with Heartland, has now reprinted the NIPCC report, and translated the summary in to six Indian languages for wider dissemination. Comments and suggestions are most welcome. Liberty Institute New Delhi Websites: s: 8

9 BapJw {][m-\-s - h-kv-xp-x-i-ƒ Np-cp- -Øn 2007 ]p-d-øn-d-ßn-b sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss \memw dn-t m - v (IPCC-AR4, 2007) Im-emh-ÿmhy-Xn-bm-\-hpam-bn _- -s hnhn-[ im-kv{xta-j-e-i-fn {]-h - Øn- p- hn-z-kv- cm-b im-kv-{x- -cp-ss H-cp {][m-\ K-th-j-W-{]-h -Ø-\-am-bn-cp p. Cu im-kv-{ximj-bpss C-t mg-sø A-h-ÿ-sb- p-dn- p- hn-e-s - H-cp e-lp-tc-j-bmwv Cu dn-t m v. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss ap dn-t m - p-i-fn C m-xn-cp- kq-nn-ibpw Cu dn-t m - n tn -Øn- p v. A-\h-[n hn-z-kv- -cp-ss A\p-Iqe {]Xn-Iqe A`n-{]m-b-ßfpw dn-t m - n- Im-Wmw. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-søbpw \n-e-]m-sp-i-sfbpw Ip-dn- p- hn-iz-k-\o-bam-b tc-j A-s - n t]mepw \memw dn-t m - v ]-cma i tbm-ky-am-wv. sx m-b \n-ch- [n {]-kvxm-h-\-ifpw c-n-bn-xm- -fp-ss ap -[m-c-w-ifpw C-Xn I-S- p-iq-sn-bn- p v. A-tX-ka-bw {]-[m-\-s - ]-e im-kv-{xo-b tc-j-ifpw A-h-K-Wn- s Sp-Ibpw sn-bvxp. am-{x-a 2006 sa-bv am-k-øn-\v ti-jw {]-kn- o-i-cn- K-th-j-W- ^eß-tfm-sv H-cp hn-[-ønepw tbm-pn- m-ø-xm-bn-cp- p C-Xn-se {][m-\ `m-k-ß-fn ]-e-xpw. Np-cp- -Øn X-ß-fp-sS \n-k-a-\ß-sf km-c-am-bn _m-[n- p- {][m-\ im-kv-{xo-b hn-j-b-߃ ]-cn-k-wn- p- -Xn sf.]n.kn.kn ]-cm-p-b-s p. D-Zm-l-c-W- Øn\v, Cu dn-t m - v A-\p-k-cn- v C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- v ap-x BtKm-f-X-e-Øn D- m-bn-s m- n-cn- p- Xm- ]-\n-e-bn-se h - -\-hn-s "G- hpw {][m-\' Imc-Ww a-\p-jy-s {]-h -Ø-\-߃ aq-ew A- -co- -Øn-te- v ]p-d- - p- l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fm-wv. A-Xmb-Xv A- -co- Du-jv-am-hn D- m-bn-cn- p- h- - -\-hn-\v l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-߃ Im-c-W-am-bn-cn m-\p- km[y- X G- hpw Ip-d -Xv sxm-æq-dv i-x-am-\-amwv. F- -Snÿm-\-Øn-em-Wv 90 i-x-am-\w F- I-W- n sf.]n.kn.kn F-Øn-b-sX- v dn-t m - n H-cn-SØpw hy- -am- n-bn- n. "G- hpw {]-[m-\w' F- Xp-sIm- v F- m-wv D-t±-in- p- -sx pw \n -Δ-Nn- n- n. Xm-]-\n-e-bn D- m-bn-s m- n-cn- p- h - -\-hn- \v {]-Ir-Xn-bn-ep- L-S-I-߃ F-{X-am{Xw Im-c-W-am- Ip- p-s - v ]cn-tim-[n- m \n-e-hn-ep- H-cp im-kv- {Xo-b am - hpw sf.]n.kn.kn A-h-ew-_n- n. l-cn-xkrl hm-x-i-߃ C-Xn-te- v \ -Ip- kw`m-h-\bpw Xn -s -Sp-Øn-bn n. e-`yam-b G- hpw hn-iz-k-\o-bam-b tc-j-i-f-\p-k-cn- v a-\p-jy-s {]-h -Ø-\-߃ aq-ew ]p-dw-x- -s -Sp- l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss Af-hv hfsc Ip-d-hmWv. Cu kp-{][m-\ Afhv e-`y-am-bn-cp- n pw sf.]n.kn.kn AXv A-h-K-Wn p. kq-cy-s {]-h -Ø-\-ßfpw A-Xp-am-bn _- -s - p- m-ip- A- -co- ÿn-xn-i-fp-am-wv I-gn- Im-eß-fn Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-te- v h-gn-h- -sx- v sx-fn-bn- p- \q-dp-i-w- n-\v tc-j-iƒ e-`y-am-wv. Xmc-X-tay\ Imem-hÿm hyxn-bm-\-øn lcn-x-kr-lhm-x-i-ß-fpss kzm[o\w hfsc Ipd-hm-Wv. F- m kqcy-s bpw _ -s i n-i-fp- -ssbpw kzm[o-\x Ip-d- p-im-wm-\mwv sf.]n.kn.kn {i-an- Xv. C-Xn-\v ]pd-sa C-Xp-am-bn _- -s -Sp-Øn N - sn-tø- n-bn-cp- \n-ch-[n im-kv-{xo-b {]-iv-\߃ sf.]n.kn.kn A-h-K-Wn- p-itbm sx m-b co-xn-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- p- Itbm sn-bvxp. CØ-cw sx- p-i-fpw H-gn-hm- -ep-ifpw F.sF. ]n.kn.kn-bp-ss dn-t m - n Dƒ-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p v. Cu dn-t m - n-se Hº-Xv A-[ym-b-ß-fp-sS e-lp-hn-h-c-wam-wnxv. I-ºyq- tam-u-ep-iƒ D-]-tbm-Kn- p- sf.]n. kn.kn-bp-ss Im-emh-ÿm `mhn-zo L-Z i-\-ß-fnse A-]-cym-]v-X-X-I-fm-Wv H mw A-[ym-b-Øn hn-h-cn- p- Xv. im-kv-{xo-b Im-emh-ÿm {]-h-n-\-øn-\v th- \n-b-a-ß-fpw am - -ßfpw sf.]n.kn.kn ew-ln- n- p v. sf.]n.kn.kn kz- -am-bn hn-i-kn- n-s -SpØ tam-u-ep- Iƒ Xm-]\n-e h - -\-hn-s\bpw l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ßsfbpw X-Ωn sx- m-bn _- n- n- m I-gn-bp- X-c-Øn Ip-d-hp-Iƒ D- -h-bmwv. A-Xn-\m X-s B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w kw-_- n- \-b-]-cam-b Im-cy-߃ N - sn-øp-tºmƒ sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss \memw dn-t m - v ]-cm-a -iw t]mepw A -ln- p- n. `q-an-bn-se Nq-Sn D- m-ip- Ip-dhpw A- -co- - Øn-se Im -_ ssu Hm-Iv-ssk-Un-s A-f-hn-ep- m- Ip- hy-xym-khpw X-Ωn-ep- _- -am-wv c mw A-[ym-b-Øn N - sn-øp- Xv. hy-hkm-b hn-]v-f-h- Øn-\v ap-ºp- m-bn-cp- Im -_ ssu HmIvv-ssk-Uns Af-hv Ct mƒ C-c- n-bm-bn ps - nepw A-Xv `q-anbp-ss Nq-Sv Iq-Sm \n- m-cam-b txmxnte Im-c-W-am-bn- p- q-sh- m-wv im-kv-{xo-b ]T-\-߃ sx-fn-bn- p- - Xv. F- m sf.]n.kn.kn dn-t m - v C-Xns\ Du-Xn-s cp- n- n-cn- p-i-bmwv. I-gn- Im-e-ß-fn-se Xm-]-\ne-sb Ip-dn- p- {]mtbmkn-i hn-h-c-ß-fp-ss A-h-tem-I-\-am-Wv aq mw A-[ymbw. C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-se Im-emh-ÿm am- w A-Xph-sc C m-xn-cp- - Xc-Ønem-sW-t m, A-Xn-\v a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-S Im-c-W-am-bn- p-s t m sx-fn-bn- p- H pw I-s -Øm R-ß-ƒ- v I-gn- n- n. tlm- n kvv- n-iv U-b-{K-Øn-se sx- p-i-fn-te pw sh-fn- w ho-ip- p v. D-]-{K-l-ß-fn \n- v e`n- hf-sc Ir-Xyamb hn-h-c-߃ ]cn-tim-[n- m I-gn- 29 h - j-ßfm-bn B-tKm-f-X-e-Øn BsI Xm-]\n-e h - n- p- -Xn-s kq-n-\-i-sfm pw C-s - v a-\- n-em- m 9

10 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w I-gn-bpw. Nn-e ÿ-e-ß-fn Nq-Sv Iq-Sp- -Xn-\v a-\p-jy-\m- Wv Im-c-W-sa- -Xn-\v sx-fn-hp-ifpw e-`ya. \memw A-[ym-bw N - sn-øp -Xv ln-a ]m-fn-i-fpss D-cpI, h j-]m-x-øns hyxym-kw, k-ap-{z-\n-c- n-se h- - -\ Xp-Sßn-b Im-cyß-sf Ip-dn- mwv. a-\p-jy-\n -Ωn-Xam-b B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-hp-am-bn _- -s - Sp-Øm ] n-b H-cp sx-fn-hp-ifpw R-߃- v e-`n- n- n. A mw A-[ym-bw \n-ch-[n im-kv-{x- -am \-S-Øn-s m- n-cn- p- ]T-\ß-sf Ip-dn- mwv. C-h-cpsS A-`n-{]m-b-Øn ku-c-{]-h -Ø-\-ß-fm-Wv Im-emhÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-\v Im-cWw. Im-em-h-ÿbpw kq-cy\pw X-Ωn-ep- _ -sø Ip-dn- v hn-h-cn- p- -txmssm- w H-cp sndn-b ku-c-{]-h -Ø-\-Øn-\v Im-em-h-ÿbn h-cp-øm-hp- hen-b kzm-[o-\hpw N - sn-øs Sp p. kq-cy, tim-kv-an-iv In-c-W߃, {]-Xn- ^-en- p- ta-l-߃ F n-h X-Ωn-ep- _ -sø Ip-dn v Cu K-thj-I \ -Ip- D-Ø-c-ßfpw Cu A-[ym-b-Øn ]-dbp- p v. B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w `q-an-sb Iq-Sp-X tam-iam-b Im-em-h-ÿ-bn-te- v \-bn- p-sa- sx mb {]-Nm-cWsØ Ip-dn- p- A-t\z-j-W-am-Wv Bdmw A-[ym-b-Øn \-S-Øp- Xv. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss A-h-Im-i-hm-Zw A-\pk-cn- v B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w Iq-Sp-X h-cƒ- -Iƒ, sim-sp- m v, Np-g-en- m- v, sh- -s m- w, Nq-Sp-Im v, Im- p-xo F- n-h-bv-s m-s Im-c-W-am-Ip-sa- mwv. C-Xv ÿm-]n- m-\p- sx-fn-hp-i-sfm pw R-߃- v I-s -Øm-\mbn- n. F- m Cu A-h-Im-i-hm-Zw sx- m-sw- v sx-fn-bn- m-\m-h-iyam-b sx-fn-hp-iƒ D- p-xm-\pw. IqSp- X Nq-Sp temi-øv A{XITn-\am-b Im-em-h-ÿ A-\p`-h-s -Sn. A- -co- -Øn-se Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns h - -\hpw Db Xm]-\n-ebpw Po-hn-I-fn-ep- m- p- kzm-[o-\-hp-am-wv Ggmw A-[ym-b-Øn-s D- - S w. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xnbm-\ N - -I-fn-sem pw C-Xv Im-cy-am-bn N - sn-bv-xn- n. CXv \ hm Ø-bm-b-XpsIm- mipw {i n- -s -Sm-Ø-Xv. Im -_ ssu HmIvssk-Un-s A-f-hn-ep- m-ip- h - \-hv k-ky-ß-fpss h-f - -bv- v D-Ø-a-amWv. am-{x-a k-kyß-sf h-cƒ- -sb-bpw Io-S-ß-sfbpw A-Xn-Po-hn- m\pw C-Xv k-lm-bn- pw. s]-cp-ins m- n-cn- p tem-ip-\-xbv pw I -j-i pw h-\-߃ pw C-Xv h-en-sbm-cp A-\p-{K-l-am-bn am-dpw. A- -co- Du-jv-am-hn-se h - \-hv I-S-en-sebpw I-c-bn-sebpw Po-h-Pm-e-ß-fp-sS hw-i-\m-i-øn-\v Im-c-Wam-Ip-sa- sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss A-h-Im-i-hm-Zhpw hn-izkn- -Ø- X. a-dn- v Nq-Sp-, B-h-iy-Øn-\v Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv D temi-øv ssp-h -ssh-hn- yw ]cn-t]m-jn- s Sp-sa- -Xn-\v sx-fn-hp-iƒ G-sd-bp v. C-Xm-Wv F mw A-[ym-b-Øn-s hn-jbw. H-ºXmw A-[ym-b-Øn B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w a-\p-jys B-tcm-Ky-Øn-\v lm-\n-i-c-am-sw- sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss {]-Nm-cW-sØ sh p-hn-fn- p-i-bmwv. lr-z-b kw-_- am-b A-kp-J-߃ sim- p- a-cww, izm-ktim-i kw-_- amb tcm-k߃, a-te-dn-b, su- n- \n, a- -\n Xp-S-ßn-b-h-bp-sS hym]-\w F- n-h-bv-s mw Im-c-W-am-Ip -Xv D-b - Xm-]\n-e B-sW- mwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss hn-e-bn-cp-ø. F- m B-[m-cn- I-am-bn \-S-Ø-s - n- p-f-f ]T-\-߃ a-dn- m-wv sx-fn-bn- p- Xv. C-tXm-sS- w Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv aq-e-ap- m-ip- B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w Fß-s\ tem-i P-\Xsb Xo- n-t m- p-sa pw R߃ Cu A-[ym-b-Øn hn-i-zo-i-cn- p- p- v. ssp-h C- -\-ß-fp-sS t{]m- ml- \w D- m- m t]m-ip- ]-cn-ÿn-xn \m-ihpw -` y km-[-\-ß-fp-ss hn-e-h - -\hpw C-Xn ]-cm-a -i-hn-t[- b-am-ip p. h-en-sbm-cp ]T-\-Øn-s sndn-b `m-k-amwv Cu dn-t m v. Iq-Sp-X A-dn-bm Xm-Xv-]-cy-ap- -h v F- sh-_v-vssk- v k-μ -in- mw. {][m-\ I-s -Ø-ep-Iƒ A-[ym-b-ß-fn-eq-sS A-[ymbw 1: B-tKm-f Im-emh-ÿm am-xr-i-ifpw (global climate models) A-h-bp-sS A-]-cym-]v-X-X- Ifpw `m-hn-bn-se Im-em-hÿ-sb Ip-dn- v ]-d-bm sf.]n.kn.kn s]m-xp Nm-{In-I am-xr-i-isf (general circulation models) B-Wv {]-[m-\-ambpw B-{i-bn- n-cn- p- Xv. C-Xn-s A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-em-Wv Im-emh-ÿmhy- Xn-bm\-sØ a-\p-jy-\n anx lcn-x-kr-l-hm-x-ißfp-ambn _- n- n- n-cn- p- -Xpw. \memw dn-t m - n-se \n-k-a-\-߃ im-kv-{xo-bamb am - -ß-fn-eq-sS F-Øn-t - -hb. a-dn- v I-W- ns I-fn-I-fn-eq-sS-bpw km-t -Xn-IXzw \n-d- c-n-\-bneq-ss-bpw H-cp Iq- w im-kv-{x- \-S-Øn-bn-cn- p- A-`n-{]m-b {]-I-S-\-am-Wv. {]-h-n-\-ß-f km-[y-x-i-fm- Wv X-߃ ap-t m- v h-bv- p- -sx- sf.]n.kn.kn \n-e-]m-sv ap -Iq Pm-ay-am-bn Aw-Ko-I-cn- m-\m-hn. \n-e-hn-ep- Im-emh-ÿm am-xr-i-iƒ `q-an-bpss {]-kcn-x Du - -Øn-s k-a-xp-en-x-bpss (earth s radiative energy balance) _-e-x-{ w (physics) Ir-Xyam-bn I-W- m- p- -Xn H-cp ]-cm-p-b-amwv. Cu Du - -Øn D- m-ip- A-k- p-en-xmhÿ Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv h - -\-hn-t\- mƒ A-s - n A-Xn-s\m- w Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-\v Im-c-W-am- Ip- p v. am-xr-i-bn-se A\-h[n A-]m-I-X-Iƒ ta-l-ßfp-ss cq-]o-i-cw-sø Ip-dn pw A-h-bp-sS {]-h -Ø-\ßsf Ip-dn pw Ir-Xy-am-bn a-\- n-em- p- -Xn-\v X-S- -amwv. Cu A-]m-I-X-Iƒ I-s -Ø-ep-I-fpw {]-h-n-\-ßfpw X-Ωn hen-b A -cw D- m-im C-S-bm- n-bn- p v. 10

11 {][m-\-s hkvxp-x-iƒ Npcp- -Øn a-g-bn D- m-ip- A-kzm-`m-hn-I-X-Iƒ Ir-Xyambn a-\- n-em- p- -Xn I-ºyq- am-xr-i-iƒ D-]-tbm- Kn- p- ]T\w A-tº ]-cm-p-b-amwv. {]-txy-in- v C- y ta-j-e-bn D- m-ip- th-\ a-g-sb Ip-dns m pw a-\- n-em- m I-ºyq- am-xr-i-iƒ- v I-gn- n- n. F- m a-g-bp-w A-Xp-am-bn _- -s - p- m- Ip- {]-Xn-`m-k-ßfpw Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø kzm-[o-\n- p- -Xm-bn ]T-\-ß-fn sx-fn- n- p v. A-[ymbw 2: hn-e-bn-cp-ø L-S-I-ßfpw td-un-tb- ohv t^m-gv-knwkpw `q-an-bp-ss NqSn-t\m-Sp- {]-Xn-I-cW-sØ kw-_- n v sf.]n.kn.kn kzo-i-cn- n-cn- p- am-xr-i bp- n- v \n-c- p- -X-s - v im-kv-{xo-b ]T-\-ß-fn sx-fn- n- p v. i-cnbm-b hn-e-bn-cp-ø Im-em-h-ÿ kw-_- n- I-W- p-i-fpss Du-Xn-s -cp- n- hy- - am- pw. ta-l-ß-fp-ss cq-]o-i-c-whpw k-ap-t{zm-]-cn-x-e- Øn-se Xm-]-\n-ebpw X-Ωn _- n- n- p- sx-fn-hp- Iƒ im-kv-{x- I-s -Øn-bn- p v. A[n-I Nq-Sv A- -co- -Øn-te- v ]p-d- - p- {]-Xn-`m-k-Øn-\v CXv Im-c-W-am-Im-dp v. C-Xv C-{Xbpw Imew Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv ]p-d- - sim- p- m-b Xm-]-hy-Xn-bm- \-Øn-\v A-\p-]q-c-I-amWv. `mhn-bnepw AXp-Xs kw`hn-t - mw. Fbv-tdm-tkm-fp-I-fp-sS X-Wp- n- ti-jnsb sf.]n.kn.kn h m-sx hn-e-ipd- p I p. hy-hkm-b hn-]v-f-h Im-e-Øn-\v ap-ºv ap-x l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ßfp-ss {]-`m-hw sim- p m-b Xm-]-h - -\-hn-s\ XSbmt\m e-lq-i-cn- mt\m D- ti-jn C-h-bv- p-s - v ]T-\-ß-fn sx-fn- n- p v. Du-jv-am-hn-se h - \-hv tem-i-øn-se k-ap-{z-ßfn \n- v ssu ao-ssy kƒ-ss^-uv ]p-d- - -s - Sm Im-c-W-am-Im-dp v. C-Xv I-S-en-\v ap-i-fn- kv-{sm - kv ta-l-߃ Iq- pw. X-Wp- n- ti-jn D- ta-lß-fm-wn-h. I-S-en-se B -K-I-fp-sS {]-h -Ø-\ ^-e-am-bp- m-ip- A-b-Un kw-bp- -ßfpw ta-l-ß-fp-ss cq-]o-i-c-w-øn-\v k-lm-b-i-amwv. C-h kq-cy-\n \n- v h-cp- c-iv-ani-sf iq-\ym-im-i-øn-te- v {]-Xn-^-en- n- v `q-an-sb X-Wp- n- p- -Xn hf-sc hen-b ]- v h-ln- p- p v. hm-bp-hn-se Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s Af-hv h - n- p-t mdpw k-ky-߃ ]p-d-øp-hn-sp- Im _-Wn kƒ-ss^-uv hm-x-i-øn-s A-fhpw h - n- pw. C-h kv-{sm-t m-kv-^n-b-dn-se-øn kq-cy-\n \n- p- hn-in-c-wß-sf {]-Xn-^-en- n- p- kƒ-t^- v F-b-tdm-tkmƒ I-Wn-I-I-fm-bn am-dpw. C-h-bv pw A- co -sø X-Wp- n- m I-gn-bpw. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s Af-hv Iq- Sp -Xv Po-h-Pm-e-ß-fp-sS h-f - v Kp-W-I-c-amWv. AXv A- -co- -Øn _-tbm-tkm-fp-i-fp-ss Af-hv h - n n m\pw ta-l-߃ D- m-im\pw k-lm-bn- pw. ta-l-ß-fp-ss h - \-hv {]-Im-iw F m Zn- p-i-fn-te pw ]-c- m Im-c-W-am-Ipw. C-Xv k-ky-ß-fp-ss h-f -sb Xz-cn-X-s -Sp-Øp-I-bpw A-Xphgn k-ky-ß-sfbpw `q-ansbbpw Im -_-Wn-s kw-`-c-w-ti-{μ-ß-fm- p-ibpw sn-øpw. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-f-hv h - n- n- v Ir-jn hym-]-i-am- p -Xv a-s m-cp l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-iamb ss\-{skv HmIv-ssk-Un-s Af-hv A- -co- -Øn h - n- m C-S-bm- p-sa-s m-cp [m-c-wbp v. Imc-Ww ]-e cm-py-ß-fn-sebpw ss\-{skv HmIvssk-Uv ]p-d- - -en-s ]-Ip-Xnbpw Im jn-i ta-j-ebn \n- mwv. F- m Im- -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns Af-hv Iq-Sp- Xpw Nq-Sv h - n- p- Xpw ss\-{skv HmIv-ssk-Un-s _-ln -Ka-\w Ip-d-bv- p-sa- v K-th-j- W-ß-fn sx-fn- n- p v. ss\-{skv HmIv-ssk-Un-s\ kw-_- n pw sx m-b hn-h-c-amwv sf.]n.kn.kn \ - In-bn-cn- p- -sx- v C-Xn \n- v a-\- n-em- mw. a-s mcp {][m-\ l-cn-x-kr-l hm-x-i-am-wv ao-ty. A- -co- -Øn-se Im- -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-fhpw ao-ty\pw X-Ωn _- -an-s - v sx-fn- n- p v. F- m A- -co- Xm-]-\n-e-bn-se h - \-hv I-tºmkv- n \n pw a- p-ap- ao-ty-\n-s Af-hv Ip-d-bv- pw. ar-k-ß-fn \n- p- ao-ty D-Xv]mZ-\w A-h-bp-sS B- lm-c-{i-a-øn am- w-h-cp-ønbpw a-cp- p-iƒ \ -Inbpw a pw Ip-d-bv- m I-gn-bpw. A-[ymbw 3: Xm-]-\ne-sb Ip-dn- p- tc-j-ifpw \nco- -W-ßfpw C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-se Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm- \w A-{]-Xo- n-x-am-sw- pw I-gn h -jßsf A-t]- n- v {Zp-X-K-Xn-bn-em-Wv C-Xv kw-`hn- p- -sx- pap- -Xn-\v D-t]m -_-e-iam-b sx-fn-hpiƒ Xm-]-\ne-sb kw-_- n- tc-j-i-fn \n- v e-`n- n- p-s - mwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss A-h-Im-i-hm-Zw. Cu \n-k-a-\-øn-\v A-h B-[m-c-am- n-bn-cn- p- tlm- n kv- n-iv {]-Xn-\n- [o-ic-ww Dƒ-s -ss-bp sx-fn-hp-iƒ ]-e {]ap-j K- th-j-icpw X- n- -f- n- p- -XmWv. Xm-]-\n-e kw-_- n- Xn-cp-Ø h-cpøn-b tc- J-Iƒ A-\p-k-cn- v B-bn-cw h -j-߃- v ap-ºv Xm-]\ne C- -tø-xn-t\- mƒ Iq-Sp-X-em-bn-cp p. I-gn ]-Xn-\m-bn-cw h -j-߃- n-ss Xm-]-\n-e-bn i-cm-i-cn 2 ap-x 3 Un{Kn ^m-sc -lo- v h-sc h - \-hv D mbn- p- -Xmbpw ImWmw. a- yime tem-i-øn-se Nq-Sp-Ime-sØ Ip-dn- p- tc-j-iƒ hn-im-ehpw Ir-Xy-hp-amWv. A m - n-, B-{^n-, B - niv, Gjy, bq-tdm- v, sx-t A-ta-cn- 11

12 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w, hs-t A-ta-cn- Xp-Sßn-b ÿ-e-ß-fn \n- p- hn-h-c-߃ h- v hy-xykv-x am - -ß-fn-eq-sS ]T-\-߃ \-S-Øp- K-th-j-I C-Xv I-s -Øn-bn- p v. D-]-cn-X-e dn-t m -Unw-Kv kv-t -j-\p-i-fn \n- p- Um- -Ifpw sf.]n.kn.kn B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-sØ Ip-dn- p- \n-k-a-\-øn-se-øm sx-fn-hp-i-fm-bn D-]-tbm- Kn- n- p- v ap-x 2005 h-sc-bp- Im-e-b-f-hn A- -co- Du-jv-am-hn 0.74 Un{Kn sk -jy-kn-s h - -\ D- m-bn- p-s - m-wv A-h-cp-sS \n-k-a-\w. Cu tc-j-iƒ X-߃- v A-\p-Iq-eam-b co-xn-bn h-f-s m- Sn- -Xm-sW- v A-`n-{]m-b-ap v. l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ßf m-ø hm-x-i-߃ sim- p- m-ip- A -_ lo v sf-e v (UHI) F- {]-Xn-`mk-sØ Ip-dn- mwv A\ptbm-Py-a m-ø Xn-cp-Ø-ep-Iƒ h-cp-øn-bxv. Cu A-]m- IX ]-cn-l-cn- m {]-bm-k-amwv. Imc-Ww sndn-b ]- - W-ß-fn-se bp.f v.sf t]mepw A-hn-Sp-sØ l-cn- XKrl-hm-XI {]-`m-h-øn-s txm-xv Ip-d- p-im-wn- pw. Ccp-]Xmw \q- m- n-s A-hkm-\ c- v Z-i- I-ß-fn Xm-]h - \-hv km-h-[m-\-øn B-bn- ps - v D-]-{K-l-ß-fn \n- p- Ir-Xy-X-bp- hn-h-c-߃ sx-fn-bn- p p. C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- ns B-Zy Z-i-I-ß-fn D m-b Xm-]\n-e h - -\-hp-ambn Xm-c-Xayw sn-bv-xm hen-b Ip-d-hm-Wv A-hkm- \ Z-i-I-ß-fn D- m-bn-cn- p- -sx pw D-]-{K-l߃ ti-j-cn- sx-fn-hp-iƒ kq-nn- n- p p. C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n Im-W-s -Sp- Xm-]-h - - \-hn-s co-xn Im-emh-ÿm am-xr-i-i-fp-ss k-lm-b-tømss {]-h-nn- co-xn-bn \n- vv Xn-I pw hy-xy-kv-x-amwv. C-Xv kw-_- n- v A-ta-cn- Iv-ssfa- v sn-bv- v t{]m- {Kmw \-SØn-b \n-co -Ww tnmzyw sn-øm I-gn-bm- Ø-XmWv. F m l-cn-xkr-l am-xr-i-ifpw DjvW-ta-Le-bnse D-b-c-ß-fn Nq-Sv Iq-Sp- -Xm-bm-Wv Im-Wn- p- Xv. ]-Øv In-tem-ao- D-b-c-Øn Xm-sg D- -Xn-s Cc- n Nq-Sv C-h tc-j-s -Sp-Øpw. F- m _-eq-wp-iƒ D-]- tbm-kn- v ti-j-cn- hn-h-c-߃ C-Xn-s\-Xncm-b ^-e-am- Wv \ -Ip- Xv. Nq-Sv Iq-Sp- n-s - v am-{x-a ap-i-fn-te- v sn -p-t mdpw Nq-Sv sn-dp-xm-bn Ip-d-bp-I-bm-sW pw Cu \n-co -Ww kq-nn- n- p p. B - n-iv {]-tz-i-ßfm-b {Ko -em Uv ap-xem-b {]-tz-i-ß-fn \n- v ti-j-cn- hn-h-c-ß-f-\p-k-cn- v 1930 B-Wv Xm-]\n-e ]-c-am-h-[n-bn F-Øn-bXv. A-Sp-Ø Z- i-i-ß-fn-se mw Xm-]\n-e Ip-d-bp-I-bm-bn-cp p. Xm-]\ne ]-c-am-h-[n-bn FØn-b ti-j-ap- Im-e-b-f-hn ( h j-߃ apºv) ÿn-c-x-bn m-ø H-cp Nq-Sv Ip-d-b D- m-bn-cp- -Xm-bn Zo -L-\m-fp-I-fm-bp- ]T- \-߃ kq-nn- n- p p. A- -tø-xn-s\ A-t]- n- v Xm- ]-\n-e-bn 2.5 Un{Kn sk -jy-kn-s Ip-dhmWv Ct mƒ. A m - n- -bp-ss i-cmi-cn Xm-]-\n-e-bp-sS N-cn{Xw C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-se Xm-]-\-Øn-\v H-cp sx-fnhpw \ - Ip- n. F- m A m - n-iv D-]-Zzo-]n A-Sp-Ø-Im-e- Øm-bn Nq-Sv Iq-Sp- -Xn-s kq-n-\-i-fp-s - nepw 1970 apx `q-j-fi-øn-s Dƒ-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn \n-e-\n - p- Nq-Sv Ip-d-bm-\p- {]h-w-x \n-ch-[n K-th-j-W kw- L-߃ tc-j-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p- v. A-[ymbw 4: ln-a-]m-fniƒ, I-S-ense sfkv, a-g/ a- p-hogvn, k-ap-{z \nc- v F- nh-sb Ip-dn- p- \nco- -W-߃ en- n sf-kv G-Pn-\v ti-jw temi-sø ln-a- ]m-fn-i-sf mw D-cp-Ip-I-bmWv. F- m A- -co- -Øn Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s Af-hv Iq-Sn-b-Xp-sIm- v D-cp-I-en-s \nc- v Iq-Sn-b-Xm-bn sx-fn-hp-i-fn. C-Xn \n- v ln-a-]m-fn-iƒ D-cp-Ip- Xpw A- -co- - Ønse Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-fhpw X-Ωn _- -an-s - v a-\- n-em- mw. I-gn- G-Xm\pw Z-i-I-ß-fm-bn A m - n -bnse I-S-ense sf-kn-s hym-]v-xn h - n- p-sim- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. 1990I-fn I- sf-kv ]m-fn-i-fp-ss in-yneo-i-c-w-øn-\v Im-c-W-amb-Xv {]-Ir-Xn-{]-Xn-`m-k-ß-fmsW- v sx-fn- n- p v. Cu {]-Xn-`m-kw ap Im-e-ßfnepw D- m-bn-cp p, h-cpwim-e-ß-fn Xp-S-cp-Ibpw snøpw. A- -co- -Øn-se Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns A-f-hp-am-bn C-Xn\pw bm-sxm-cp _- -hp-an-s - v hy- -amwv. B niv 2007se o-w-øn \n- v I-c- Ib-dn -gn p. a-g, a- p-hogv-n Xp-S-ßn-bh- Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Up-am-bn _- -an m-ø {]-Xn`m-k-ß-fm-sW- m-wv B-tKm-f-X-e-Øn \-S- ]T-\-߃ sx-fn-bn- p- Xv. Nq-Sv Iq-Sp- -X-\p-k-cn- v a-g-bp-ss e`y-x Iq-Sp- - Xm-bn sx-fn-hp-i-fn. B-{^n-, B - n-, Gjy, bq-tdm v, hs-t A-ta-cn-, sx-t A-ta-cn- Xp-Sßnb ÿ-e-ß-fn \-SØn-b ]T-\-ß-fn-sem pw a-g-sbbpw a-\p-jy C-S-s]-S sim- p- B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-sØbpw _- n- n- p- sx-fn-hp-iƒ e-`n- n- n. I-W- p-iƒ A-\p-k-cn- v tem-i-øn-se \-Zn-I-fnse P-e-Øn-s A-f-hn 1951 ap-x 2000 h-sc-bp- Im-e-b-f-hn hen-b hy-xym-k-sam pw h- n- n. Xm-]\n-e Iq-Sp -Xv tem-i-øn-se \-Zn-I-fp-sS H-gp- n-s\ Im-cy-am-bn _m-[n- p-sa- I-ºyq- A-[n-jvTn-X am-xr- I-Iƒ D-]-tbm-Kn- p- {]-h-n-\w sx- m-sw- mwv Cu I-W- p-iƒ kq-nn- n- p- -Xv. C-t m-g-tø-xn-t\- mƒ Nq-Sv Ip-Sp-X-em-bn-cp- ap -Im-eß-sf A-t]- n- v C-t mƒ sh- -s m- -ß-fp-sSbpw h-cƒ- -bp-ssbpw F-Æ-Ønepw hen-b Ipd-hv h- n- p v. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv aq-e-ap- m-ip- B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w A m - n- -bn-sebpw {Km -em Unsebpw ln-a-]m-fni-sf th-k-øn \-in- n- p-sa- pw A-Xv hen-b Zp-c- -Øn I-em-in- p-sa- p-ap A-h- Im-i-hm-Z-sØbpw tem-i-øn-s hnhn-[ `m-k-ß-fn \-S- \n-ch-[n ]T-\-߃ sh p-hn-fn- p- p v. A m - 12

13 {][m-\-s hkvxp-x-iƒ Npcp- -Øn n- -bp-ss Im-cy-Øn sf.]n.kn.kn \n-k-a-\-ß-fp-ss F-Xn tn-cn-bn-emwv Cu ]T-\-߃- v ]n- n {]-h - Øn- h. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv aq-e-ap- m-ip- B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\w temi-sø CØ-cw Zp-c- -ß-fn \n- v kwc- n- p-sa- m-wv A-h-cp-sS A-`n-{]mbw. A-Sp-Ø-Im-e-sØßpw k-ap-{z-\n-c- v D-bcp -Xns txmxv IqSnbn- n. k-ap-{z-\nc- v D-b-cp -Xv kw-_- n- {]-[m-\ L-S-Iß-sf Ip-dn-s mw sx m-b [m-c-w-i-fmwv sf.]n.kn.kn h- p-]p-e -Øn-bXv. k-ap-{z-\n-c- n-s\ _m- [n- p- ]-e L-S-I-ß-fpw \n-an-jw txmdpw am-dn-s m- n-cn- p- -h-bmwv. {Ko -em Un \n- pw A m - n- -bn \n pw a- p-cp-in k-ap-{z-ß-fn-se-øp- P-e- Øn-s Af-hv, kap-{z-p-e-øns BsI-bp k pex XpS-ßnb Imcy-ß-fnse k n-kv m-hÿ ImcWw ]e {]Xn-`m-k-ßfpw icn-bmbn C\nbpw a\- n-em-t - n-bn-cn- p- p. AXp-sIm- v, Xm-]-\n-e-bn D- m-ip- sndn-b am -ß-fp-sS ^-e-ambn k-ap-{z-\n-c- n F{X hy-xym-k-ß-fp- m-ipw F v F-{X ani-hv ]p-e -Ønbmepw I-W- n-se-sp p-i {]-bm-k-am-wv. A-[ymbw 5: ku-c-hy-xn-bm-\-ßfpw Im-emh-ÿmN- {I-ßfpw sf.]n.kn.kn hn-e-bn-cp-ø A-\p-k-cn- v kqcy-\n \n- p- hn-in-c-w-ß-fp-ss ^-e-am-bn 1750 apx D- m-bn- p- td-un-tb- o-hv t^m-gv-knw-kv +0.12Wm-2 BWv. a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-S-en-eq-sS D- m-bn- p- -Xn-t\- mƒ hf-sc Ip-d-hm-WnXv Wm-2 B-Wv a-\p-jys C-S-s]-S-en-eq-sS D- m-bn- p- -sx- mwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss A-h-Im-i-hmZw. F- m I-gn- \q- m- p-i-fn D m-b Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-s {][m-\ Imc-Ww kq-cy-\m-sw- m-wv an- ]T-\-ßfpw sx-fn-bn- p- Xv. Hcp tkmfm ssk n-fn kq-cy-\n \n- p- Du - -Øn-s A-f-hn 0.1 i-x-am-\-øn-s hy-xymkta D- m-imdp q. F- m \q- m- p-iƒ sim- v henb hy-xym-kw D- m-bn-cn- m-\p- km-[y-x-bp v. t\tc adn v kq-cy-\n \n- p- Aƒ-{Sm-h-be- v hnin-c-w-ßfp-ss A-f-hn tkmfm ssk n-fn-t\- mƒ hen-b hy-xym-k-ap mimw. kv-{smt m-kv-^n-b-dnse Hm-tkm-Wn D- m-bn-s - n-cn- p- am- w C-Xp-am-bn tn -Øp-hm-bnt - -XmWv. ku-c- m- n-s Xo-{h-X-bnepw {K-l-߃- n-s-bn-se Im n-i ta-j-e-bnepw BWv G hpw henb hy-xn-bm-\-߃ D- m-ip- Xv. ]-g-bim-e Im-em-h-ÿ ]cn-tim-[n- m kq-cys Im n-i {]-h -Ø-\hpw Xn-f- hpw `q-an-bp-ss Xm-]-\n-e-bp-ambn A-Sp-Øv _- -s - n-cn- p- -Xmbn a-\- n-em-ipw. Im -_ ssu HmIv-sskUpw Xm-]-\nebpw X-Ωn-ep- -Xn-t\- mƒ A-Sp-Ø _- -am-wnxv. kq-cy-s {]-h Ø-\w F-ß-s\-bm-Wv Im-emhÿ-sb _m-[n- p- -sx- v a-\- n-em- m tim-kv-an- Iv In-c-W-߃- k-lm-bn- pw. kq-cy-\n-se Im n-i {]-h Ø-\w Iq-Sp-tºmƒ A- -co- -Øn-s Xm-tg X- nte- v I-S- p-h-cp tim-kv-an-iv In-c-W-ß-fp-sS Af-hv Ip-d-bpw. C-Xv kq-cy-{]-im-iw {]-Xn-^-en- n- m ti-jnbp- ta-l-ß-fp-ss cq-]o-ic-ww a-μo-`-hn- n- p-itbm C m-xm- p-itbm sn-øm Im-c-W-amIpw. X-Xv-^-e-ambn `q-an-bn F-Øp- kq-cy-in-c-ß-fpss Af-hv Iq-Sp-w AXv `q-an-tbm-sv A-Sp-Øv In-S- p- hm-bp Nq-SmIm\pw B-Xy- n-i-am-bn B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn-\v Im-c-W-am-Im\pw CS-bm-Ipw. ku-tcm -hy-xn-bm-\-߃ v a- p-ho-gv-n, h-cƒ-, sh- -s m w, a-g Xp-S-ßn-b-hbpambp _ - sø Ip-dn- v tem-i-øn-s ]-e `m-k-ß-fnepw tc-j-s -Sp- Øn-bn- p v. Cu _- -߃ Im- -_ ssu HmIvsskUpw Im-emh-ÿm {]-Xn-`m-k-ßfpw X-Ωn-ep- _- -tø- mƒ i- -amwv. ku-c-{]-h -Ø-\-߃ Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm- \Øn D m- p {]{Inb Xn-I pw k- o -Æ-amWv. C-Xv kw-_- n- p- kn- m- -ß-fn A-[n-Ihpw im-kv-{xo-b-am-bn sx-fn-bn- m-\m-bn- n. Im -_ ssu HmIv-sskUpw B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\hpw X-Ωn-ep- _- hpw Ir-Xy-am-bn sx-fn-bn- m-\mbn- n-s v Im-emh-ÿm im-kv-{x- kω-xn- -Ww. A-[ymbw 6: {]- p-œamb Im-em-h-ÿbpw (extreme weather) \n-co- -W-ßfpw NqSm-b `q-an h-cƒ-, ag, sh- -s m w, sim-sp- m v, Np-g-en- m v, Im- p-xo Xp-Sßn-b \nc-h[n {]-Ir-Xn Zp-c- -߃- v A-Sn -Sn km- n-bm-ti- n h-cp-sa- mwv sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss I-s -Ø. Xm-] h- - \-hv G- hpw Iq-Sp-X A-\p`-h-s -s v sf.]n.kn.kn X-s ]-d- I-gn- \q- m- v ]cn-tim-[n- m Cu \n-k-a-\-øn henb Im-cy-an-s - v a-\- n-em-ipw. tam-iw Im-em-h-ÿ-bnte- v `q-an \o-ßp- -Xn-s F-Sp-Øp-]-d-b-Ø- H-cp kq-n-\bpw I-s -Øm-\m-bn- n. B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn-s ^-e-am-bn I-Sp-ØtXm Im-ew sx- n-bp- txm B-b h-cƒ- -sbm pw D- m-bn- n. B-{^n-, Gjy, a- v `q-j-fi-߃ F- n-hn-s-ßfn \n- p- sx-fn-hp-iƒ A-Sn -Sn h-cƒ D- m-im- \p- km[y-x X- n- -f-bp- -h-bmwv. Im-emh-ÿm N-cn-{X-Øn tc-j-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p- I-Sp-Ø h-cƒ- -Iƒ t]m-epw `q-an-bp-ss Xm-]\n-e Ip-d-hm-bn-cp- Im-e-Øp mb h-cƒ- -I-tf- mƒ ImTn\yw Ip-d- -h-bm-bn-cp p. NqSp-Iq-Sn-sb p ]d-b-s -Sp C-t m-g-tø- mƒ sh- -s -m w Akm-[m-c-Whpw A-]-I-S-I-c-hp-am-bn-cp - Xv en- n sf-kv G-Pn-em-bn-cp p. Gjy, bq-tdm v, hs-t A-ta-cn- F- n-hn-s-ß-fn sh- -s m- -Øn-s F-Æhpw \-ioi-c-w ti-jnbpw C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n Ip-d- n- p v. 13

14 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w D-jv-W-taJ-em k-ap-{z-ß-fp-ss D-]-cnX-e Du-jv-amhv h - n- p- -Xn-\m D-jv-W-taJ-em {]-tz-i-ß-fn sim-sp- m pw Np-g-en- m pw Iq-Sp-X Xo{h-am-Ip-sa v sf.]n.kn.kn hn-e-bn-cp-øn-bn-cp- p. F- m A-{]- Xo n-x Xm-]-h - \-hv D- m-bn F- p- ]-d-b-s -Sp- C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n temi-øv sam-øøntem G-sX- nepw {]-txy-i ta-j-ebntem Np-g-en- m- p-i-ƒ A-Sn - Sn ho-in-b-sn- p-itbm Iq-Sp-X A-]-I-S-Im-cn B-Ip-Itbm sn-bv-xn- n. C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-s A-hkm-\ `m-k-øp mb F \nt\m k-tx Hm-kn-te-j km-l-n-cy-߃ A-h-bp-sS F-Æhpw i- nbpw F-Sp-Øv ]cn-tim-[n- m Ah A-{]-Xo- n-xambn-cp n-s - v sx-fn-bpw. C-Xn-\v ]n p-w \ -Ip- \n-ch-[n \n-co- -W-߃ ti- J-cn- -s - n- p v. ]-g-bim-e tc-j-i-fn \n- v hy- - am-ip -Xv `q-an-bp-ss Nq-Sv C- -tø- mƒ Iq-Sn-bn-cp- k-a-b-ß-fn F \nt\m k-tx Hm-kn-te-j Ip-dbp-Itbm A-{]-Xy- -am-hp-itbm sn-bv-xn- p-s - mwv. Nq-Sp temi-øv a-g hy-xym-k-s -Sp-sa pw Xo-{h-am-Ip-sa- pap hn-e-bn-cp-ø AwKo-I-cn- m-\mhn. C-Xv sx- m-sw- v kq-nn- n- p- \n-co- -W-߃ \n-e-hn-ep- v Xm-\pw. Cu hn-h-c-߃ A-\p-k-cn- v ku-c- {]-h -Ø-\-ß-fn-ep- m-ip- Nm-{In-I hy-xn-bm\-ß-tfm- Sm-Wv a-g Iq-Sp-X {]-Xn-I-cn- p- Xv. en- n sf-kv G-Pn-\v ti-jw `q-an-bp-ss Nq-Sv Iq-Sn-s m- n-cn- p-i-bmwv. Cu {]-{In-b G-Xm- v 150 h -j-am-bn Xp-S-cp- p. F- m {]- p-œam-b Im-em-hÿ A-Sn -Sn D- m-ip-itbm A-Xn-s Xo{h-X h - n- p-itbm sn-bv-xn- n ap-x 2002 h-sc-bp- Im-e-b-f-hn A- co- -Øn-se Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-f-hn 20 i-x-am-\w h - \-hv D- m-bn- p v. F- m C-Xv hst A-ta-cn- - `q-j-fi-ønse a- p-im-e-øns B-cw`sØtbm A-Xn-s ssz -LysØtbm _m-[n- n- n. ]t a- p-ho-gv-n-bnepw Xp-S - p- m-ip- Zp-cn- X-ß-fnepw Ip-d-hp- mbn. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-f-hn-ep mb h - \-hv sim-sp- m- paqe-ap- m-ip IS-en-f- -ßfpsS F-Ætam i ntbm h - n- m Im-c-W-am-bn- n. a-dn- v A-h-bp-sS FÆhpw i- nbpw Ip-d-bv- p-i-bm-wv sn-bv-x-sx- v ]T-\-߃ kq-nn- n- p p. icm-icn A- -co- Xm-]\n-e D-b-cp- -X-\p-kcn- v Nq-Sn-se Nm eyw Ip-d-bp- -Xm-bm-Wv Im-em-Im-eß-fm-bp- \n-co- -W-߃ sx-fn-bn- p- Xv. hfsc ]g-bxpw ]pxn-bxpw Ime-ßfnse Nq-Sv IqSn-b h -jßfpw Nq-Sv Ip-d- h -j-ßfpw X-Ωn Xm-c-X-ay-s - SpØn ]Tn- m C-Xv hy- -am-ipw. B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w Iq-Sp-X {]- p-_v[am-b Im-em-h-ÿ-bn-te pw Xm-]\ne h - -\-hn-te pw \-bn- p-sa- A-h-Im-i-hm-Z-Øn-\v ]n p-w \ -Ip- hn-h-c-ß-sfm pw tem-i-øn-s H-cp `m-k-øp-\n pw I-s -Øm I-gn- n- n. C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-s Ah-km-\sØ ct m aqt m Z-i-I-ß-fn tem-i-øn-s Nn-e `m-k-ß-fn Im p-xo-bn-eqss \miw Iq-Sp-Itbm Ip-d-bp-Itbm snbv- X `q-hn`mkw B pw Xn-cn- -dn-bm-hp- -XmWv. F- m tem-iw sam-ø-øn F-Sp-Øm B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\hpw Im- p-xobpw X-Ωn bm-sxm-cp _- -hp-an-s - v a-\- n- em- mw. A-[ymbw 7: Im -_ ssu HmIv-sskUpw Po-h-Pme-ßfpw A- -co- -Øn Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns A-f-hv 300 ]n.]n.fw h - n- p -Xv sndn-b k-kyß-fp-ss D-Xv-]m-Z-\- -a-x-bn aq n-sem- v h - -\-bp- m- pw. {]-Im-i-kw-iv-tf-j-W-Øn-\v aq- v am - -ßfn GXv D-]-tbm-Kn- p- k-ky-ß-fnepw C-Xv A-\pIq-e {]-Xn-Ic-Ww D- m- pw. a-c-ß-fn C-Xn-s {]-h Ø- \w C-Xnepw i- -amwv. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns A-f-hn-se h - -\-bp-ss Kp-W-^-e-߃ P-e-k-kyßfpw {]-tbm-p-\-s -Sp-Øp- p v. B -KIƒ, ssa-t{imss^- vkv, ssa-t{im B -K-Iƒ F- o P-e-k-ky-߃ C-Xn-\v D-Zm-l-c-W-amWv. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s Af-hv Iq-Sp - Xv kky-ßsf h-cƒ A-Xn-Po-hn- m Iq-Sp-X {]m-]v-x-cm- pw. C-Xn-\v ]pdsa P-e Zu -e`y-ap- km-l-n-cy-ß-fn h-f-cp k-ky-ß-fn _-tbm-am-kv D-Xv-]m-Z-\hpw Iq-Sp-X-em-bn-cn- pw. A- -co- -Øn Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns Af-hv h - n- p -Xv k-ky-ß-fp-ss h-f - -bv- v Bh-iy-amb t]mji-ß-fpss Ipdhv, X-S- -am-ip- a-æn-se e-h-wmwiw, D-b - A- -co- Du-jv-am-hv, kq-cy-{]-im-i-øn-s e-`y-x-bn-se Ipd-hv Xp-S-ßnbh-bpsS ^-e-ß-ƒ e-lq-i-cn- m k-lm-bn- pw. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-f-hv IqSn-b A- o- -Øn XWp p IqSn-bmepw F- v Ip-d-hp-I-fp- m-bmepw k-kyß-fp-ss h-f - m \nc- v Iq-Sp-X-em-bn-cn- pw. A- -co- -Øn Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns A-f-hv Iq-Sp- -X-\p-k-cn- v {]-Im-i-kw-iv-tf-j-W-hpw _-tbm-am-kv D-Xv-]m-Z-\hpw h - n- pw. Np- p-]m-sp-i-fn-se Nq-Sv Iq-Sp-tºmƒ h-f - m \nc- v t{]m- m-ln- n- m-\p- Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s ti-jnbpw Iq-Spw. Im _ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s h - \-hv hnf- I-tf- mƒ IqSp-X-embn I-f-I-fp-sS h-f - -bv- v A-\p- Iq-ea. k-ky-ß-fp-ss h-f - ]-I k-ab-sø {]Imi kw-iv-tf-j-w-øn-eq-ss am-{x-a \-S- p- Xv. Im - _ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s km- n[yw cm-{xn-im-e-ßfn A-h-bp-sS iz-k-\- \nc- v a-μo-`-hn- n- pw. CXpw k-ky-ß-fp-ss h-f - -bv- v k-lm-b-i-amwv. 14

D -S w 2 FUn-t m-dn-b 3 P\-d sk{i- -dn-bpss t]pv 4 {Kojva EXp... {KojvaNcy. 13 ]cn-c- -W-Øns ap K-W-\-Iƒ.. 17 GI-{[p-h-ssh-Zyw Btcm-Ky-ta-Je...

D -S w 2 FUn-t m-dn-b 3 P\-d sk{i- -dn-bpss t]pv 4 {Kojva EXp... {KojvaNcy. 13 ]cn-c- -W-Øns ap K-W-\-Iƒ.. 17 GI-{[p-h-ssh-Zyw Btcm-Ky-ta-Je... B]vX Bbp th-z-am-kni Monthly Journal of Ayurveda Medical Association of India March 2012 Vol.19 Issue 3 EDITORIAL BOARD Chief Editor Dr. Sanil Kumar Managing Editor Dr. K.V.Syamlal Printer & Plublisher

More information

2 FUn-t m-dn-b 3 P\-d sk{i- -dn-bpss t]pv 5 sxmgn P-\y-k-Zm-Xp-cX. 21 DØ-c-] w Bbp thzw \ΩpsS ss]xr-i-kzøv. efn-xmw-_ni

2 FUn-t m-dn-b 3 P\-d sk{i- -dn-bpss t]pv 5 sxmgn P-\y-k-Zm-Xp-cX. 21 DØ-c-] w Bbp thzw \ΩpsS ss]xr-i-kzøv. efn-xmw-_ni B]vX Bbp th-z-am-kni Monthly Journal of Ayurveda Medical Association of India May 2012 Vol.19 Issue 5 EDITORIAL BOARD Chief Editor Dr. Sanil Kumar 09946986421 Managing Editor Dr. K.V.Syamlal 09349944767

More information

Hcp bpkw Ahkm\n p. kwbp {]m \ G{]n 10\v. C UybpsS At mkvxe tum. t]mƒ ]n \nxyxbn. km n. ]m-ã kmw-ip- n Nm-t m \n-e-ºq

Hcp bpkw Ahkm\n p. kwbp {]m \ G{]n 10\v. C UybpsS At mkvxe tum. t]mƒ ]n \nxyxbn. km n. ]m-ã kmw-ip- n Nm-t m \n-e-ºq Hcp bpkw Ahkm\n p ]m-ã sp ]m-ã si. Pn tpm-k-^v tpm- ap-f- p-g: N - v Hm-^v tkm- Uv C C -Uy ti-c-fm tã- v Iu -kn sk-{i- -dn-bm-bn ]m- Ã sp tpm-k-^v ho- pw sxsc- -Sp- -s - p. tã- v Hm-h -knb- d-h. kn kn

More information

STUDENT EMPOWERMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT SEED FORMAT FOR SEED FINAL REPORT

STUDENT EMPOWERMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT SEED FORMAT FOR SEED FINAL REPORT STUDENT EMPOWERMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT SEED FORMAT FOR SEED FINAL REPORT 2017-18 2017þ18 hàj-s ko-uv {]-hà- -\- -fp-ss A n-a dn-t mà-«v k-aà- n- p- -Xn-\p-Å amà-k-\nà-tz-i Ä 1. 2017 Pq A- mw

More information

aebmfw a-ebm-f `m-j-bp-ss B-Zn-a-apJw bq-wn-äv þ H- v (1) {]-[m-\-s -«kn-²m- Ä: aq-e-{zm-hnuw, X-angv, kw-kv-ir-xw F- o `m-j-bnâ \n pw B-hnÀ-`m-hw

aebmfw a-ebm-f `m-j-bp-ss B-Zn-a-apJw bq-wn-äv þ H- v (1) {]-[m-\-s -«kn-²m- Ä: aq-e-{zm-hnuw, X-angv, kw-kv-ir-xw F- o `m-j-bnâ \n pw B-hnÀ-`m-hw aebmfw 21-12-2016 a-ebm-f `m-j-bp-ss B-Zn-a-apJw bq-wn-äv þ H- v (1) {]-[m-\-s -«kn-²m- Ä: aq-e-{zm-hnuw, X-angv, kw-kv-ir-xw F- o `m-j-bnâ \n pw B-hnÀ-`m-hw t]- À 1 bq-wnäv 1.1. `m-tjmâ- - n-sb- p-dn-

More information

Zp-cp-]-tbm-Kw A]-I-S-Icw

Zp-cp-]-tbm-Kw A]-I-S-Icw ssj-pp txm-a-kv Rm-d-bv- I-gn- \q- m- n-s G- -hpw h-en-b {]-txy-i-x hn-h-c km-t - Xn-I cw-k-øv D- m-b Ip-Xn- v Nm- -am-wv. C- -s\- v A-[n-jvTn-X-amb km-t -Xn-I-hn-Zy-bv- pw A-Xns hn-im-k-øn-\pw c- v h-i-ßfm-wp-

More information

aivt]em Kpl bn{km-tb-en-tâxv

aivt]em Kpl bn{km-tb-en-tâxv 1 05 ka-im-eni ]{XnI www.marupacha.com MEMBER NEWS PAPERS ASSOCIATION OF INDIA 2017 HtŒm_ e-mail: maruppacha@yahoo.com hmeyw. 22 e w. 19 www.marupacha.com hne `.4.00 Tel. +91 469 2634321 \yq-u -ln: F-s

More information

A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W

A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W Volume 52 Fall 2000 Number 1 B E F O R E D I S A B I L I T Y C I V I L R I G HT S : C I V I L W A R P E N S I O N S A N D TH E P O L I T I C S O F D I S A B I L I T Y I N

More information

t\xmhv sh p-hn-fn-iƒ I v ]X-dn : dh.-si B tu-gvk

t\xmhv sh p-hn-fn-iƒ I v ]X-dn : dh.-si B tu-gvk - KERMAL / 2007 / 21096 PUBLISHED FROM THIRUVALLA hmeyw 7 e w: 09 sk]v w-_ 2012 Annual Subscription Rs. 100/- apf- pg: ti-c-f-øn-se s]- t m-kv-xv ssz-h-k-`-iƒ- v 100 h -j-sø ss]-xr-iw B-Wv A- h-im-i-s

More information

MEMBER NEWS PAPERS ASSOCIATION OF INDIA 2015 s^{_phcn. A- pe- w t]

MEMBER NEWS PAPERS ASSOCIATION OF INDIA 2015 s^{_phcn. A- pe- w t] 1 20 ka-im-eni ]{XnI www.marupacha.com MEMBER NEWS PAPERS ASSOCIATION OF INDIA 2015 s^{_phcn e-mail: maruppacha@yahoo.com www.marupacha.com Tel. +91 469 2634321 hmeyw. 19 e w. 04 hne `.4.00 Published from

More information

Executive Committee and Officers ( )

Executive Committee and Officers ( ) Gifted and Talented International V o l u m e 2 4, N u m b e r 2, D e c e m b e r, 2 0 0 9. G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a2 l 4 ( 2), D e c e m b e r, 2 0 0 9. 1 T h e W o r

More information

D ON MY HONOR, I WILL TRY.. AISI S E R S O DASS A B BR AM OWNI S E R S I GIRL SCOUTS! JUN SENIO IORS CAD E TTES

D ON MY HONOR, I WILL TRY.. AISI S E R S O DASS A B BR AM OWNI S E R S I GIRL SCOUTS! JUN SENIO IORS CAD E TTES ON MY HONOR, I WILL TRY.. DAISI ES AMBASSADORS BROWNI ES I JUNIORS 2017-2018 GIRL SCOUTS! CAD E TTES SENIORS Wm! W' I? W'v Pm G, v, m m G S x. I, y' m w x m, v, v v G S G W M. T v wm.. I y v y q q m, 888.474.9686

More information

]mtw 13 hmkvzøw snø-s DW v: sszh-øns ZuXyw ]q Øn-bm- -s -Sp p i Øv kmbm w

]mtw 13 hmkvzøw snø-s DW v: sszh-øns ZuXyw ]q Øn-bm- -s -Sp p i Øv kmbm w sk]vxw-_ 21-27 ]mtw 13 hmkvzøw snø-s DW v: sszh-øns ZuXyw ]q Øn-bm- -s -Sp p i Øv kmbm w thz`mkw : aømbn 28:18-20; bmt m_v 5:7,8; skj. 10:1; aømbn 3:11; shfn. 18:1; 19:11 16. a\x]mthmiyw : ""F m ktlm-z-c-

More information

ss{ikvxh Fgp-Øp-]pc \yqkv

ss{ikvxh Fgp-Øp-]pc \yqkv - ss{ikvxh Fgp-Øp-]pc \yqkv Hm sse sszzhm-cni Vol: 9 l Book No. 1 l 2017 October 02 N v Hm^v tkmuv ti-c-fm kv -t - v - P-\-d I -h -j ap-f- p-g: N - v Hm-^v tkm- Uv C C -Uy ti-c-f kvt - v 95 m-a-xv P-\-d

More information

]utcm-ln-xy-øn-te v asßn-t m-ip- `- - m

]utcm-ln-xy-øn-te v asßn-t m-ip- `- - m KERMAL / 2007 / 21096 PUBLISHED FROM THIRUVALLA ON 05-11 - 2017 hmeyw 13 e w: 11 \hw-_- 2017 Price Rs. 10/- Annual Subscription RS. 100/- Ih tãmdn ]utcm-ln-xy-øn-te v asßn-t m-ip- `- - m ssjpp txmakv Rmd-bv

More information

The Evolution of Outsourcing

The Evolution of Outsourcing Uvy f R I DCmm@URI S H Pj H Pm Uvy f R I 2009 T Ev f O M L. V Uvy f R I, V99@m.m Fw wk : ://mm../ P f B Cmm Rmm C V, M L., "T Ev f O" (2009). S H Pj. P 144. ://mm..//144://mm..//144 T A b y f f by H Pm

More information

M $ 4 65\ K;$ 5, 65\ M $ C! 4 /2 K;$ M $ /+5\ 8$ A5 =+0,7 ;* C! 4.4/ =! K;$,7 $,+7; ;J zy U;K z< mj ]!.,,+7;

M $ 4 65\ K;$ 5, 65\ M $ C! 4 /2 K;$ M $ /+5\ 8$ A5 =+0,7 ;* C! 4.4/ =! K;$,7 $,+7; ;J zy U;K z< mj ]!.,,+7; V 3U. T, SK I 1393/08/21 :,F! 1393/10/29 ::!n> 2 1 /M + - /E+4q; Z R :'!3Qi M $,7 8$ 4,!AK 4 4/ * /;K "FA ƒf\,7 /;G2 @;J\ M $ 4 65\ K;$ 5, 65\ M $ C! 4 /2 K;$ M $ /+5\ 8$ A5 =+0,7 ;* C! 4.4/ =! K;$,7 $,+7;

More information

kzhwi hnhm-l-\n-jvtbv v FXnsc

kzhwi hnhm-l-\n-jvtbv v FXnsc 05 2015 Pq hmeyw. 19 e w. 11 hne `.4.00 MEMBER NEWS PAPERS ASSOCIATION OF INDIA e-mail: maruppacha@yahoo.com www.marupacha.com Tel. +91 469 2634321 Published from Thiruvalla on 05-06-2015 ka-im-eni ]{XnI

More information

Blues. G.S.P.T. Blue. U7233 Blue with a green face and slightly red flop. H.S. Indo Blue

Blues. G.S.P.T. Blue. U7233 Blue with a green face and slightly red flop. H.S. Indo Blue Bs C Bs C p.s.p.t. B U7233 B wh fc shy fp. H.S. I B U7235 O s sh b h fc fp. vs cs bh s mc cs. Apps vy y wh s mm k s bs. Occ B U7046 B wh fc fp. Az B U7048 B wh vy fc fp. L.S. B U7276 Us cs mx cccy whs,

More information

KmUvKn IkvXq-cn-cw-K dnt m piƒ Hcp XmcXay Ah-tem-I\w

KmUvKn IkvXq-cn-cw-K dnt m piƒ Hcp XmcXay Ah-tem-I\w KmUvKn IkvXq-cn-cw-K dnt m piƒ Hcp XmcXay Ah-tem-I\w hn.- F-kv. hnp-b kmenw Aen ^ut -j Aø- Imhv tdmuv IWn-aw-Kew, Xr»q 680027 1 kmenw Aen ^ut -j ÿm]nxw : 2006 (C y {SÃv BŒv 1882) apjy-e yw ""ssph-ssh-hn[y

More information

IN HIS PRESENCE UNITE YOUR PRAYERS WITH THE PRAYERS OF JESUS

IN HIS PRESENCE UNITE YOUR PRAYERS WITH THE PRAYERS OF JESUS IN HIS PRESENCE UNITE YOUR PRAYERS WITH THE PRAYERS OF ESUS 9 I p m m 10 A I d m Ad m m m 11 H F p m b pw m m m m b w 14 I m wd d wd d m wd m I m wd 15 M p m wd b p m m 16 T wd I m 17 S m b ; wd 18 A m

More information

A[n-\n-thi kwkvim-cw ac- m- nse sxø-ß-fn

A[n-\n-thi kwkvim-cw ac- m- nse sxø-ß-fn A[n-\n-thi kwkvim-cw ac- m- nse sxø-ß-fn Nimmy Kurian Assistant Professor, Pavanatma College, Murickassery nimmyk9@gmail.com kw{klw (Abstract) DØ-cm-[p-\nI cn-bn-xmhmb Aw_n-Im-kp-X amßm-sns "ac- m- nse

More information

Early Years in Colorado

Early Years in Colorado Rp m H V I 6 p - Bb W M M M B L W M b w b B W C w m p w bm 7 Nw m m m p b p m w p E Y C W m D w w Em W m 7- A m m 7 w b m p V A Gw C M Am W P w C Am H m C q Dpm A m p w m m b W I w b-w C M B b m p W Nw

More information

PpapA JpXzv_ 2011 sabv 20 lzvdxv Jeo-^-Xp akolv A Jm-ankv hnh Ø\w

PpapA JpXzv_ 2011 sabv 20 lzvdxv Jeo-^-Xp akolv A Jm-ankv hnh Ø\w Jeo-^-Xp akolv A Jmankv PpapA JpXzv_ 2011 sabv 20 lzvdxv Jeo-^-Xp akolv A Jm-ankv hnh Ø\w Fw. \mkn AlvaZv simsn-b-øq Xncp-\_n bpss bym t{]anbpw Zmk\pw Ime- Øns Camapw Xncp-\-_n- bpss {]h-n-\-{]-imcw BI-

More information

aojm. BapJw I. Imt\m-\nse AXp-ey-ÿm\w III. Fgp-X-s Imew

aojm. BapJw I. Imt\m-\nse AXp-ey-ÿm\w III. Fgp-X-s Imew aojm 1046 1047 aojm BapJw ^e-{]-z-amb Hcp ktµiw Adn-bn- p-hm axn-bmb i nbpw ss[cy-hp-ap ]mh-ß-fpss \ -bv mbn {]h Øn- p- p. KW-\o-b\mb Hcp hy nsb Is -Øp- Xp KpW-I-c-am-Wv. Xs P\sØ hf-sc-b-sp-ødn- p-sim

More information

Xncs Sp s h. ]mtw 11. Unkw-_ 9 15

Xncs Sp s h. ]mtw 11. Unkw-_ 9 15 ]mtw 11 Xncs Sp s h -91- Unkw-_ 9 15 i Øv kmbm w Cu BgvNsØ ]T-\-Øn\p hmbn- pi: tdma 10,11 a\x-]m-t-hmiyw: F m sszhw kzp-\sø X n- -f- pthm F p Rm tnmzn- p- p. Hcp \mfpw C. Rm\pw bn{km-tb-ey-\t m; A{_- lm-ans

More information

f;g,7k ;! / C+!< 8R+^1 ;0$ Z\ \ K S;4 i!;g + 5 ;* \ C! 1+M, /A+1+> 0 /A+>! 8 J 4! 9,7 )F C!.4 ;* )F /0 u+\ 30< #4 8 J C!

f;g,7k ;! / C+!< 8R+^1 ;0$ Z\ \ K S;4 i!;g + 5 ;* \ C! 1+M, /A+1+> 0 /A+>! 8 J 4! 9,7 )F C!.4 ;* )F /0 u+\ 30< #4 8 J C! 393/09/0 393//07 :,F! ::!n> b]( a.q 5 O +D5 S ١ ; ;* :'!3Qi C+0;$ < "P 4 ; M V! M V! ; a 4 / ;0$ f;g,7k ;! / C+!< 8R+^ ;0$ Z\ \ K S;4 "* < 8c0 5 *

More information

Reaching Out. Fs BSp-Ifpw Ah-cpsS Pohn-Xhpw: Nn{X]c-ºc 3. Acrylic on paper 16 x 24 inches

Reaching Out. Fs BSp-Ifpw Ah-cpsS Pohn-Xhpw: Nn{X]c-ºc 3. Acrylic on paper 16 x 24 inches Reaching Out Quarterly issue of Pain and Palliative Care Society, Thrissur VOLUME - 11. ISSUE - 4. DECEMBER 2015. Fs BSp-Ifpw Ah-cpsS Pohn-Xhpw: Nn{X]c-ºc 3 Acrylic on paper 16 x 24 inches skmssk- n-bpss

More information

SPACE TYPES & REQUIREMENTS

SPACE TYPES & REQUIREMENTS SPACE TYPES & REQUIREENTS 2 Fby 2012 Gys Sh Typ: K E H 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Ajy D (Hh Sh) F A Dsps Th fs f phys hs vv sps f h hhy fsy f vs. Phys s hf w fss wss hh vy hy-bs s f hhy fsy hs. Gy sps sh

More information

BNmcy Fw.- B. cmtpjv. {_ -N-cy-kq w 1

BNmcy Fw.- B. cmtpjv. {_ -N-cy-kq w 1 BNmcy Fw.- B. cmtpjv 1 Bbn-c- W- n-\m-fp-isf thz-ßfpw sshzni BN-c-W-ßfpw ]Tn- n BNmcy Fw.-B. cmtpjv Imiy] thz dnk v ^ut -j ÿm]-i-\m-wv. I Æm-S-Ibnse Hmw im n[mw Kpcp-Ipew BZy-ambn Hcp tic-fo-b\v "thzm-nm-cy'

More information

ANSWER KEY. Page 1 Page 2 cake key pie boat glue cat sled pig fox sun dog fish zebra. Page 3. Page 7. Page 6

ANSWER KEY. Page 1 Page 2 cake key pie boat glue cat sled pig fox sun dog fish zebra. Page 3. Page 7. Page 6 P 1 P 2 y sd fx s d fsh z ys P 3 P 4 my, ms, m, m, m, m P 6 d d P 7 m y P 5 m m s P 10 y y y P 8 P 9 s sh, s, ss, sd sds, s, sh sv s s P 11 s P 12,, m, m, m,, dd P 13 m f m P 18 h m s P 22 f fx f fsh fm

More information

Welcome to the Leader of the Faithful

Welcome to the Leader of the Faithful Welcome to the Leader of the Faithful With the poet we sing- O, Spring, visit our land in this Season of Winter with all your flowers of variegated hues and sweet fragance and strew them in the path of

More information

`G 12 */" T A5&2/, ]&>b ; A%/=W, 62 S 35&.1?& S + ( A; 2 ]/0 ; 5 ; L) ( >>S.

`G 12 */ T A5&2/, ]&>b ; A%/=W, 62 S 35&.1?& S + ( A; 2 ]/0 ; 5 ; L) ( >>S. 01(( +,-. ()*) $%&' "#! : : % $& - "#$ :, (!" -&. #0 12 + 34 2567 () *+ '!" #$%& ; 2 "1? + @)&2 A5&2 () 25& 89:2 *2 72, B97I J$K

More information

2 F. Fkv.Fkv. timtfpv, cmpipamcn

2 F. Fkv.Fkv. timtfpv, cmpipamcn 2 F. Fkv.Fkv. timtfpv, cmpipamcn F.Fkv.Fkv. timtfpv, cmpipamcn 5 6 F. Fkv.Fkv. timtfpv, cmpipamcn F.Fkv.Fkv. timtfpv, cmpipamcn 7 8 F. Fkv.Fkv. timtfpv, cmpipamcn F.Fkv.Fkv. timtfpv, cmpipamcn 9 1. Annual

More information

Copyright by E. Harikumar

Copyright by E. Harikumar 1979 Copyright C 2013 by E. Harikumar C Copyright of the sketches, monograms, logo and other materials used in this story to create pages as they appeared in the periodicals, belongs to the respective

More information

Last 4 Digits of USC ID:

Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Chemistry 05 B Practice Exam Dr. Jessica Parr First Letter of last Name PLEASE PRINT YOUR NAME IN BLOCK LETTERS Name: Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Lab TA s Name: Question Points Score Grader 8 2 4 3 9 4 0

More information

ss n-fn-te v FØn-t - Hcm-fmWv Rm : kn.-hn. _me-ir-jvw

ss n-fn-te v FØn-t - Hcm-fmWv Rm : kn.-hn. _me-ir-jvw 20 2017 sabv hmeyw. 22 e w. 10 hne `.4.00 txmakv Ipcp-hn-f, X tim bw: ss n-fn-te v asßn-sb-ønb Bf-, ss_-_nfn-te v FØn-t Hcm-fmWv Xms p {]kn km-ln-xy- Imc kn.-hn. _me-ir-jvw hnfn- -s - -h- At\-Iw, Xnc-s

More information

k_vkn-unbpw Hm sse\pw

k_vkn-unbpw Hm sse\pw 1 k_vkn-unbpw Hm sse\pw {]my-ani hn]wn NqSp-]n-Sn- p p 2 C ybpw kmº-øni hf Zi-I-Ønse XmgvN-bn-tebv v 6 VOL. 8 ISSUE 1 PRICE Rs. 10/- hne- p-dhpw KpW-ta- bpw i n-bm n I kyq-a s^uv 11 2 {]my-ani hn]wn NqSp-]n-Sn-

More information

sk^-\ymhv BapJw I. Imt\m-\nse AXp-ey-ÿm\w II. {KŸ-I ØrXzw

sk^-\ymhv BapJw I. Imt\m-\nse AXp-ey-ÿm\w II. {KŸ-I ØrXzw sk^-\ymhv 1076 1077 sk^-\ymhv BapJw {]hm-n-i- m-cpss clky Acp-f- m-sp-i-sf mw Hcp kw n]vx cq]-øn e`n- - W-sa- m-{k-ln- p Hcp-h sk^-\ym-hns Cu sndp ]pkvxiw hmbn- s am n _qsk (1528) I. Imt\m-\nse AXp-ey-ÿm\w

More information

]pd- msv. BapJw. I. Imt\m\nse AXp-ey-amb ÿm\w. II. {KŸ-I ØrXzw. III. Fgp-Xnb Imew

]pd- msv. BapJw. I. Imt\m\nse AXp-ey-amb ÿm\w. II. {KŸ-I ØrXzw. III. Fgp-Xnb Imew ]pd- msv 82 83 ]pd- msv BapJw sszh-øns c -Wy-{]-hr-Øn-I-fpsS A -h-ømb Hcp BJym-\-ambn sszh-im-kv{xsø ImWp- hsc kw_- n- n-s-tømfw thz-]p-kvx-i-øn ]pd- msp ]pkvxiw Hgn-sI-bp _m n-]p-kvx- I-ß-fpsS hnh-c-w-ßsf

More information

5 apj- p-dn v. Iena: Jp -Bs kwt ]w lzvdøv AlvaZv (A) A\p-kva-cWw, hm Ø-Iƒ.

5 apj- p-dn v. Iena: Jp -Bs kwt ]w lzvdøv AlvaZv (A) A\p-kva-cWw, hm Ø-Iƒ. ]pkvxiw 78 e w 10 HIvtSm-_ 2006 CJmAv 1385 da-zm - - i m 1427 No^v FUn- auehn apl-ωzv Ckvambn FUn- G. Fw. apl-ωzv kenw FUn-t m-dn-b t_m Uv s{]m^. alvaqzv AlvaZv (sn-b am ) si.-hn. Cuk-t mb si. hn. l timb

More information

{KmPp-th-j ]m nbpw t]c vkvtu BtLm-jhpw Pq 23 \v

{KmPp-th-j ]m nbpw t]c vkvtu BtLm-jhpw Pq 23 \v Patron: Arch Bishop Rt. Rev. Dr. Mathew Moolakatt Spiritual Director : Rev. Fr. Abraham Mutholath President: Cyriac Koovakattil Secretary: Simon Abraham Muttathil News Editor : Jaimon Nanthikattu Cu h

More information

sk v tkhygvkv s^mtdm\ N v, Idp-Ip n

sk v tkhygvkv s^mtdm\ N v, Idp-Ip n kvt\l-zqxv _p - n 1 kvt\l-zqxv _p - n 2 HºXphb-kp-Im-cn-bmb tdmk- p- n v Hcp kwi-bw. ""amem-jam-cpss cm n'' F m F mwv? tdmk- p- n-bpss AΩ Ah-fpsS kwibw Zpco-I-cn- p-ibpw IqSp-X-e-dn-bm ]cn. amxm-hn-t\msv

More information

hn. aøm-bn-bpss kphn-tijw

hn. aøm-bn-bpss kphn-tijw hn. aøm-bn-bpss kphn-tijw ALPHA INSTITUTE OF THEOLOGY AND SCIENCE Thalassery, Kerala, India - 670 101 Ph: 0490 2344727, 2343707 Web: www.alphathalassery.org, Email: alphits@gmail.com D S w Title: Published

More information

`b-s -Sp-Ø kpc- n-x-xz-øn-\p am K-a

`b-s -Sp-Ø kpc- n-x-xz-øn-\p am K-a Cw ojv {]Xnhmc]Xn ns ae-bmf ]cn`mj ]pkvxiw 10 e w 39 UNICUIQUE SUUM 24 \hw_ 2017 Malayalam Version of the English Weekly Edition 12 t]pp-iƒ NON PRAEVALEBUNT H -{]Xn: hne 15 cq], hm jni hcn-kwjy: $550 k-a-{k

More information

sluvpv Hmlcn sk]v w-_

sluvpv Hmlcn sk]v w-_ sluvpv Hmlcn sk]v w-_ 2013 1 2 sluvpv Hmlcn sk]v w-_ 2013 Editorial September 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 6 Price: Rs. 25 Company Management Managing Director Alex K Babu Chief Executive Officer N. Bhuvanendran

More information

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns! (3 points each)

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns! (3 points each) Chemistry 1304.001 Name (please print) Exam 4 (100 points) April 12, 2017 On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this exam. Signed Date Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in

More information

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns!

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns! Chemistry 1304.001 Name (please print) Exam 5 (100 points) April 18, 2018 On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this exam. Signed Date Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in

More information

P\-s -cp- -w. C y kz-]v\sø XInSw adn- ptam? tem-iv-]m - k-an-xn-b-pw- im n-`q-j -am-cpw- ti-c-fo-b - Ip-d-bp-tºmƒ- Pq - H- n-\m-bn- Im-Øn-cn- mw-

P\-s -cp- -w. C y kz-]v\sø XInSw adn- ptam? tem-iv-]m - k-an-xn-b-pw- im n-`q-j -am-cpw- ti-c-fo-b - Ip-d-bp-tºmƒ- Pq - H- n-\m-bn- Im-Øn-cn- mw- 1 P\-s -cp- -w tem-iv-]m - k-an-xn-b-pw- im n-`q-j -am-cpw- 2 ti-c-fo-b - Ip-d-bp-tºmƒ- 6 C y kz-]v\sø XInSw adn- ptam? PRICE Rs. 10/- VOL. 5 ISSUE 5 Pq - H- n-\m-bn- Im-Øn-cn- mw- 11 2 temiv]m kanxnbpw

More information

]cn-ÿn-xn-hn- m-\o-b-]-c-amb hnzym-`ym-khpw Bflo-b-Xbpw

]cn-ÿn-xn-hn- m-\o-b-]-c-amb hnzym-`ym-khpw Bflo-b-Xbpw ]cn-ÿn-xn-hn- m-\o-b-]-c-amb hnzym-`ym-khpw Bflo-b-Xbpw 211 B{I-a-W-߃s -Xnsc AXns\ kwc- n- m\pw bym am\p-jn-i -h-f bv v cq]w-sim-sp- p Imcy-Øn-\-\p-kr-X-ambn hni-kn- n- m\pw Ign-bp ÿe-am-wv. ac-w-kw-kvimcw

More information

Atoms and the Periodic Table

Atoms and the Periodic Table Atoms and the Periodic Table Parts of the Atom Proton Found in the nucleus Number of protons defines the element Charge +1, mass 1 Parts of the Atom Neutron Found in the nucleus Stabilizes the nucleus

More information

30 Zn(s) 45 Rh. Pd(s) Ag(s) Cd(s) In(s) Sn(s) white. 77 Ir. Pt(s) Au. Hg(l) Tl. 109 Mt. 111 Uuu. 112 Uub. 110 Uun. 65 Tb. 62 Sm. 64 Gd. 63 Eu.

30 Zn(s) 45 Rh. Pd(s) Ag(s) Cd(s) In(s) Sn(s) white. 77 Ir. Pt(s) Au. Hg(l) Tl. 109 Mt. 111 Uuu. 112 Uub. 110 Uun. 65 Tb. 62 Sm. 64 Gd. 63 Eu. Enthalpy changes: experimentally it is much easier to measure heat flow at const pressure - this is enthalpy q p = )H : also nearly all chemical reactions are done at constant pressure. Enthalpy (heat)

More information

Kh Æ-dpsS DØ-chv {]Im-cw. Un.-k-c-kzXn AΩ, AUo-j-W sk{i- -dn,

Kh Æ-dpsS DØ-chv {]Im-cw. Un.-k-c-kzXn AΩ, AUo-j-W sk{i- -dn, ticf k m kw{klw s]mxphn-zym-`ym-kw- -l-b sk- - dn hnzym-`y-kw Kh sa v/f-bvuuv kvipfp-i-fnse A ym-]i c m-i Ør-k-an-XnbpsS (Parent Teachers Association -PTA) {]h Ø-\-Øn-\p am \n t±-i-߃ AwKo-I-cn v DØ-chv

More information

\yq\-]- -h-imiw ]n m- m-hÿ ]cn-l-cn- p-hm-\ ax-]-cn-h Ø-\-am-tcm-]n v ]mã-sd-bpw hnizm-kn-i-sfbpw AdÃv snbvxp Nmt m si.

\yq\-]- -h-imiw ]n m- m-hÿ ]cn-l-cn- p-hm-\ ax-]-cn-h Ø-\-am-tcm-]n v ]mã-sd-bpw hnizm-kn-i-sfbpw AdÃv snbvxp Nmt m si. ka-im-eni ]{XnI 1 ka-im-eni ]{XnI MEMBER NEWS PAPERS ASSOCIATION OF INDIA www.marupacha.com hmeyw 15 e w : 08 e-mail: maruppacha@yahoo.com hne 4.00 ]p\-cp- m\ \mfn-\mbv... ain-l-bpss {]Xy- X ImØp-In-S-

More information

_neo-th-gvkv ss nƒ Ia dn

_neo-th-gvkv ss nƒ Ia dn hneyw aivsumwmƒuns _neo-th-gvkv ss nƒ Ia dn (]g-b-\n-ba ae-bmf hnh Ø\w) FUn- (-a-e-bm-f hnh Ø\w) t mw txmakv Im\U FUn- (Cw- ojv) B v ^ ÃmUv ]md-bn ]_vfn-t -j kv I n-t»cn Malayalam William MacDonald s BELIEVER

More information

The Periodic Table of Elements

The Periodic Table of Elements The Periodic Table of Elements 8 Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09)

More information

Remote Sensing Applications for the Historic Environment

Remote Sensing Applications for the Historic Environment m S App H Em L H Em m S 4 C B P m k m m. B m S App H Em L H Em m S 4 m C A Im H Em. B m m H Lp U S D m S C U P m k B m S App H Em L H Em m S 4 m A m A W k? A pp :. Tpp. Px. mk.. S S mk.. Cp S mk B m m

More information

TESA IP40 protection against dust (TLC) Connector for a forward thinking approach to your overall quality control system

TESA IP40 protection against dust (TLC) Connector for a forward thinking approach to your overall quality control system V : 30.0.20 P x VA www.p. V 22 - EN N P p k, Cp y w A V IP0: A IP0, E b p y, y 7, E! P I v p b A E k w p b f 3 p, w IP7, w-c p. A b PC k w EA IP7 B IP7 p q - I EA Lk C (LC) f fw k pp y v qy y A w y w p

More information

What areas are affected? Bucklands. Beach. Eastern. Beach. Half Moon Bay. Mellons. Bay. Howick. Highland. Cockle Bay. Park. Shelly. Botany Downs.

What areas are affected? Bucklands. Beach. Eastern. Beach. Half Moon Bay. Mellons. Bay. Howick. Highland. Cockle Bay. Park. Shelly. Botany Downs. ? F S cb c w v w b w. c b vc w b c. ffc? w f c b w? Y b vc c I c b w c vc f vw vw w fqc, w 1. v w 2, wc fw b fqc b cc j c. Y Nw b Nw b Nw b c P w S c P c w P S P b O O 2: w P 3: f b f c, cc wb f f w v

More information

N w t`z-kxn ) N w 4 (F)(]pXn-bXv)

N w t`z-kxn ) N w 4 (F)(]pXn-bXv) N w t`z-kxn 2014 ticf kl-i-cw kwlw (2- mw t`z-k-xn)n -߃ 2014 F v Adn-s Spw 1) N w 2(-F-F) (]pxn-bxvv) tim -Hm- -td- ohv saº dneo^v ^ v F m 56(1) hip v {]Imcw cq]o-i-cn- n- p- -XmWv 2) N w 3: (t`z-kxn)

More information

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION FOR MALAYALEES IN U.K.

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION FOR MALAYALEES IN U.K. 1 A MONTHLY PUBLICATION FOR MALAYALEES IN U.K. Iv\m\mb {]hm-knbpss X\na Free. For Private Circulation Only SNEHA SANDESHAM VOL : 1 2008 NOVEMBER ISSUE - 1 Hcp {]`mx khmcn s{]m^. Fw. sp. txmakv (Xºn km

More information

NAME: SECOND EXAMINATION

NAME: SECOND EXAMINATION 1 Chemistry 64 Winter 1994 NAME: SECOND EXAMINATION THIS EXAMINATION IS WORTH 100 POINTS AND CONTAINS 4 (FOUR) QUESTIONS THEY ARE NOT EQUALLY WEIGHTED! YOU SHOULD ATTEMPT ALL QUESTIONS AND ALLOCATE YOUR

More information

{io]xn C Ãn- yq v Hm^v amt\-pvsa v & ssivt\m-f-pn hmh- q, ] m-ºn, ]me- msv

{io]xn C Ãn- yq v Hm^v amt\-pvsa v & ssivt\m-f-pn hmh- q, ] m-ºn, ]me- msv A ym-]-\hpw A y-b-\hpw -- hnzym n-i-fp-ssbpw c n-xm- -fp-ssbpw, A ym-]-i-cp-ssbpw ] v tum.-fw.-]n.-n-{µ-ti-j-c (ap Ub-d-IvS, F.-sF.-Sn.-tIm-gn-t m-sv, ap Uo AarX hniz-hn-zym-]otw, timb-º-øq ) C v tic-f-ønse

More information

Element Cube Project (x2)

Element Cube Project (x2) Element Cube Project (x2) Background: As a class, we will construct a three dimensional periodic table by each student selecting two elements in which you will need to create an element cube. Helpful Links

More information

Fw. F³. Imc-tÈcn. website:

Fw. F³. Imc-tÈcn.   website: Fw. F³. Imc-tÈcn apgp-h³ t]cv: aplvbp±o³ \Sp nbnâ. 1951 þâ timgnt msv PnÃ-bnse Imc-tÈ-cn-bn P\n- p. _m F³.-kn. apl-½zv lmpn. D½: si.-kn. Bbn-i- p-«n. ae-bm-f- nâ Fw.-F., Fw.-^nÂ., ]nf v.-un. _ncp-z- Ä.

More information

Iv\m\mb ss\ v \hw-_ 10 \v

Iv\m\mb ss\ v \hw-_ 10 \v Patron: Arch Bishop Rt. Rev. Dr. Mathew Moolakatt Spiritual Director : Rev. Fr. Abraham Mutholath President: Cyriac Koovakattil Secretary: Simon Abraham Muttathil News Editor : Jaimon Nanthikattu Iv\m\mb

More information

hmeyw 15 e w : HtŒm-_ 05 hne 4.00 ae-_m-dn \n pw XpS w

hmeyw 15 e w : HtŒm-_ 05 hne 4.00 ae-_m-dn \n pw XpS w ka-im-eni ]{XnI 1 -sim- p- m- {]apj s]s -t mkvxv k`bv v k`-i-sf- mƒ IqSp-X ip{iq-j-i- m F n-kvtim- k`iƒ v CS-h-I-Iƒ IqSp-Xepw CS-b- m IpdhpamWt m? MEMBER NEWS PAPERS ASSOCIATION OF INDIA e-mail: maruppacha@yahoo.com

More information

Sn. -si. A m-kv Aen. ]n. kptcjv

Sn. -si. A m-kv Aen. ]n. kptcjv Sn. -si. A m-kv Aen ae- pdw Pn -bnse s]cn- m- ncn-bn P\n- p. Imen- v k -I-em-im-e-bn \n v hnzym-`ym-k-ønepw ae-bm-f-ønepw _ncp-zm-\- -c-_n-cp-zw. Imen- v bqwn-th-gvkn- n-bn -\n pw "B[p-\nI ae-bmf t\mh-ep-i-fpss

More information

What is the periodic table?

What is the periodic table? The periodic table of the elements represents one of the greatest discoveries in the history of science that certain elements, the basic chemical substances from which all matter is made, resemble each

More information

I;;"" I _ t. . - I...AJ_ ~I 11 \_-., I. LIfI.l..(!;O '{. ~- --~--- _.L...,.._ J 5" i. I! I \ 1/ \. L, :,_. RAmE ABSTRACT

I;; I _ t. . - I...AJ_ ~I 11 \_-., I. LIfI.l..(!;O '{. ~- --~--- _.L...,.._ J 5 i. I! I \ 1/ \. L, :,_. RAmE ABSTRACT 5 ;; _L_ 7 9 8 A Ll(;O '{ L _ OFFCAL RETURNS GENERAL ELECTON RAmE 98 9 w ;; (k4(ap 'A ' lee S'T'lTE 5'C TU AS c ; _ l6l>'

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chem 6A Michael J. Sailor, UC San Diego 1 Announcements: Thursday (Sep 29) quiz: Bring student ID or we cannot accept your quiz! No notes, no calculators Covers chapters 1 and

More information

UCM DEPARTMENT OF THEATRE & DANCE PRESENTS SEASON

UCM DEPARTMENT OF THEATRE & DANCE PRESENTS SEASON UCM DEPARTMENT OF THEATRE & DANCE PRESENTS BECOME A SEASON SUBSCRIBER! Dh m wh ym : UCM Dm f Th D Uvy f C M PO Bx 800 M 113 Wbg, MO 64093 A Cv Sy M A bb, y y k F bf h bx ff. T v y k f F g wh y k, h f h

More information

single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides MC2

single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides MC2 single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides MC2 Period 1 1 H 18 He 2 Group 1 2 Li Be Group 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C N O F Ne 3 4 Na K Mg Ca Group 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Al Ga

More information

Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cm-hv : B[p-\nI ae-bmf \ms-i-th-zn-bnse thdn Ah-X-c-Ww

Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cm-hv : B[p-\nI ae-bmf \ms-i-th-zn-bnse thdn Ah-X-c-Ww Hcp a[y-th-\ {]W-b-cm-hv : B[p-\nI ae-bmf \ms-i-th-zn-bnse thdn Ah-X-c-Ww Remyamol G Assistant Professor, Pavanatma College, Murickassery remyag18@gmail.com kw{klw B[p-\nI ae-bmf \ms-ikmln-xysø \h]co-

More information

[ ]:543.4(075.8) 35.20: ,..,..,.., : /... ;. 2-. ISBN , - [ ]:543.4(075.8) 35.20:34.

[ ]:543.4(075.8) 35.20: ,..,..,.., : /... ;. 2-. ISBN , - [ ]:543.4(075.8) 35.20:34. .. - 2-2009 [661.87.+661.88]:543.4(075.8) 35.20:34.2373-60..,..,..,..,.. -60 : /... ;. 2-. : -, 2008. 134. ISBN 5-98298-299-7 -., -,,. - «,, -, -», - 550800,, 240600 «-», -. [661.87.+661.88]:543.4(075.8)

More information

sxfna ipnnxz- BtcmKy- {]h Ø\]p-kvXIw

sxfna ipnnxz- BtcmKy- {]h Ø\]p-kvXIw \n -lw ta t\m w {io. si.- i-in-[-c tã v t{]mpivsv Ub-d-IvS (I/C), Fkv.-F-kv.F. ticfw tum. B. AP-b-Ip-am h Ω FIvkn-Iyq- ohv Ub-d-IvS ipnn-xz-an-j, ticfw tum. hnp-b-ip-am s{]m^-.&f v.-h.-un., IΩyq-Wn n saun-kn,

More information

35H MPa Hydraulic Cylinder 3.5 MPa Hydraulic Cylinder 35H-3

35H MPa Hydraulic Cylinder 3.5 MPa Hydraulic Cylinder 35H-3 - - - - ff ff - - - - - - B B BB f f f f f f f 6 96 f f f f f f f 6 f LF LZ f 6 MM f 9 P D RR DD M6 M6 M6 M. M. M. M. M. SL. E 6 6 9 ZB Z EE RC/ RC/ RC/ RC/ RC/ ZM 6 F FP 6 K KK M. M. M. M. M M M M f f

More information

o C *$ go ! b», S AT? g (i * ^ fc fa fa U - S 8 += C fl o.2h 2 fl 'fl O ' 0> fl l-h cvo *, &! 5 a o3 a; O g 02 QJ 01 fls g! r«'-fl O fl s- ccco

o C *$ go ! b», S AT? g (i * ^ fc fa fa U - S 8 += C fl o.2h 2 fl 'fl O ' 0> fl l-h cvo *, &! 5 a o3 a; O g 02 QJ 01 fls g! r«'-fl O fl s- ccco > p >>>> ft^. 2 Tble f Generl rdnes. t^-t - +«0 -P k*ph? -- i t t i S i-h l -H i-h -d. *- e Stf H2 t s - ^ d - 'Ct? "fi p= + V t r & ^ C d Si d n. M. s - W ^ m» H ft ^.2. S'Sll-pl e Cl h /~v S s, -P s'l

More information

H emt m I h j Int m^pw P\p-hcn 29 \v

H emt m I h j Int m^pw P\p-hcn 29 \v Patron: Arch Bishop Rt. Rev. Dr. Mathew Moolakatt President: Cyriac Koovakattil Secretary: Simon Abraham Muttathil Spiritual Director : Rev. Fr. Abraham Mutholath News Editor : Jaimon Nanthikattu ]nxm-

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Useful Constants and equations: K = o C + 273 Avogadro's number = 6.022 x 10 23 d = density = mass/volume R H = 2.178 x 10-18 J c = E = h = hc/ h = 6.626 x 10-34 J s c = 2.998 x 10 8 m/s E n = -R H Z 2

More information

tum. hn.-]n. KwKm-[-c

tum. hn.-]n. KwKm-[-c tum. hn.-]n. KwKm-[-c A m-cmjv{s {]i-kvx-\mb Im k NnIn- -I. Ccn-ßm-e- ps \mj-w sslkviqƒ, ss{iãv timf-pv, Fd-Wm-Ipfw alm-cm-pmkv timf-pv, tim bw saun- timf-pv, Hmƒ C ym C Ãn- yq v H^v saun- kb k-kv, AU-bm

More information

2014 CANADIAN SURF LIFESAVING CHAMPIONSHIPS PROGRAM

2014 CANADIAN SURF LIFESAVING CHAMPIONSHIPS PROGRAM 2014 CANAIAN URF LIFEAVING CHAMPIONHIP PROGRAM Lv Lv vy b v, w,, w Lv y w k Lv z by I Oy C (IOC) Cw G F T IOC z I L v F (IL) w v v IL N Mb Oz v b v T Lv y v by v C I Lv W C z I L v F Cw Lv C z Ry L v y

More information

INSTRUCTIONS: Exam III. November 10, 1999 Lab Section

INSTRUCTIONS: Exam III. November 10, 1999 Lab Section CHEM 1215 Exam III John III. Gelder November 10, 1999 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 7 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and

More information

Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating

Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Patterns What Patterns have you observed in your life? Where to Get Help If you don t understand concepts in chapter

More information

BIG TEX GRADE 5 SOCIAL STUDIES CELEBRATING SYMBOLS: BIG TEX & LADY LIBERTY UNITE

BIG TEX GRADE 5 SOCIAL STUDIES CELEBRATING SYMBOLS: BIG TEX & LADY LIBERTY UNITE GRA 5 SOCIA STUIS CBRATIG SYMBOS: & AY IBRTY UIT TACHR Cb Syb B Tx & y by U Fv G SOCIAIS STU I h w: x h fcc f yb k h Ac Tx bf c. c c h! A w Wh h c, y, Tx b c y w A h, x w y c f h, y cz. C c yb k h cb y.

More information

AwK-߃ am n Xs AwKXzw ]pxp- Ww

AwK-߃ am n Xs AwKXzw ]pxp- Ww AwK-߃ am n Xs AwKXzw ]pxp- Ww 2014-2015 h jw Ce- h jw Bb-Xn-\m AwK-߃ Ign-hXpw am v 30\v apºmbn AwKXzw ]pxp- p- -Xn\v ]c-am-h[n {ian- -Ww. ]pxn-b-xmbn AwKXzw Cu amkw 31\v hsc tn m-hp- -Xm-Wv. \ne-hn-ep

More information

Made the FIRST periodic table

Made the FIRST periodic table Made the FIRST periodic table 1869 Mendeleev organized the periodic table based on the similar properties and relativities of certain elements Later, Henri Moseley organized the elements by increasing

More information

Assignment. Name. Factor each completely. 1) a w a yk a k a yw 2) m z mnc m c mnz. 3) uv p u pv 4) w a w x k w a k w x

Assignment. Name. Factor each completely. 1) a w a yk a k a yw 2) m z mnc m c mnz. 3) uv p u pv 4) w a w x k w a k w x Assignment ID: 1 Name Date Period Factor each completely. 1) a w a yk a k a yw 2) m z mnc m c mnz 3) uv p u pv 4) w a w x k w a k w x 5) au xv av xu 6) xbz x c xbc x z 7) a w axk a k axw 8) mn xm m xn

More information

Chemistry 112 Name Exam I Form A Section January 29,

Chemistry 112 Name Exam I Form A Section January 29, Chemistry 112 Name Exam I Form A Section January 29, 2013 email IMPORTANT: On the scantron (answer sheet), you MUST clearly fill your name, your student number, section number, and test form (white cover

More information

sluvpv Hmlcn s^{_p-hcn

sluvpv Hmlcn s^{_p-hcn sluvpv Hmlcn s^{_p-hcn 2013 1 2 sluvpv Hmlcn s^{_p-hcn 2013 Editorial February 2013 Volume: 2 Issue: 11 Price: Rs. 25 Company Management Managing Director Alex K Babu Chief Executive Officer N. Bhuvanendran

More information

hnpbt`cn ae pdw Pn m ] mbøv hnzym`ymk] Xn A[ym]I p ssi pkvxiw aebmfw mkv - 4 Xømdm nbxv: Ub v ae pdw

hnpbt`cn ae pdw Pn m ] mbøv hnzym`ymk] Xn A[ym]I p ssi pkvxiw aebmfw mkv - 4 Xømdm nbxv: Ub v ae pdw hnpbt`cn ae pdw Pn m ] mbøv hnzym`ymk] Xn A[ym]I p ssi pkvxiw aebmfw mkv - 4 Xømdm nbxv: Ub v ae pdw 1 4 mw mknse Ip nifpss `mjm]camb ]n m mhÿ ]cnlcn p Xn\p Nne {]h Ø\ßfmWnXv. samøw {]h Ø\ßsf \mev L ßfmbn

More information

THALASSERY ARCHDIOCESAN BuLLETIN

THALASSERY ARCHDIOCESAN BuLLETIN `qanbpss AXn ØnIƒ hsc c FØn psimsp m P\XIƒ p Zo]ambn \ns ÿm]n ncn p p (Giø 49,6). hmeyw 07 Unkw-_ 2015 e w 12 Xe-t»cn AXn-cq-]Xm _p n THALASSERY ARCHDIOCESAN BuLLETIN H -{]Xn 10 cq] hm jni hcn-kwjy 120

More information

Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics.

Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Review: Comparison of ionic and molecular compounds Molecular compounds Ionic

More information

ae- ck`m-]-{xni ßsf IqSp-X {i n- m-\pw, t{]m m-ln- n- m\pw CXneqsS

ae- ck`m-]-{xni ßsf IqSp-X {i n- m-\pw, t{]m m-ln- n- m\pw CXneqsS ae- c k`-bpss apj-]{xw ÿm]nxw 2004 hm jni hcn-kwjy 100 cq] Vol. 6 No. 4 Reg. No. KERMAL 1248/11/1/2005-TC No. M2/42356/05 A Publication of the Public Relations Department, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church

More information

a\:km n-tbmsp hnizkvxx ]pe ØpI tbip-{in-kvxp-hns c m-i-c-amb ]oum-\p-

a\:km n-tbmsp hnizkvxx ]pe ØpI tbip-{in-kvxp-hns c m-i-c-amb ]oum-\p- Vol. 22 No. 5, 2011 May 15 a\:km n-tbmsp hnizkvxx ]pe ØpI tbip-{in-kvxp-hns c m-i-c-amb ]oum-\p- `-h-ß sf kva-cn- p hnip- -hmcw IS- p-t]m-bn v A[nI Znh-k-ß ƒ Bbn n -t m. B \mfp-i-fn Bcm-[-\bv pw [ym\øn\pw

More information

G. Pn. G hpw hf -bp k`m-hn-`m-k-ß-fn H v, k s

G. Pn. G hpw hf -bp k`m-hn-`m-k-ß-fn H v, k s sse^v th dntk pw Hu v dn v amk-kn\pw \S-Ønb ]T-\-{]-Imcw Ata-cn- -bnse G hpw hexpw hf -bp- - Xp-amb 100 k`m-hn-`m-kßfn G. Pn. k`-ifpw ÿm\w t\- Sn. H ]Xv G. Pn. k`-i-fmwv G hpw hf -bp k`m hn- `m-k-øn h

More information

AM PUBLISHED BY GOSPEL VOICE PUBLISHERS SUVISESHANADAM. D -S w. hcn-kw-jym- \n-c v. 3 tã v Hmh kn-bdpss IØv... ]mã Fw. Ip n

AM PUBLISHED BY GOSPEL VOICE PUBLISHERS SUVISESHANADAM. D -S w. hcn-kw-jym- \n-c v. 3 tã v Hmh kn-bdpss IØv... ]mã Fw. Ip n FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES USA N.Y. Abraham P. Abraham Ph: 718-343-7462 N.Y. Koshy M. Varghese Ph: 845-2678-373 N.Y. Prasad Mathew Ph: 585-467-4190 T.N. A.V. Daniel Ph: 423-899-3995 N.J. P. V. Mathew. Ph:

More information

ImtXm-en-t - ns Imh `-S

ImtXm-en-t - ns Imh `-S am HutK _mh ImtXm-en-t - ns Imh `-S (Po-h-N-cn-{Xw) si. hn. amω {]km-[-i tim -bv ]ªo-tjgvkv amßm-\w, tim -bw - 18 hne: 50 cq] MAR AUGEN BAVA The Guard of Catholicate (Biography) By K. V. Mammen, Kottackal,

More information

Study on Structure Property of Cantilever Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

Study on Structure Property of Cantilever Piezoelectric Vibration Generator Sss & Tsds,. 177, Iss 8, As 14,. 46-5 Sss & Tsds 14 by IFSA Pbsh, S. L. h://www.sss.m Sdy S Py f C Pz b G 1,* Y Zh, Q, 1 L Jf 1 Mh & E C, A Usy f b, b Bd 711, Ch Sh f Ey Pw d Mh E, Nh Ch E Pw Usy, Bj 16,

More information

km -z-\{]-imiw "km z-\-{]-im-i-ta, \bn- mepw' ]mem cq]xm _p - n Vol. LX No.10 OCTOBER 2010

km -z-\{]-imiw km z-\-{]-im-i-ta, \bn- mepw' ]mem cq]xm _p - n Vol. LX No.10 OCTOBER 2010 ""\n߃ temi-øns {]Im-i-am-Ip- p... a\p-jy \nß-fpss k {]-hr-øn-iƒ I v, kz -ÿ-\mb \nß-fpss ]nxm-hns\ al-xz-s -Sp-tØ- -Xn\v \nß-fpss shfn w Ah-cpsS apºn {]Im-in- -s.'' (aømb n 5: 14-16) "km z-\-{]-im-i-ta,

More information