Executive Summary of Climate Change MALAYALAM. Reconsidered

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1 Executive Summary of Climate Change MALAYALAM Reconsidered

2 Climate Change Reconsidered Lead Authors Craig Idso (USA), S. Fred Singer (USA) Contributors and Reviewers Warren Anderson (USA), J. Scott Armstrong (USA), Dennis Avery (USA), Franco Battaglia (Italy), Robert Carter (Australia), Piers Corbyn (UK), Richard Courtney (UK), Joseph d'aleo (USA), Don Easterbrook (USA), Fred Goldberg (Sweden), Vincent Gray (New Zealand), William Gray (USA), Kesten Green (Australia), Kenneth Haapala (USA), David Hagen (USA), Klaus Heiss (Austria), Zbigniew Jaworowski (Poland), Olavi Karner (Estonia), Richard Alan Keen (USA), Madhav Khandekar (Canada), William Kininmonth (Australia), Hans Labohm (Netherlands), Anthony Lupo (USA), Howard Maccabee (USA), H. Michael Mogil (USA), Christopher Monckton (UK), Lubos Motl (Czech Republic), Stephen Murgatroyd (Canada), Nicola Scafetta (USA), Harrison Schmitt (USA), Tom Segalstad (Norway), George Taylor (USA), Dick Thoenes (Netherlands), Anton Uriarte (Spain), Gerd Weber (Germany) Editors Joseph L. Bast (USA), Diane Carol Bast (USA) 2009 Report of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) Published for the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) 2010, Science and Environmental Policy Project and Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change Full Copy of the report can be downloaded from Published by THE HEARTLAND INSTITUTE 19 South LaSalle Street #903 Chicago, Illinois U.S.A. phone +1 (312) fax +1 (312) With permission, reprinted in India by LIBERTY INSTITUTE C-4/8 Sahyadri, Plot 5, Sector 12, Dwarka New Delhi India phone

3 BapJw Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w BapJw H-cp {]-[m-\ i-kv-{x-{inb- v hn-t[-b-\mipw ap-ºv c- ma-sxm-cp A`n-{]m-bw tx-sp -Xv \ X-t? H-cp cmpyw A-Xn-s km-ºøn-i `m-hntbbpw ]- cn-ÿn-xn-tbbpw Ip-dn- v Xo-cp-am-\n- p-tºmƒ Xo - bmbpw c- m-a-sxm-cp A-`n-{]m-bw tx-s-ww. im-kv- {XØn C-Xv Xn-I pw km-[m-c-w-amwv. C-Xn-\mbn cq- ]o-i-cn- p- c m-asø Sow H-tc sx-fn-hpi-fp-ss A-Snÿm-\-Øn hy-xykvx \n-k-a-\-ß-fn F-Øp- Xpw ]p-xp-a-b. The Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (F.sF.]n.kn.kn) sf-iy-cm-{ kw-l-s-\-bp-ss ]n -_-e-tøm-ss {]-h -Øn- p- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (sf.]n.kn.kn)s ssi-h-i-ap- A-tX hn-h-c-߃ ]- cn-tim-[n- m H-cp kw-hn-[m-\w H-cp- n-bxv Cu km-l- N-cy-Øn-emWv sf.]n.kn.kn Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\w Climate Change 2007 (IPCC-AR4, 2007) F- aq p hmey-ap \mem-asø dn-t m - v {]-kn- o-i-cn p. A- m-u-an-iv, k - m, hy-hkm-b X-e-ß-fn e`yam-b G- hpw hn-iz-k-\o-b-am-b K-th-j-W-ß-fp-sSbpw sx-fnhp-i-fp-ssbpw A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv Cu dn-t m - v X-ømdm- n-bn-cn- p- -sx- mwv sf.]n.kn.kn A-h-Im-i-s - Xv. ]-s Cu I-s -Ø-epIƒ F-{X-am{Xw i-cn-bmwv? G- hpw {][m-\ {]-iv-\w ]cn-tim-[n- mw. sf.]n.kn.kn dn-t m - vvv A-\p-k-cn- vvv C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-s a[yw ap-x B-cw`n- Xm-]\ne h - -\-hn-s {][m-\ Imc-Ww am-\pjn-i C-S-s]-S-emWv. F- m F.sF.]n.kn.kn-bp-sS I-s -Ø A-\p-k-cn- vvv {]- IrXn- {]-Xn-`m-k-ß-fm-Wv Xm-]-\n-e-bn-ep- m-bn-s m- ncn- p- h - -\-hn-\v Im-cWw. a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-S Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-\v Im-c-W-am-Ip- n-s - C-Xn-eq-sS A - -am- p- -Xv. ]-s A-h-bp-sS kzm-[o- \w Xp-temw Xp- -amwv. B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn-s tzm-jß-sf Ip-dn v sf.]n.kn.kn hn-e-bn-cp-ø C-{]-Im-c-amWv: Nq-Sp-Im- v, sh- -s m w, sim-sp- m v, Im- pxo, h-cƒ- Xp-S-ßnb-h-bn-eq-sS-bp- A-]-I-S-ßfpw a-c-w-ßfpw h - n- pw. F- m R-ß-fp-sS \n-ka-\w Xn-I pw hy-xy-kv-x-amwv. Nq-Sp tem-i-am-wv a-\p-jy-cp-ssbpw ar-k-ß-fp-ssbpw B- tcm-ky-øn\pw Po-h\pw D-Øaw. B-tKm-f Xm-]-\-Øn-\v a-\p-jy-cn-tem a- v Po-h-Pm-e-ß-fn-tem H-cp kzm-[o-\hpw C-s. Kp-WI-ctam tzm-ji-ctam B-b {]-`m-hw D- m-imw. F- m Xm-]\n-e h- - -\-hn-s bpw CwKmemæ hmx-i-øns Db -bp-tsbpw ^-ew sam-ø-øn ]cn-tim-[n- m A-Xv a-\p-jy pw a- v Po-hPme߃ pw Kp-W-I-c-am-sW- v sx-fn-hp-iƒ kq-nn- n- p p. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss \memw dn-t m - n-s H pw c pw hm y-߃- vvv B-[m-cam-b F m sx-fn-hp-i-fpw R-߃ ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am n. sf.]n.kn.kn X-ß-fp-sS \n- K-a-\-Øn F-Øm D-]-tbm-Kn- ]-e sx-fn-hp-ifpw hnhm-z-]-chpw Ah-cpsS hmzsø km[q-i-cn- m am{xw Xn-c-s -Sp- -s - -h-bp-am-sw- vvv I-s -Øm-\m-bn. H-cp ]- -]m-x-hp-an m-sx e-`yam-b G- hpw an-i- im-kv-{xob ]T-\-ß-fp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-em-Wv dn-t m - vvv X-ømdm- n-bn-cn- p- -sx- mwv sf.]n.kn.kn A-h-Im-i-s - Sp- -Xv. F- m ]-e Im-cy-ß-fpw Du-Xn-s -cp- n- pw h- kvv-xp-xi-sf h-f-s m-sn pw {][m-\ im-kvvvv-{x ]T-\ß-sf A-h-K-Wn- p-am-wv Cu \n-k-a-\-ß-fn F-Øn-bn-cn- p- sx v \n- wi-bw a-\- n-em- mw. R-ß-fp-sS I-s -Ø-ep-Iƒ- v B-[m-cam-b B-bnc- -W- n-\v im-kv-{x te-j-\ß-sf Ip-dn- v hn-h-cn- p- Ibpw Ah-sb ]-cn-n-b-s -Sp-Øp-I-bp-am-Wv C-hnsS. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss {][m-\ I-s -Ø-ep-I-sf-sb mw X- In-Sw a-dn- p- -h-bmw-h. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn- \v Imc-Ww a-\p-jy-cm-sw pw A-Xn-s ^-ew `o-i-cam-bn-cn- p-sa- p- \n-k-a-\-ß-sf mw No p-sim- m-cw t]mse X-I - p-ho-gp-i-bmwv. BZyw sf.]n.kn.kn-sbbpw F.sF.]n.kn.knsbbpw ]-cn-n-b-s -Smw. H-tc sx-fn-hp-i-fp-ss A-Sn-ÿm- \-Øn Xn-I pw hy-xy-kv-xam-b \n-k-a-\-ß-fn C-h Fß-s\ F-Øn-sb- v a-\- n-em- m C-h-bp-sS N-cn{Xw k-lm-b-am-ipw. A-Xn-\v ti-jw \memw A-\p-t -Z-Øn Dƒ-s 31,478 A-ta-cn- im-kv-{x- -am-sc ]-cn-nb-s -Smw. Cu dn-t m - n-eq-ss R-߃ F- m-wv e- yan-sp- -sx- v hy- -am- p-i-bm-wv ]n sø L w. 3

4 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss e-lp N-cn{Xw 1970 ap-x B-cw`n- ]-cn-ÿn-xn kwc- W t_m- [-Øn-\v ]n- n \n-ch-[n Zp-c- -߃ k-ωm-\n- th-z-\- I-fp v. cm-k-h-kv-xp- -fn \n- p m-b Iym -k _m- [Iƒ, Io-S-\m-in-\n-Iƒ A-{]-Xy- -cm n-b ]- n-ifpw {]m-wn-i-fpw, Hm-tkm ]m-fn-bn-se hn, B-kn-Uv a-g-bn \-in- Im-Sp-Iƒ, G- hpw H-Sp-hn-em-bn Im-emhÿm hy-xn-bm-\-hpw. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø ]-cnÿn-xn apdn-hpifp-ss am-xm-hv F- m-wv B-tcm hn - Um-hv-kv-In hn-ti-jn- n- Xv se tem-i- `u-a-zn-\w, se kv-t m v-tlmw k-tω-f-\w, 1980se-bpw 85sebpw hn m v (Villach) k- tωf-\w F- n-h-bmwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss ÿm-]-\-øn- \v h-gn-a-cp- n- -Xv Pq-em-bn United Nations Environment Program (bp.f.c.]n), World Meteorological Organization (U-_v-fyp.Fw.H) F o kwl-s-\-iƒ tn v sf-iy-cm-{ -k-`-bp-ss `m-k-sa- \n-e-bn sf.]n.kn.kn ÿm-]n p. sf.]n.kn.kn-bn-se {]-[m-\n-i-sf-bpw im-kv-{x-imc -am-scbpw \n-b-an- p -Xv k - m-cp-i-fmwv. C-Xv `-c- W-I -Øm- ƒ- v \ -Ip- c-xv-\- p-cp w (summaries for policymakers-spm) sf-iy-cm-{ k- -bn-se Aw-Kcm-Py-ß-fp-sS A-\p-a-Xn- v hn-t[-b-am- Ww. sf.]n kn.kn-bp-am-bn _- -s - v {]-h -Øn- p- im-kv-{x- - v K-th-j-W-Øn-\v ]pd-sa A-h-cp-sS bm-{x pw BUw- _cpohn-x-øn\pw D- sn-e-hp-ifpw h-ln- p -Xv k - m-cp-i-fmwv. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss N-cn-{X-sØ- p-dn- v \n-ch-[n te- J-\-߃ {]-kn- o-i-cn- -s - n- p v. F- m XpS- w ap-x cm-{ o-b Xm-Xv-]-cy-߃ D- m-bn-cp- H-cp kw- L-S-\-bm-Wn-sX- Imcyw ]-ecpw Nq- n- m- n-bn- n. l- cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss ]p-dw-x- \n-b-{ n- p- -Xns\ \ym-bo-i-cn- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p C-Xn-s {][m-\ AP-. {]-txy-in- v Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s \n-b- { Ww. Im-e-{Ita-W A-h-cp-sS taj-e a-\p-jy C-S-s]- S-en-eq-sS-bp- Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\sø km-[q-i-cn- p- -Xn-te- v am-dn. tem-i-øv e-`yam-b h-kv-xp-\n- hpw kz-x-{ -hpam-b im-kv-{xo-b, km-t -Xn-I, km-aq-ln-i km- º-Øn-I- ta-j-e-i-fnse ]T-\-ß-fp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn a-\p-jy C-S-s]-S-en-eq-sS-bp- Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\- sø Ip-dn- v a-\- n-em- p-ibpw A-Xn-s\ Fß-s\ t\- cn-sm-sa- -Xn-s\ Ip-dn- v tem-i-øn F m-bn-søpw {]-tbm-p-\-s -Sp-Øm-hp- am - -߃ hn-i-kn- n- p-i-bpamwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss Np-a-Xe. (sf.]n.kn.kn 2008) sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss X-e- -Øp- m-bn-cp- aq- v {]- ap-j-cm-bn-cp- p s{]m-^. s_ - v t_m-fn, tum. tdm-_ - v hm- vk, tum. tpm tlm F- nh. kv-t m vtlmw k -Δ-I-em-im-e-bn-se an- ocn-tbm-f-pn-kv- m-bn-cp- t_mfn C-t mƒ Po-hn- n-cn- n. \m-k-bn A v-tamkv-^n-dn-iv si-an-ãv B-bn-cp- tdm-_ - v hm- v-k ]n- o-sv tem-i -_m- n tn p. C-t mƒ A-t±-lw {_n- - Wn-se F -h-tbm -sa, ^p-uv B Uv dq-d A-^-tb-gv-kv Un- m - v-sa n-se No-^v k-b n-ãmwv. Hm-Ivkv-t^m-Uv k -Δ-I-em-im-e-bn A v-tam-kv-^n-dn-iv td-un-tb-j ^n-knkn-ãv B-bn-cp tpm tlm C-t mƒ bp.si sa v Hm-^o-kn-s X-e-h-\mWv. kv-{sm-t m-kv-^n-b-dnse Hm-tkm-Wn-s\ a-\p-jy-s C- S-s]-S Fß-s\ _m-[n- p- p F- v I-s -Øm kzbw \n-b-an- hn`m-k-øn-s X-e-h-\m-bn-cp- p hm- vk. C-h-cp-sS I-s -Ø-ep-I-fp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv 1987 se tam -{So t{]m-t m-t m-fn IqSn t mtdm ^v-fqtdm Im -_-Wp-I-fp-sS (kn.-f-^v.-kn) ]p-d- - \n-b-{ n- -m Xo-cp-am-\n- Xv. C-Xn-s A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn \m- zd dn-tkm-gvk-kv Un-^ -kv Iu -kn-en-se A-`n`m-j- I\m-b tu-hn-uv tum-wn-k l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-߃ \n-b-{ n- m-\pw H-cp cq-]tc-j X-øm-dm- n. A-[n-Iw ssh- Im-sX C-Xv tiymt m t{]m-t m-t mƒ Bbn kzo-i-cn- s p. B-cw-`-Im-ew apx sf.]n.kn.kn-bn-se im-kv-{x- A-h-cp-sS cm-py-ß-fn-se k - m-cp-i-fp-ss Xm-Xv- ]-cy-߃ kw-c- n- m-\m-wv {i-an- n- p- Xv. A-s - n A-h-cp-sS I-s -Ø-ep-Iƒ Aw-Ko-I-cn- m AX-Xv k - m-cp-i-sf- t{]-cn- n- pw. `c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- p- AXn- {]-[m\ dn-t m - p-iƒ (Fkv.]n.Fw) X-øm-dm- p- -Xv cm- { o-be- y-ß-fp H-cp sndn-b kw-l-am-bn-cp p. B-bn-c- -W- n-\v im-kv-{x- -cp-ss K-th-j-W-ßfp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv Cu dn-t m - p-iƒ X-øm-dm- p- -sx- m-wv ]-d-b-s -Sp- Xv. F- m C-h-cn _- lp-`q-cn-]- -Øn\pw A-hkm-\ \n-k-a-\-ß-fn F-Øp- -Xn H-cp ]- p-an-s - -Xm-Wv k-xyw. `-c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- p- dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- p -Xv {]-[m-\-ambpw sf.]n.kn.kn-bn-se H-cp ti-{μ-hn-`m-k-amwv. Cu dn-t m - nse Hmtcm hm pw h-cnbpw AX-Xv k - m-cp-iƒ Aw- Ko-I-cn- - ti-j-am-wv {]-kn- o-i-cn- p- Xv. H-cp im-kv- {X {]_- w hn-e-bn-cp-øp- co-xn-bn-e C-Xv sn-øp- -sx- v hy- -amwv. `-c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- p- dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- p- Xpw c-k-i-c-am-wv. B-bn-c- -W- n-\v t]-pp-i-fn-em-bn- -]-S - p-in-s- p- dn-t m - n \n- v Nn-e `m-k-߃ A-S - Øn-sb-Sp-Øm-Wv C-h - v \ -Ip- Xv. ]-e-t mgpw C-Xn kq-n-\ (index) t]mepw Im-Wm-dn ]p-d-øn-dßn-b dn-t m - v am-{x-am-wv CXn-s\m-cp A-]- hmzw. im-kv-{x-cw-k-øp- -h - m-sx a- m pw C-Xv a-\- n-em- m\pw I-gn-bn. Xm-]-\n-e-bn-se h - -\-hn-s\ l-cn-xkrl am-xr-i- I-fp-am-bn _- -s -Sp-Øn-bmWv sf.]n.kn.kn A-Xn-s B-Zy dn-t m - v (IPCC-FAR 1990) {]-kn- o-i-cn Xv. l- cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss _-ln -Ka-\w C-c- n-bm-bm Xm- ]-\n-e-bn 1.5 Un{Kn sk -jy-kv apx 4.5 Un{Kn sk jy-kv h-sc h - -\ hcpsa v Iq-Sp-X ]T-\-sam pw \-S-Øm-sX \n-co- n- p-ibpw sn-bv-xp dntbm Un P\o-tdm-bn \-S- F -Øv k-ωn- n Kv-tfm-_ 4

5 BapJw Iv-ssfa- v {So- n kzo-i-cn- m Im-c-W-am-bXpw Cu I-s -Ø-emWv. sf.]n.kn.kn-bpss Cu dn-t m - n-s\-xn-sc tem-ihym-]-i-am-bn hn-a -i-\-ß-fp- mbn. Cu dn-t m - n-s\-xnscbpw sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss {]-h -Ø\ ssi-en-s -Xnsc-bpw {]ikvx imkv{x-am-knibmb Nature c- v F-Un-t m-dn-b-ep-iƒ F-gp-Xn-bn-cp p. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss c- ma-sø dn-t m - v 1995em- Wv ]q -Øn-bm-b-Xv C-Xv {]-kn- o-i-cn p. `-c-w- I -Øm- ƒ- p- dn-t m - v c mw X-h-Wbpw {i-t b-ambn. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-\v a-\p-jy-s C-Ss]-S Im-c-W-am-sW- m-bn-cp- p dn-t m - n-se \n-k-a\w. ho pw hn-a -i-\-ß-fp-b- - p. dn-t m - v X-øm-dm n-b imkv-{x- -cp-ss k-ω-x-an m-sx {]-[m-\ `m-k-ß-fn am- -߃ h-cp-øn-b-xm-wv hnhmz sim-sp- m- v D-b -Øn-hn- Xv. dn-t m - n am-{x-a C-tXm-sSm- w tn -Øn-cp- H-cp {Km-^nepw am- -߃ h-cpøn. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xnbm-\-hp-am-bn a-\p-jy-s\ _- n- n- m-\m-bn-cp p Cu _- - m-ss mw. C-tXmsS sf.]n.kn.kn X-ß-fp-sS \n-ka-\-øn F-Øn-t -cm D-]-tbm-Kn- sx-fn-hp-iƒ ]-expw si- n- -a- -Xm-sW- v hy- -am-ip-ibpw sn-bvxp. dn-t m - n sf.]n.kn.kn h-cpøn-b Ir-{Xn-a-߃ hy- -am- p- \n-ch-[n te-j-\-ßfpw a pw e`y-amwv. tum. s{^-u-dn-iv sk-bv- v-kv Wall Street Journal F- gpxn-b F-Un-t m-dn-b B - n- nfpw C-h-bn Dƒ-s - Sp p. Xp-S v sf.]n.kn.kn-sb ]n- p-w-bv p- -hcpw a-dp-]- hpw X-Ωn Nq-tSdn-b N - -Iƒ \-S p. sf.]n.kn.kn-sb A-\p-Iq-en pw {]-Xn-Iq-en- p-ap- Nn-e I-Øp-Iƒ American Meteorological Society-bpsS _p- - n-\n {]-kn- o-i-cn- n- p- v. (Singer et al. 1997) \q-dn-e-[n-iw Im-emh-ÿm im-kv-{x- km- ys -Sp-Øn-b 1996se se-bv-]v-knkv (Leipzig) {]-Jym-]-\- søbpw sf.]n.kn.kn-bpss Cu dn-t m - v {]-tim-]n- n p. Xp-S - v 2007 The Scientific Case Against the Global Climate Treaty F- ]p-kvx-iw {]-kn- o-i-cn- p-ibpw \n-ch-[n `m-j-i-fn-te- v sam-gn-am- p-ibpw snbv-xp. (SEPP 2007, \n-ch-[n A-_- ߃ I-S- p-iq-sn-bn pw Cu ]T-\-Øn-s A-Sn-ÿm-\-Ønem-Wv tiym-t m t{]m-t m-t mƒ kzo-i-cn- Xv. C-Xn-s ]- mø-ew lq-h C -Ãn- yq-j {]-kn- o-i-cn- Climate Policy From Rio to Kyoto F- ]p-kv-x-i- Øn hn-h-cn- n- p- v. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss aq mw dn-t m - pw (IPCC- TAR 2001) sx m-b sx-fn-hp-i-fp-ss A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-embn-cp- p X-øm-dm- n-bxv. a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-Sepw Im-emhÿm hy-xn-bm-\hpw X-Ωn-ep- _ -sø Ip-dn- v ]p- Xn-bXpw i- -hpam-b sx-fn-hp-iƒ D-s - m-bn-cp p Cu dn-t m - n-s ImX. I-gn- B-bn-cw h -j-øn-\n-s-bv- v G- hpw Nq-Sp-IqSn-b \q- m- v C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- m-bncp-s - v dn-t m - v A-h-Im-i-s p. sx m-b hn-h-c-ß-fpss A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn F-Øn-t - Cu \n-k-a\w tlm- n kv- n-iv t]- F- m-wv A-dn-b-s -Sp- Xv. ÿn-xn hn-h-c- -W- p-i-ƒ hn-i-ie-\w sn-bv-x-xn A-Sn-ÿm- \-]-cam-b sx- p-iƒ I-S- p-iq-sn-bn-cp- -Xm-bn ]n- o-sv I- s -Øp-I-bm-bn-cp- p. 1940\v ap-ºv D m-b NqSpw a-\pjy-\n -ΩnXam-sW pw l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fm-wv A- Xn-\v Im-c-W-am-b-sX pw sf.]n.kn.kn k-a - n- ncp p. C-Xnepw A-Sn-ÿm-\-]-cam-b ]n-i-ip-iƒ I-S- p- Iq-Sn-bn-cp p. The Kyoto Protocol is Not Backed by Science F- _p- v-se- n-eq-ss-bm-wv SEPP CXn-t\m-Sv {]-Xn-I-cn- Xv. (SEPP 2002) 2007 B-Wv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss \memw dn-t m - v ]p-d-øp-h-cp- Xv. -`c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- p- dn-t m - v s^-{_p-h-cn-bnepw Nn-e am -ß-tfm-sS ]q -Æ am-b dn-t m - v ta-bnepw ]p-d-øp-h- p. F- m Cu dn-t m - n-s G- hpw hen-b {]-txy-i-x ap dn-t m - ns Im-X-em-bn-cp tlm- n kv- n-iv t]- -tdm 1940\v ap-ºp- m-bn-cp- Nq-Sn-s\ Ip-dn- p- hn-h-c-ßtfm D-]- tbm-kn- n F- -XmWv. ho pw hn-hm-z-ap-b - p. F- m CØ-h-W dnhyq \-S-Øn-b-h-cp-sS A-`n-{]m-b-߃ ]- ph-bv- m sf.]n.kn.kn hn-k-ω-xn p. A-Xn-\v tijw Cu A-`n-{]m-b-߃ \-ho-i-c-w-øn-\m-bn A-S- H-cp sse- {_-dn- v A-b- p-sim-spøp. k-ω -±w i- -am-b-t mƒ a- v h-gn-i-fn msx Cu hn-h-c߃ Hm -sse-\m-bn {]- kn- o-i-cn-t - n-h p. CXn a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-SemWv C-t m-gp- m-bn-s m- n-cn- p- Xm-]\n-e h - -\-hn\p Imc-W-sa p ka n- p `mkøv tcj-s -Sp-Ø-s A-`n-{]m-b-ßfn ]Ip-Xn-bn-e-[n-Ihpw c-n-bn-xm- ƒ X n- -f-bp- Xp Im-Wmw. \m-emw dn-t m - v A-\p-k-cn- v C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- ns a[yw ap-x-ep- m-bn-s m- n-cn- p- Xm-]-\n-e-bn-se h - -\-hn-\v Imc-Ww a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-S aq-ew D mb l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss km- n-[y-øn-ep m-b h - -\-bmwv. Ct m-gsø Xm]-h [-\-hn\v Imc-W-amb am\p-jn-i-cs-s]-s-ep-i-sfbpw kq-cys {]-h -Ø-\߃ (solar activity) aq-ew Im-em-h-ÿ-bn-ep- m-ip- am- ßsf Ip-dn- p- ]T-\-ßsfbpw A-h-K-Wn- m-wv \memw dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- n-b-sx pw Hm -t - -XmWv. F p-sim- mwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss I-s -Ø-ep- Iƒ hn-hm-z-ß-fn Ip-Sp-ßp- Xv? Xp-S ]T-\-ß-fn sf.]n.kn.kn dn-t m - p-iƒ tnmzyw sn-ø-s -Sp -Xv F p-sim- mwv? Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-søbpw a- \p-jy-s {]-h -Ø-\-ß-sfbpw X-Ωn _- n- n- -Wsa- sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss A-P- X-s -bm-wv C-Xn-\v {][m-\ Im-c-Ww. H-cp cm-{ o-b kw-hn-[m-\-sa- \n-ebn A-Xn-\v cm-{ o-b e- y-ß-fp-s -Xv c- ma-sø Im-cWw. hy- n-]-cam-b t\- -߃- v th- n im-kv-{xsø h-f-s -m-sn- m a-sn-bn m-ø im-kv-{x- -amcpw DtZym-K-ÿcp-am-Wv aq- ma-sø Im-cWw. dnhyq \-S- ]T-\ß-sf B-[n-Im-cn-I-am-bn Aw-Ko- I-cn- p- Xpw sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss hn-izm-kyx-sb tzmj-i-c-am-bn _m-[n- n- p v. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø 5

6 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w Ip-dn- p- ]-e ]T-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw sd-^-dnw-kv Ãm -tu - Uv A-]-cym-]v-X-amWv. A-Xn-\m X-s dn-hyq-hn-\v hnt[-bam-b H-cp ]T-\w B-[n-Im-cn-I-am-sW- v I-cp-Xp - Xv Xn-I pw _p- n-iq-\y-am-bn-cn- pw. Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss \memw dn-t m - n-se Kp-cp-X-camb sx- p-iƒ {i- -bn s]- -Xn-s\ Xp-S - m-wv Fkv.C.]n.]n H-cp _n Sow cq-]o-i-cn- m Xo-cp-am-\n- Xv. e-`yam-b sx-fn-hp-i-fp-ss A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn kz-x-{ amb hn-e-bn-cp-ø \-S-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp- p ]pxn-b So-an-s Np-a-X-e s^-{_p-h-cn-bn Sow {]-h Ø-\w Xp-Sßn. G-{]n-en So-an-s t]cv Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change F- v am- p-ibpw hn-b- -bn A- m-cm-{ Im-emh-ÿm in - im-e kw-l-sn- n- p- Ibpw sn-bvxp. hn-b- -bn \-SØn-b in - -im-ebpw Xp-S - v \- SØn-b Kth-j-Wßfp-amWv Cu ]T-\-Øn-\v B-[mcw. A- m-cm-{ -X-e-Øn {]-i-kv-xcm-b \n-ch-[n K-th-jI Cu kw-cw-`-øn k-l-i-cn- n- p v. ss{i-kv CUv-tkmbm-Wv A-h-cn {]-[m\n. A-t±-lw ti-j-cn- hn-h-c-߃ Centre for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Changes sh_v-ssk- n ( e-`y-amwv. `-c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- p- dn-t m - v Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Planet (Singer 2008) F- t]-cn lm - v-em v C -Ãn- yq- v 2008 ]p-d-ønd n. Cu c- v tc-j-ifpw Cu ta-j-e-bn-se kz-x-{ hpw B-[n-Im-cn-I-hpam-b sx-fn-hp-i-fm-bn \n-e-\n - p-i-bmwv. F- m-wv R-ß-fp-sS {]-tnm-z\w? km-ºøn-i Xm-Xv-]-cy-ß-f C-Xn-\v ]n- n. ss{i-kv CUvtkm dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- p- -Xn-\m-bn \-SØn-b ]-cn-{i-a-ß-ƒ- v R-߃ H pw hm-kvzm-\w sn-bv-xn-cp- n, sndn-sbmcp {Km v A msx. kw-l-s-\-bv- v cm-{ o-b-an. k - m G-P -kn-i-fp-ss ]n- p-wbpw R-߃- n. cm-{ o-b- m- v ]n- p-wtbm k-lm-btam \ -Ip- Xpw R-ß-fp-sS e- ya. sx m-b hn-h-c-ß-fp-ss A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn sf.]n.kn.kn D- m- p- `bm-i- Iƒ- v A-dp-Xn h- cp-øp-ibpw Im-cy-ß-fp-sS \n-p-ÿn-xn P-\ß-sf t_m- [y-s -Sp-Øp-I-bp-am-Wv F.sF.]n.kn.kn-bp-sS {]-h - Ø-t\m-t±-iyw. B-tKm-f-Xm-]\-sØ Ip-dn- p- B-i- - Iƒ ]m-c-º-tcyx-c Du - D-Xv-]m-Z\w, Im-cy- -a-xtbdn-b hm-l-\-߃ Xp-S-ßn-b A-`n-{]m-b-߃- v henb ]n p-w e`n- m Im-c-W-am-bn. Du- - D-d-hn-S-߃ ssh-hn- y-h-xv-i-cn- p- Xpw hm-l-\-ß-fp-ss {]-h -Ø- \ -a-x Iq- p- Xpw \ Im-cy-߃ X-s. F- m C-Xn-eq-sS Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø sn-dp- m-sa- {]-Nmc-Ww \ym-bo-i-cn- -Ø- X. l-cn-xkr-l hm-x- I-ßfp-sS \n-b-{ -W-Øn-\v B-h-iy-am-bn h-cp- `o-aamb sn-e-hpw im-kv-{x-øn-s ]n -_-e-øn \ym-bo-icn- m-\m-in. Iv-fo su-h-e-]v-sa v sa- m-\n-khpw Im _ Hm-^v-sk- vkpw t]m-ep- kv-io-ap-iƒ _-lp- `q-cn-]- -Øn-s - sn-e-hn Ip-d- p-t]-sc k-º- -cm-im k-lm-bn- p-sa- m-sx th-sd {]-tbm-p-\-ß-sfm- p-an. km-[m-c-w- mc-s km-ºøn-i Xm-Xv-]-cyßsf tzm-j-i-c-am-bn _m-[n- p- Xo-cp-am-\-߃ F-Sp- m im-kv-{x-sø I-cp-hm- p -Xv I- m-wv C-Xn-s\-Xn-sc {]-h -Øn- m F.sF.]n.kn.kn- Xo-cp-am-\n- Xv. im-kv-{xtem-i-øn-\v ]p-d-øp- hen-sbm-cp k-aq-l-øn- \v C-Xn-s\ Ip-dn- v hy- am-b [m-c-w-bn m-ø-xpw im-kv-{x-cwk-sø _-lp`q-cn-]- -Øn\pw sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss {]-h -Ø-\ß-sf Ip-dn- v hy- am-b [m-c-wbps - nepw Ah v sf.-]n.-kn.-kn-s -Xnsc kwkmcn- p-hm-\p ss[cytam Ah-k-ctam C m-ø-xp-amwv Cu dnt m v Xøm-dm- p- -Xn-\p {][m\ Imc-Ww. t]-cv kq-nn- n- p -Xp t]mse F.sF.]n.kn.kn- A- m-cm-{ X-e-Øn {]-h -Øn- p- K-th-j-I-cp-sS Iq- m-bv-a-bmwv. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø p-dn- pw A-Xn-s ^-e-ß-sf p-dn pw ]Tn- m-\m-bn cq-]o-ir-xamb H-cp Iq- m-bv-a. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-\v Imc- Ww l-cn-xkr-lhm-x-i-ß-fm-sw- ap -[m-c-w R-߃- n. sf.]n.kn.kn A-h-K-Wn- sx-fn-hp-ifpw R-߃ {]-tbm-p-\-s -Sp-Øp- p v. Imc-Ww R-߃ {]-h -Øn- p -Xv k - m-cp-iƒ- v Io-gne. k m-cp-iƒ p th n-bp-a-. R-߃- v ]- -]m-x-hp-an. The Petition Project Cu dn-t m - n- \memw A-\p-_- -am-bn* tn -Øncn- p- Xv s]- o-j t{]m-p-œn-s Hcp hn-i-zo-i-c-whpw Xm-sg-s m-sp- p- {]-kv-xm-h-\-bn H- p-h- n-cn- p 31,478 A-ta-cn- im-kv-{x -sc Ip-dn- p- hn-h-c-ßfp-amwv P- m-\n-se tiym-t m-bn H- p-h- B-tKm-f- Xm-]-\ D-Sº-Snbpw k-am-\am-b a p \n -t±i-ßfpw X- n- -f-bm A-ta-cn- k - mcn-t\m-sv R-߃ B- h-iy-s -Sp p. \n -t±-in- -s - n-cn- p- l-cn-xkr-lhm- X-I-ß-fp-sS n]vx]-cn-[n ]-cn-ÿn-xn \m-i-øn-\v Im-c- W-am-Ipw. am-{xa im-kv-{x km-t Xn-I hn-zy-bp-ss ap-t -tøbpw a-\p-jy-s B-tcm-Ky-sØbpw \- sbbpw C-Xv tzm-j-i-c-am-bn _m-[n- p-ibpw sn-øpw. B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn\pw A-Xph-gn `q-an-bp-ss Im-emh-ÿ-sb _m-[n- p- -X-c-Øn-epw a-\p-jy-s {]-h -Ø- \-߃ l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss ]p-d- - -en-\v Ct mtgm kao-]-`m-hn-bntem Im-c-W-am- psa v sx-fnbn- m D-X-Ip- im-kv-{xo-b tc-j-iƒ e-`y-a. F- m A- -co- -Øn Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk- Un-s Af-hv Iq-Sp -Xv `q-an-bn-se Po-h-Pm-e-߃- v \n-ch-[n {]-tbm-p-\-߃ D- m- p- -Xm-bn ]T-\-ß-fn sx-fn- n- p- v. ap- -Xn-\m-bn-c-Øn-e-[n-Iw im-kv-{x- -am km- y-s -SpØn-b Cu {]-kv-xmh-\ sf.]n.kn.kn-bp- 6

7 BapJw ss I-s -Ø-epI-sf i- -am-bn F-Xn - p- -XmWv. A-tX-ka-bw X-s C-Xv F.sF.]n.kn.kn-bp-sS \n-e- ]m-spi-sf i-cn-h-bv- p- -Xp-amWv. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss \memw dn-t m - n-\v ]n- n {]-h -Øn- im-kv-{x- cp-ss ]-Øp-a-S-ßn-e-[n-Iw im-kv-{x Cu {]-kv-xmh-\-bn H- p-h- n- p-s - Xpw {i-t -b-amwv. K-th-j- W _n-cp-z-ap- ]-Xn-\m-bn-c-tØm-fw im-kv-{x Cu {]-kv-xm-h-\ Aw-Ko-I-cn- n- p- v. F- m \q-dn Xm-sg im-kv-{x- -cm-wv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss \memw dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- p- {]-h -Ø-\-ß-fn ]-s -Sp-Ø-Xv. \memw dn-t m - n A-\p-_- -am-bn tn -Øn-cn- p- en-kv- p- X-s -bmwv Cu \n-k-a-\-øn-\p- B-[m-cw. tem-i-øm- I-am-\-ap- \q-dv im-kv-{x- -sc- nepw sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss \memw dn-t m - v Aw-Ko-I-cn- n- p-t m-sb- pw R-߃- v D-d- n. sf.]n.kn.kn- v kw`-hn- sx v R-߃ B-h -Øn- n. C-Xn H- n- n-cn- p- F m-t]cpw Cu dn-t m - n-se I-s -Ø-ep-Isftbm \n-k-a-\-ßsftbm Aw-Ko-I-cn- p- -Xm-bn R-߃ A-h-Im-i-s -Sp- n. c-n-bn-xm- ƒ ]-d-bp- -Xp-t]m-se im-kv-{x- C-Xn H- n- p F-t -bp- q dn-t m - n-\v th- n. kw-km-cn- p -Xv dn-t m - v X-s -bm-wv. Cu dnt m - n kq-nn- n- n-cn- p- s]m-xp-ho- -W-Øn-\v im-kv-{x k-aq-l-øn \n v e-`n- ]n p-w kq-nn- n- m-\m-wv A-\p-hm-Z-tØmsS Cu t]-cp-iƒ dn-t m - n Dƒ-s -Sp- Øn-bXv. F.sF.]n.kn.kn-bpw sf.]n.kn.kn-bpw X-Ωn-ep- hy-xym-kw F-Sp-Øp-Im- p-ibpw C-Xn-s ]n- n-se D-t±-iy-amWv. s]- o-j t{]m-p-œn-s\ Ip-dn- p- Iq-Sp-X hn-h-c߃ v \m-j-w A- mu-an H-^v k-b -k-kn-s {]-kn-u pw tdm- v -s^ k -Δ-I-em-im-e-bn-se F-and -kv {]-kn-u p-am-bn-cp- ]-tc-x\mb tum. s{^-u-dn- Iv sk-bv- n-kn-s IØv Dƒ-s -ss-bp- hn-h-c-߃- pambn F- sh_v-ssk- v k-μ -in- p-i. ap-t m- p- bm{x a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-S aq-e-ap- B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn- \v am-[y-a-߃ h hm -Øm {]m-[m-\y-am-wv \ -In-bncp- -Xv. C-Xp-aq-ew P-\-ß-ƒ- p m-b B-i- -Iƒ Ip-d- p-h-cn-i-bm-wv. 34 i-x-am-\w A-ta-cn- - m am-{x-ta B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn-\v Imc-Ww a-\p-jy-cm-sw- v hn-izkn- p- p q (Rasmussen Reports, 2009). `q-an-bp-ss Nq- Sv Iq-Sp-I-bm-sW- v hn-iz-kn- p- -h-cp-ss F-Æhpw Ip-dbp-I-bmWv (Pew Research Centre, 2008). [-\-Im-cy ÿm-]-\am-b HSBCbpw ]-cn-ÿn-xn kwc- -W {Kq- p- I-fpw kw-bp- -am-bn ]-Xn-s\m- v cm-py-ß-fn 12,000 t]cpss A-`n-{]mb thm-s -Sp- v \-S-Øp-I-bp- mbn. C-Xn 20 i-x-am-\w t] am-{x-am-wv Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w sn-dp- m A-[n-I]-Ww sn-e-hm- m X-øm-dm-sW- v {]-Xn-I-cn- Xv. H-cp h -jw ap-ºv C-tX A`n-{]m-b-ap- -h-cp-ss F-Æw 28 i-x-am-\-am-bn-cp p (O Neil, 2008) B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn-s `o-i-cx-sb Ip-dn- p im-kv-{xo-b N - -I-ƒ h-gn-xn-cn- p-hn-sm Cu dn-t m - n- \m-bn- p v. cm-{ o-bam-b N - -Iƒ Xp-S-cp- -Xnepw R-߃- v k-t mj-ap v. B-tKm-f-Xm-]\-sØ Ip-dn- p- R-ß-fp-sS I-s -Ø-epI-sf F-Xn - p- `cwcwk-sø {]-[m-\n-iƒ 2009 bq-tdm-]y bq-wnb-s Iu -kn {]-kn-u pw sn- v dn- -_v-fn- n-s {]-kn- U pam-b hm-iv-fm-hv Iv-fmkv, ap P -Ω Nm -k-edmb sl a- v kvanøv, ap {_n- o-jv [\-Im-cy-a{ n \n-k tem-k F- n-h-cmwv. tem-i-sø-ºm-sp-ap- `c-w-i -Øm- -sf mw l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss ]p-d- - \n-b-{ n- p- -Xn-\v \n-b-a-߃ cq-]o-i-cn- m- \p- Xo-cp-am-\w ]p-\-x]cn-tim-[n- p-i-bmwv. ]-ecpw im-kv-{x-øn \n- v am-dn N - -Iƒ ap-t m- v sim p-t]m-ip- -Xn R-߃- v A-Xnbm-b hn-jaap- v. Cu dn-t m - n-s\ F-Xn - p- -h-cp-ss D-t±iyip nsb tnmzyw sn-øp- Xpw Ah-sc hy- n-]- c-am-bn B-{I-an- p- Xpw icn-b-. Im-em-hÿ-sb Ip-dn- p N - -Iƒ bm-ym y-t_m-[-tøm-ss ap-t m- v t]m-ip- -Xn Ah-cpsS tzjy-amwv Im-Wp- Xv. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø Ip-dn- p- N - -Iƒ i-cnbm-b Zn-i-bn ap-t m- v sim p-t]m-im Cu dn-t m - v k-lm-b-i-am-ip-sa- v R-߃- v D-d- p v. A-Xph-gn A-\m-h-iyam-b ]-cn-ÿn-xn \-b-߃ A-Sn-t - n- p- `m-c-ß-fn \n- v tem-ip-\x-sb c- n- m\pw I-gn-bp-sa- v {]-Xym-in- p p. h-cm t]m-ip- ]T-\ßsf hn-i-ie-\w sn-øm\pw \n-k-a-\-ß-ƒ cq-]o-i-cn- m\pw R-߃ X-øm-dmWv. Xpd a\- p `-c-w-i -Øm- ƒ- v D-]-tZ-iw \ -Im\pw R-߃ k-zm k- - -cmwv. Fkv. s{^-uv knw-k ]n. F v. Un {]-kn-u v, k-b -kv B v F -h-tbm -sa t]m-fn-kn t{]mp-œv s{]m-^-k F-an-d -kv H-^v F -h-tbm -sa k-b kv, bq-wn-th-gv-kn- n H-^v hn -Po\nb s{i-bn-kv Un. CUvtkm ]n. F v. Un sn-b -am, sk t^m Z kv -Un H-^v Im - _ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv B v Kv-tfm-_ sn-bv v Acknowledgments: Z lm - v-em v C -kv- n- yq- nse tpm-k-^n\pw su-bv _m-ãn\pw A-h-cp-sS F-Un- nw-kn-ep- I-gnhv Cu dn-t m - v X-øm-dm- m D-]-tbm- Kn- n- p v. A-h - v \μn. km-t Xn-I k-lm-bw \ Inb B. hm-c B -tu-gv-kwpw \μn. 7

8 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w References Anonymous IPCC's ritual on global warming. Nature 371: 269. IPCC-AR Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. IPCC-FAR Scientific Assessment of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the First Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. IPCC-SAR Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press. IPCC-TAR Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. Maddox J Making global warming public property. Nature 349: 189. McIntyre, S. and McKitrick, R Corrections to Mann et al. (1998) proxy data base and northern hemisphere average temperature series. Energy & Environment 14: McIntyre, S. and McKitrick, R Hockey sticks, principal components and spurious significance. Geophysical Research Letters 32 L McKitrick, R Independent Summary for Policymakers IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Ed. Fraser Institute. Vancouver, BC. O'Neil, P Efforts to support global climate-change falls: Poll. Canwest News Service, 27 Nov. Pew Research Center A deeper partisan divide over global warming, summary of findings. 8 May. Rasmussen Reports Energy Update. April Seitz, F A major deception on global warming. The Wall Street Journal, 12 June. SEPP The Greenhouse Debate Continued: An Analysis and Critique of the IPCC Climate Assessment. ICS Press, San Francisco, CA. SEPP The Scientific Case Against the Global Climate Treaty. GW.html [Also available in German, French, and Spanish]. Singer, S.F. 1997, Hot Talk Cold Science. The Independent Institute, Oakland CA. Singer, S.F Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate. The Heartland Institute, Chicago, IL. Wegman, E., Scott, D.W. and Said, Y Ad Hoc Committee Report to Chairman of the House Committee on Energy & Commerce and to the Chairman of the House sub-committee on Oversight & Investigations on the Hockey-stick Global Climate Reconstructions. US House of Representatives, Washington DC. Climate Change Reconsidered The Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), had produced the 800-page report Climate Change Reconsidered in This was a collaborative effort of 37 scientists from 14 countries and contains more than 4,000 references to peer reviewed scientific literature. It is a comprehensive and authoritative response to the alarmist reports issued by the UN s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The second edition of the NIPCC report is expected to be published in The progress of this initiative may be monitored at Additional information about global warming can also be found on two websites maintained by the report s publisher, The Heartland Institute, at and Liberty Institute, based in New Delhi, is an independent think tank dedicated to empowering the people by harnessing the power of the market. Liberty, in partnership with Heartland, has now reprinted the NIPCC report, and translated the summary in to six Indian languages for wider dissemination. Comments and suggestions are most welcome. Liberty Institute New Delhi Websites: s: 8

9 BapJw {][m-\-s - h-kv-xp-x-i-ƒ Np-cp- -Øn 2007 ]p-d-øn-d-ßn-b sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss \memw dn-t m - v (IPCC-AR4, 2007) Im-emh-ÿmhy-Xn-bm-\-hpam-bn _- -s hnhn-[ im-kv{xta-j-e-i-fn {]-h - Øn- p- hn-z-kv- cm-b im-kv-{x- -cp-ss H-cp {][m-\ K-th-j-W-{]-h -Ø-\-am-bn-cp p. Cu im-kv-{ximj-bpss C-t mg-sø A-h-ÿ-sb- p-dn- p- hn-e-s - H-cp e-lp-tc-j-bmwv Cu dn-t m v. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss ap dn-t m - p-i-fn C m-xn-cp- kq-nn-ibpw Cu dn-t m - n tn -Øn- p v. A-\h-[n hn-z-kv- -cp-ss A\p-Iqe {]Xn-Iqe A`n-{]m-b-ßfpw dn-t m - n- Im-Wmw. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-søbpw \n-e-]m-sp-i-sfbpw Ip-dn- p- hn-iz-k-\o-bam-b tc-j A-s - n t]mepw \memw dn-t m - v ]-cma i tbm-ky-am-wv. sx m-b \n-ch- [n {]-kvxm-h-\-ifpw c-n-bn-xm- -fp-ss ap -[m-c-w-ifpw C-Xn I-S- p-iq-sn-bn- p v. A-tX-ka-bw {]-[m-\-s - ]-e im-kv-{xo-b tc-j-ifpw A-h-K-Wn- s Sp-Ibpw sn-bvxp. am-{x-a 2006 sa-bv am-k-øn-\v ti-jw {]-kn- o-i-cn- K-th-j-W- ^eß-tfm-sv H-cp hn-[-ønepw tbm-pn- m-ø-xm-bn-cp- p C-Xn-se {][m-\ `m-k-ß-fn ]-e-xpw. Np-cp- -Øn X-ß-fp-sS \n-k-a-\ß-sf km-c-am-bn _m-[n- p- {][m-\ im-kv-{xo-b hn-j-b-߃ ]-cn-k-wn- p- -Xn sf.]n.kn.kn ]-cm-p-b-s p. D-Zm-l-c-W- Øn\v, Cu dn-t m - v A-\p-k-cn- v C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- v ap-x BtKm-f-X-e-Øn D- m-bn-s m- n-cn- p- Xm- ]-\n-e-bn-se h - -\-hn-s "G- hpw {][m-\' Imc-Ww a-\p-jy-s {]-h -Ø-\-߃ aq-ew A- -co- -Øn-te- v ]p-d- - p- l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fm-wv. A-Xmb-Xv A- -co- Du-jv-am-hn D- m-bn-cn- p- h- - -\-hn-\v l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-߃ Im-c-W-am-bn-cn m-\p- km[y- X G- hpw Ip-d -Xv sxm-æq-dv i-x-am-\-amwv. F- -Snÿm-\-Øn-em-Wv 90 i-x-am-\w F- I-W- n sf.]n.kn.kn F-Øn-b-sX- v dn-t m - n H-cn-SØpw hy- -am- n-bn- n. "G- hpw {]-[m-\w' F- Xp-sIm- v F- m-wv D-t±-in- p- -sx pw \n -Δ-Nn- n- n. Xm-]-\n-e-bn D- m-bn-s m- n-cn- p- h - -\-hn- \v {]-Ir-Xn-bn-ep- L-S-I-߃ F-{X-am{Xw Im-c-W-am- Ip- p-s - v ]cn-tim-[n- m \n-e-hn-ep- H-cp im-kv- {Xo-b am - hpw sf.]n.kn.kn A-h-ew-_n- n. l-cn-xkrl hm-x-i-߃ C-Xn-te- v \ -Ip- kw`m-h-\bpw Xn -s -Sp-Øn-bn n. e-`yam-b G- hpw hn-iz-k-\o-bam-b tc-j-i-f-\p-k-cn- v a-\p-jy-s {]-h -Ø-\-߃ aq-ew ]p-dw-x- -s -Sp- l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ß-fp-ss Af-hv hfsc Ip-d-hmWv. Cu kp-{][m-\ Afhv e-`y-am-bn-cp- n pw sf.]n.kn.kn AXv A-h-K-Wn p. kq-cy-s {]-h -Ø-\-ßfpw A-Xp-am-bn _- -s - p- m-ip- A- -co- ÿn-xn-i-fp-am-wv I-gn- Im-eß-fn Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-te- v h-gn-h- -sx- v sx-fn-bn- p- \q-dp-i-w- n-\v tc-j-iƒ e-`y-am-wv. Xmc-X-tay\ Imem-hÿm hyxn-bm-\-øn lcn-x-kr-lhm-x-i-ß-fpss kzm[o\w hfsc Ipd-hm-Wv. F- m kqcy-s bpw _ -s i n-i-fp- -ssbpw kzm[o-\x Ip-d- p-im-wm-\mwv sf.]n.kn.kn {i-an- Xv. C-Xn-\v ]pd-sa C-Xp-am-bn _- -s -Sp-Øn N - sn-tø- n-bn-cp- \n-ch-[n im-kv-{xo-b {]-iv-\߃ sf.]n.kn.kn A-h-K-Wn- p-itbm sx m-b co-xn-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- p- Itbm sn-bvxp. CØ-cw sx- p-i-fpw H-gn-hm- -ep-ifpw F.sF. ]n.kn.kn-bp-ss dn-t m - n Dƒ-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p v. Cu dn-t m - n-se Hº-Xv A-[ym-b-ß-fp-sS e-lp-hn-h-c-wam-wnxv. I-ºyq- tam-u-ep-iƒ D-]-tbm-Kn- p- sf.]n. kn.kn-bp-ss Im-emh-ÿm `mhn-zo L-Z i-\-ß-fnse A-]-cym-]v-X-X-I-fm-Wv H mw A-[ym-b-Øn hn-h-cn- p- Xv. im-kv-{xo-b Im-emh-ÿm {]-h-n-\-øn-\v th- \n-b-a-ß-fpw am - -ßfpw sf.]n.kn.kn ew-ln- n- p v. sf.]n.kn.kn kz- -am-bn hn-i-kn- n-s -SpØ tam-u-ep- Iƒ Xm-]\n-e h - -\-hn-s\bpw l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ßsfbpw X-Ωn sx- m-bn _- n- n- m I-gn-bp- X-c-Øn Ip-d-hp-Iƒ D- -h-bmwv. A-Xn-\m X-s B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w kw-_- n- \-b-]-cam-b Im-cy-߃ N - sn-øp-tºmƒ sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss \memw dn-t m - v ]-cm-a -iw t]mepw A -ln- p- n. `q-an-bn-se Nq-Sn D- m-ip- Ip-dhpw A- -co- - Øn-se Im -_ ssu Hm-Iv-ssk-Un-s A-f-hn-ep- m- Ip- hy-xym-khpw X-Ωn-ep- _- -am-wv c mw A-[ym-b-Øn N - sn-øp- Xv. hy-hkm-b hn-]v-f-h- Øn-\v ap-ºp- m-bn-cp- Im -_ ssu HmIvv-ssk-Uns Af-hv Ct mƒ C-c- n-bm-bn ps - nepw A-Xv `q-anbp-ss Nq-Sv Iq-Sm \n- m-cam-b txmxnte Im-c-W-am-bn- p- q-sh- m-wv im-kv-{xo-b ]T-\-߃ sx-fn-bn- p- - Xv. F- m sf.]n.kn.kn dn-t m - v C-Xns\ Du-Xn-s cp- n- n-cn- p-i-bmwv. I-gn- Im-e-ß-fn-se Xm-]-\ne-sb Ip-dn- p- {]mtbmkn-i hn-h-c-ß-fp-ss A-h-tem-I-\-am-Wv aq mw A-[ymbw. C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-se Im-emh-ÿm am- w A-Xph-sc C m-xn-cp- - Xc-Ønem-sW-t m, A-Xn-\v a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-S Im-c-W-am-bn- p-s t m sx-fn-bn- p- H pw I-s -Øm R-ß-ƒ- v I-gn- n- n. tlm- n kvv- n-iv U-b-{K-Øn-se sx- p-i-fn-te pw sh-fn- w ho-ip- p v. D-]-{K-l-ß-fn \n- v e`n- hf-sc Ir-Xyamb hn-h-c-߃ ]cn-tim-[n- m I-gn- 29 h - j-ßfm-bn B-tKm-f-X-e-Øn BsI Xm-]\n-e h - n- p- -Xn-s kq-n-\-i-sfm pw C-s - v a-\- n-em- m 9

10 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w I-gn-bpw. Nn-e ÿ-e-ß-fn Nq-Sv Iq-Sp- -Xn-\v a-\p-jy-\m- Wv Im-c-W-sa- -Xn-\v sx-fn-hp-ifpw e-`ya. \memw A-[ym-bw N - sn-øp -Xv ln-a ]m-fn-i-fpss D-cpI, h j-]m-x-øns hyxym-kw, k-ap-{z-\n-c- n-se h- - -\ Xp-Sßn-b Im-cyß-sf Ip-dn- mwv. a-\p-jy-\n -Ωn-Xam-b B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-hp-am-bn _- -s - Sp-Øm ] n-b H-cp sx-fn-hp-ifpw R-߃- v e-`n- n- n. A mw A-[ym-bw \n-ch-[n im-kv-{x- -am \-S-Øn-s m- n-cn- p- ]T-\ß-sf Ip-dn- mwv. C-h-cpsS A-`n-{]m-b-Øn ku-c-{]-h -Ø-\-ß-fm-Wv Im-emhÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-\v Im-cWw. Im-em-h-ÿbpw kq-cy\pw X-Ωn-ep- _ -sø Ip-dn- v hn-h-cn- p- -txmssm- w H-cp sndn-b ku-c-{]-h -Ø-\-Øn-\v Im-em-h-ÿbn h-cp-øm-hp- hen-b kzm-[o-\hpw N - sn-øs Sp p. kq-cy, tim-kv-an-iv In-c-W߃, {]-Xn- ^-en- p- ta-l-߃ F n-h X-Ωn-ep- _ -sø Ip-dn v Cu K-thj-I \ -Ip- D-Ø-c-ßfpw Cu A-[ym-b-Øn ]-dbp- p v. B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w `q-an-sb Iq-Sp-X tam-iam-b Im-em-h-ÿ-bn-te- v \-bn- p-sa- sx mb {]-Nm-cWsØ Ip-dn- p- A-t\z-j-W-am-Wv Bdmw A-[ym-b-Øn \-S-Øp- Xv. sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss A-h-Im-i-hm-Zw A-\pk-cn- v B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w Iq-Sp-X h-cƒ- -Iƒ, sim-sp- m v, Np-g-en- m- v, sh- -s m- w, Nq-Sp-Im v, Im- p-xo F- n-h-bv-s m-s Im-c-W-am-Ip-sa- mwv. C-Xv ÿm-]n- m-\p- sx-fn-hp-i-sfm pw R-߃- v I-s -Øm-\mbn- n. F- m Cu A-h-Im-i-hm-Zw sx- m-sw- v sx-fn-bn- m-\m-h-iyam-b sx-fn-hp-iƒ D- p-xm-\pw. IqSp- X Nq-Sp temi-øv A{XITn-\am-b Im-em-h-ÿ A-\p`-h-s -Sn. A- -co- -Øn-se Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns h - -\hpw Db Xm]-\n-ebpw Po-hn-I-fn-ep- m- p- kzm-[o-\-hp-am-wv Ggmw A-[ym-b-Øn-s D- - S w. Im-emh-ÿm hy-xnbm-\ N - -I-fn-sem pw C-Xv Im-cy-am-bn N - sn-bv-xn- n. CXv \ hm Ø-bm-b-XpsIm- mipw {i n- -s -Sm-Ø-Xv. Im -_ ssu HmIvssk-Un-s A-f-hn-ep- m-ip- h - \-hv k-ky-ß-fpss h-f - -bv- v D-Ø-a-amWv. am-{x-a k-kyß-sf h-cƒ- -sb-bpw Io-S-ß-sfbpw A-Xn-Po-hn- m\pw C-Xv k-lm-bn- pw. s]-cp-ins m- n-cn- p tem-ip-\-xbv pw I -j-i pw h-\-߃ pw C-Xv h-en-sbm-cp A-\p-{K-l-am-bn am-dpw. A- -co- Du-jv-am-hn-se h - \-hv I-S-en-sebpw I-c-bn-sebpw Po-h-Pm-e-ß-fp-sS hw-i-\m-i-øn-\v Im-c-Wam-Ip-sa- sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss A-h-Im-i-hm-Zhpw hn-izkn- -Ø- X. a-dn- v Nq-Sp-, B-h-iy-Øn-\v Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv D temi-øv ssp-h -ssh-hn- yw ]cn-t]m-jn- s Sp-sa- -Xn-\v sx-fn-hp-iƒ G-sd-bp v. C-Xm-Wv F mw A-[ym-b-Øn-s hn-jbw. H-ºXmw A-[ym-b-Øn B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w a-\p-jys B-tcm-Ky-Øn-\v lm-\n-i-c-am-sw- sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss {]-Nm-cW-sØ sh p-hn-fn- p-i-bmwv. lr-z-b kw-_- am-b A-kp-J-߃ sim- p- a-cww, izm-ktim-i kw-_- amb tcm-k߃, a-te-dn-b, su- n- \n, a- -\n Xp-S-ßn-b-h-bp-sS hym]-\w F- n-h-bv-s mw Im-c-W-am-Ip -Xv D-b - Xm-]\n-e B-sW- mwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss hn-e-bn-cp-ø. F- m B-[m-cn- I-am-bn \-S-Ø-s - n- p-f-f ]T-\-߃ a-dn- m-wv sx-fn-bn- p- Xv. C-tXm-sS- w Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv aq-e-ap- m-ip- B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w Fß-s\ tem-i P-\Xsb Xo- n-t m- p-sa pw R߃ Cu A-[ym-b-Øn hn-i-zo-i-cn- p- p- v. ssp-h C- -\-ß-fp-sS t{]m- ml- \w D- m- m t]m-ip- ]-cn-ÿn-xn \m-ihpw -` y km-[-\-ß-fp-ss hn-e-h - -\hpw C-Xn ]-cm-a -i-hn-t[- b-am-ip p. h-en-sbm-cp ]T-\-Øn-s sndn-b `m-k-amwv Cu dn-t m v. Iq-Sp-X A-dn-bm Xm-Xv-]-cy-ap- -h v F- sh-_v-vssk- v k-μ -in- mw. {][m-\ I-s -Ø-ep-Iƒ A-[ym-b-ß-fn-eq-sS A-[ymbw 1: B-tKm-f Im-emh-ÿm am-xr-i-ifpw (global climate models) A-h-bp-sS A-]-cym-]v-X-X- Ifpw `m-hn-bn-se Im-em-hÿ-sb Ip-dn- v ]-d-bm sf.]n.kn.kn s]m-xp Nm-{In-I am-xr-i-isf (general circulation models) B-Wv {]-[m-\-ambpw B-{i-bn- n-cn- p- Xv. C-Xn-s A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-em-Wv Im-emh-ÿmhy- Xn-bm\-sØ a-\p-jy-\n anx lcn-x-kr-l-hm-x-ißfp-ambn _- n- n- n-cn- p- -Xpw. \memw dn-t m - n-se \n-k-a-\-߃ im-kv-{xo-bamb am - -ß-fn-eq-sS F-Øn-t - -hb. a-dn- v I-W- ns I-fn-I-fn-eq-sS-bpw km-t -Xn-IXzw \n-d- c-n-\-bneq-ss-bpw H-cp Iq- w im-kv-{x- \-S-Øn-bn-cn- p- A-`n-{]m-b {]-I-S-\-am-Wv. {]-h-n-\-ß-f km-[y-x-i-fm- Wv X-߃ ap-t m- v h-bv- p- -sx- sf.]n.kn.kn \n-e-]m-sv ap -Iq Pm-ay-am-bn Aw-Ko-I-cn- m-\m-hn. \n-e-hn-ep- Im-emh-ÿm am-xr-i-iƒ `q-an-bpss {]-kcn-x Du - -Øn-s k-a-xp-en-x-bpss (earth s radiative energy balance) _-e-x-{ w (physics) Ir-Xyam-bn I-W- m- p- -Xn H-cp ]-cm-p-b-amwv. Cu Du - -Øn D- m-ip- A-k- p-en-xmhÿ Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv h - -\-hn-t\- mƒ A-s - n A-Xn-s\m- w Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-\v Im-c-W-am- Ip- p v. am-xr-i-bn-se A\-h[n A-]m-I-X-Iƒ ta-l-ßfp-ss cq-]o-i-cw-sø Ip-dn pw A-h-bp-sS {]-h -Ø-\ßsf Ip-dn pw Ir-Xy-am-bn a-\- n-em- p- -Xn-\v X-S- -amwv. Cu A-]m-I-X-Iƒ I-s -Ø-ep-I-fpw {]-h-n-\-ßfpw X-Ωn hen-b A -cw D- m-im C-S-bm- n-bn- p v. 10

11 {][m-\-s hkvxp-x-iƒ Npcp- -Øn a-g-bn D- m-ip- A-kzm-`m-hn-I-X-Iƒ Ir-Xyambn a-\- n-em- p- -Xn I-ºyq- am-xr-i-iƒ D-]-tbm- Kn- p- ]T\w A-tº ]-cm-p-b-amwv. {]-txy-in- v C- y ta-j-e-bn D- m-ip- th-\ a-g-sb Ip-dns m pw a-\- n-em- m I-ºyq- am-xr-i-iƒ- v I-gn- n- n. F- m a-g-bp-w A-Xp-am-bn _- -s - p- m- Ip- {]-Xn-`m-k-ßfpw Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm\-sø kzm-[o-\n- p- -Xm-bn ]T-\-ß-fn sx-fn- n- p v. A-[ymbw 2: hn-e-bn-cp-ø L-S-I-ßfpw td-un-tb- ohv t^m-gv-knwkpw `q-an-bp-ss NqSn-t\m-Sp- {]-Xn-I-cW-sØ kw-_- n v sf.]n.kn.kn kzo-i-cn- n-cn- p- am-xr-i bp- n- v \n-c- p- -X-s - v im-kv-{xo-b ]T-\-ß-fn sx-fn- n- p v. i-cnbm-b hn-e-bn-cp-ø Im-em-h-ÿ kw-_- n- I-W- p-i-fpss Du-Xn-s -cp- n- hy- - am- pw. ta-l-ß-fp-ss cq-]o-i-c-whpw k-ap-t{zm-]-cn-x-e- Øn-se Xm-]-\n-ebpw X-Ωn _- n- n- p- sx-fn-hp- Iƒ im-kv-{x- I-s -Øn-bn- p v. A[n-I Nq-Sv A- -co- -Øn-te- v ]p-d- - p- {]-Xn-`m-k-Øn-\v CXv Im-c-W-am-Im-dp v. C-Xv C-{Xbpw Imew Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv ]p-d- - sim- p- m-b Xm-]-hy-Xn-bm- \-Øn-\v A-\p-]q-c-I-amWv. `mhn-bnepw AXp-Xs kw`hn-t - mw. Fbv-tdm-tkm-fp-I-fp-sS X-Wp- n- ti-jnsb sf.]n.kn.kn h m-sx hn-e-ipd- p I p. hy-hkm-b hn-]v-f-h Im-e-Øn-\v ap-ºv ap-x l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ßfp-ss {]-`m-hw sim- p m-b Xm-]-h - -\-hn-s\ XSbmt\m e-lq-i-cn- mt\m D- ti-jn C-h-bv- p-s - v ]T-\-ß-fn sx-fn- n- p v. Du-jv-am-hn-se h - \-hv tem-i-øn-se k-ap-{z-ßfn \n- v ssu ao-ssy kƒ-ss^-uv ]p-d- - -s - Sm Im-c-W-am-Im-dp v. C-Xv I-S-en-\v ap-i-fn- kv-{sm - kv ta-l-߃ Iq- pw. X-Wp- n- ti-jn D- ta-lß-fm-wn-h. I-S-en-se B -K-I-fp-sS {]-h -Ø-\ ^-e-am-bp- m-ip- A-b-Un kw-bp- -ßfpw ta-l-ß-fp-ss cq-]o-i-c-w-øn-\v k-lm-b-i-amwv. C-h kq-cy-\n \n- v h-cp- c-iv-ani-sf iq-\ym-im-i-øn-te- v {]-Xn-^-en- n- v `q-an-sb X-Wp- n- p- -Xn hf-sc hen-b ]- v h-ln- p- p v. hm-bp-hn-se Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s Af-hv h - n- p-t mdpw k-ky-߃ ]p-d-øp-hn-sp- Im _-Wn kƒ-ss^-uv hm-x-i-øn-s A-fhpw h - n- pw. C-h kv-{sm-t m-kv-^n-b-dn-se-øn kq-cy-\n \n- p- hn-in-c-wß-sf {]-Xn-^-en- n- p- kƒ-t^- v F-b-tdm-tkmƒ I-Wn-I-I-fm-bn am-dpw. C-h-bv pw A- co -sø X-Wp- n- m I-gn-bpw. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s Af-hv Iq- Sp -Xv Po-h-Pm-e-ß-fp-sS h-f - v Kp-W-I-c-amWv. AXv A- -co- -Øn _-tbm-tkm-fp-i-fp-ss Af-hv h - n n m\pw ta-l-߃ D- m-im\pw k-lm-bn- pw. ta-l-ß-fp-ss h - \-hv {]-Im-iw F m Zn- p-i-fn-te pw ]-c- m Im-c-W-am-Ipw. C-Xv k-ky-ß-fp-ss h-f -sb Xz-cn-X-s -Sp-Øp-I-bpw A-Xphgn k-ky-ß-sfbpw `q-ansbbpw Im -_-Wn-s kw-`-c-w-ti-{μ-ß-fm- p-ibpw sn-øpw. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-f-hv h - n- n- v Ir-jn hym-]-i-am- p -Xv a-s m-cp l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-iamb ss\-{skv HmIv-ssk-Un-s Af-hv A- -co- -Øn h - n- m C-S-bm- p-sa-s m-cp [m-c-wbp v. Imc-Ww ]-e cm-py-ß-fn-sebpw ss\-{skv HmIvssk-Uv ]p-d- - -en-s ]-Ip-Xnbpw Im jn-i ta-j-ebn \n- mwv. F- m Im- -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns Af-hv Iq-Sp- Xpw Nq-Sv h - n- p- Xpw ss\-{skv HmIv-ssk-Un-s _-ln -Ka-\w Ip-d-bv- p-sa- v K-th-j- W-ß-fn sx-fn- n- p v. ss\-{skv HmIv-ssk-Un-s\ kw-_- n pw sx m-b hn-h-c-amwv sf.]n.kn.kn \ - In-bn-cn- p- -sx- v C-Xn \n- v a-\- n-em- mw. a-s mcp {][m-\ l-cn-x-kr-l hm-x-i-am-wv ao-ty. A- -co- -Øn-se Im- -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-fhpw ao-ty\pw X-Ωn _- -an-s - v sx-fn- n- p v. F- m A- -co- Xm-]-\n-e-bn-se h - \-hv I-tºmkv- n \n pw a- p-ap- ao-ty-\n-s Af-hv Ip-d-bv- pw. ar-k-ß-fn \n- p- ao-ty D-Xv]mZ-\w A-h-bp-sS B- lm-c-{i-a-øn am- w-h-cp-ønbpw a-cp- p-iƒ \ -Inbpw a pw Ip-d-bv- m I-gn-bpw. A-[ymbw 3: Xm-]-\ne-sb Ip-dn- p- tc-j-ifpw \nco- -W-ßfpw C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-se Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm- \w A-{]-Xo- n-x-am-sw- pw I-gn h -jßsf A-t]- n- v {Zp-X-K-Xn-bn-em-Wv C-Xv kw-`hn- p- -sx- pap- -Xn-\v D-t]m -_-e-iam-b sx-fn-hpiƒ Xm-]-\ne-sb kw-_- n- tc-j-i-fn \n- v e-`n- n- p-s - mwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss A-h-Im-i-hm-Zw. Cu \n-k-a-\-øn-\v A-h B-[m-c-am- n-bn-cn- p- tlm- n kv- n-iv {]-Xn-\n- [o-ic-ww Dƒ-s -ss-bp sx-fn-hp-iƒ ]-e {]ap-j K- th-j-icpw X- n- -f- n- p- -XmWv. Xm-]-\n-e kw-_- n- Xn-cp-Ø h-cpøn-b tc- J-Iƒ A-\p-k-cn- v B-bn-cw h -j-߃- v ap-ºv Xm-]\ne C- -tø-xn-t\- mƒ Iq-Sp-X-em-bn-cp p. I-gn ]-Xn-\m-bn-cw h -j-߃- n-ss Xm-]-\n-e-bn i-cm-i-cn 2 ap-x 3 Un{Kn ^m-sc -lo- v h-sc h - \-hv D mbn- p- -Xmbpw ImWmw. a- yime tem-i-øn-se Nq-Sp-Ime-sØ Ip-dn- p- tc-j-iƒ hn-im-ehpw Ir-Xy-hp-amWv. A m - n-, B-{^n-, B - niv, Gjy, bq-tdm- v, sx-t A-ta-cn- 11

12 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w, hs-t A-ta-cn- Xp-Sßn-b ÿ-e-ß-fn \n- p- hn-h-c-߃ h- v hy-xykv-x am - -ß-fn-eq-sS ]T-\-߃ \-S-Øp- K-th-j-I C-Xv I-s -Øn-bn- p v. D-]-cn-X-e dn-t m -Unw-Kv kv-t -j-\p-i-fn \n- p- Um- -Ifpw sf.]n.kn.kn B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-sØ Ip-dn- p- \n-k-a-\-øn-se-øm sx-fn-hp-i-fm-bn D-]-tbm- Kn- n- p- v ap-x 2005 h-sc-bp- Im-e-b-f-hn A- -co- Du-jv-am-hn 0.74 Un{Kn sk -jy-kn-s h - -\ D- m-bn- p-s - m-wv A-h-cp-sS \n-k-a-\w. Cu tc-j-iƒ X-߃- v A-\p-Iq-eam-b co-xn-bn h-f-s m- Sn- -Xm-sW- v A-`n-{]m-b-ap v. l-cn-xkr-l hm-x-i-ßf m-ø hm-x-i-߃ sim- p- m-ip- A -_ lo v sf-e v (UHI) F- {]-Xn-`mk-sØ Ip-dn- mwv A\ptbm-Py-a m-ø Xn-cp-Ø-ep-Iƒ h-cp-øn-bxv. Cu A-]m- IX ]-cn-l-cn- m {]-bm-k-amwv. Imc-Ww sndn-b ]- - W-ß-fn-se bp.f v.sf t]mepw A-hn-Sp-sØ l-cn- XKrl-hm-XI {]-`m-h-øn-s txm-xv Ip-d- p-im-wn- pw. Ccp-]Xmw \q- m- n-s A-hkm-\ c- v Z-i- I-ß-fn Xm-]h - \-hv km-h-[m-\-øn B-bn- ps - v D-]-{K-l-ß-fn \n- p- Ir-Xy-X-bp- hn-h-c-߃ sx-fn-bn- p p. C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- ns B-Zy Z-i-I-ß-fn D m-b Xm-]\n-e h - -\-hp-ambn Xm-c-Xayw sn-bv-xm hen-b Ip-d-hm-Wv A-hkm- \ Z-i-I-ß-fn D- m-bn-cn- p- -sx pw D-]-{K-l߃ ti-j-cn- sx-fn-hp-iƒ kq-nn- n- p p. C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n Im-W-s -Sp- Xm-]-h - - \-hn-s co-xn Im-emh-ÿm am-xr-i-i-fp-ss k-lm-b-tømss {]-h-nn- co-xn-bn \n- vv Xn-I pw hy-xy-kv-x-amwv. C-Xv kw-_- n- v A-ta-cn- Iv-ssfa- v sn-bv- v t{]m- {Kmw \-SØn-b \n-co -Ww tnmzyw sn-øm I-gn-bm- Ø-XmWv. F m l-cn-xkr-l am-xr-i-ifpw DjvW-ta-Le-bnse D-b-c-ß-fn Nq-Sv Iq-Sp- -Xm-bm-Wv Im-Wn- p- Xv. ]-Øv In-tem-ao- D-b-c-Øn Xm-sg D- -Xn-s Cc- n Nq-Sv C-h tc-j-s -Sp-Øpw. F- m _-eq-wp-iƒ D-]- tbm-kn- v ti-j-cn- hn-h-c-߃ C-Xn-s\-Xncm-b ^-e-am- Wv \ -Ip- Xv. Nq-Sv Iq-Sp- n-s - v am-{x-a ap-i-fn-te- v sn -p-t mdpw Nq-Sv sn-dp-xm-bn Ip-d-bp-I-bm-sW pw Cu \n-co -Ww kq-nn- n- p p. B - n-iv {]-tz-i-ßfm-b {Ko -em Uv ap-xem-b {]-tz-i-ß-fn \n- v ti-j-cn- hn-h-c-ß-f-\p-k-cn- v 1930 B-Wv Xm-]\n-e ]-c-am-h-[n-bn F-Øn-bXv. A-Sp-Ø Z- i-i-ß-fn-se mw Xm-]\n-e Ip-d-bp-I-bm-bn-cp p. Xm-]\ne ]-c-am-h-[n-bn FØn-b ti-j-ap- Im-e-b-f-hn ( h j-߃ apºv) ÿn-c-x-bn m-ø H-cp Nq-Sv Ip-d-b D- m-bn-cp- -Xm-bn Zo -L-\m-fp-I-fm-bp- ]T- \-߃ kq-nn- n- p p. A- -tø-xn-s\ A-t]- n- v Xm- ]-\n-e-bn 2.5 Un{Kn sk -jy-kn-s Ip-dhmWv Ct mƒ. A m - n- -bp-ss i-cmi-cn Xm-]-\n-e-bp-sS N-cn{Xw C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-se Xm-]-\-Øn-\v H-cp sx-fnhpw \ - Ip- n. F- m A m - n-iv D-]-Zzo-]n A-Sp-Ø-Im-e- Øm-bn Nq-Sv Iq-Sp- -Xn-s kq-n-\-i-fp-s - nepw 1970 apx `q-j-fi-øn-s Dƒ-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn \n-e-\n - p- Nq-Sv Ip-d-bm-\p- {]h-w-x \n-ch-[n K-th-j-W kw- L-߃ tc-j-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p- v. A-[ymbw 4: ln-a-]m-fniƒ, I-S-ense sfkv, a-g/ a- p-hogvn, k-ap-{z \nc- v F- nh-sb Ip-dn- p- \nco- -W-߃ en- n sf-kv G-Pn-\v ti-jw temi-sø ln-a- ]m-fn-i-sf mw D-cp-Ip-I-bmWv. F- m A- -co- -Øn Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s Af-hv Iq-Sn-b-Xp-sIm- v D-cp-I-en-s \nc- v Iq-Sn-b-Xm-bn sx-fn-hp-i-fn. C-Xn \n- v ln-a-]m-fn-iƒ D-cp-Ip- Xpw A- -co- - Ønse Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-fhpw X-Ωn _- -an-s - v a-\- n-em- mw. I-gn- G-Xm\pw Z-i-I-ß-fm-bn A m - n -bnse I-S-ense sf-kn-s hym-]v-xn h - n- p-sim- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. 1990I-fn I- sf-kv ]m-fn-i-fp-ss in-yneo-i-c-w-øn-\v Im-c-W-amb-Xv {]-Ir-Xn-{]-Xn-`m-k-ß-fmsW- v sx-fn- n- p v. Cu {]-Xn-`m-kw ap Im-e-ßfnepw D- m-bn-cp p, h-cpwim-e-ß-fn Xp-S-cp-Ibpw snøpw. A- -co- -Øn-se Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns A-f-hp-am-bn C-Xn\pw bm-sxm-cp _- -hp-an-s - v hy- -amwv. B niv 2007se o-w-øn \n- v I-c- Ib-dn -gn p. a-g, a- p-hogv-n Xp-S-ßn-bh- Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Up-am-bn _- -an m-ø {]-Xn`m-k-ß-fm-sW- m-wv B-tKm-f-X-e-Øn \-S- ]T-\-߃ sx-fn-bn- p- Xv. Nq-Sv Iq-Sp- -X-\p-k-cn- v a-g-bp-ss e`y-x Iq-Sp- - Xm-bn sx-fn-hp-i-fn. B-{^n-, B - n-, Gjy, bq-tdm v, hs-t A-ta-cn-, sx-t A-ta-cn- Xp-Sßnb ÿ-e-ß-fn \-SØn-b ]T-\-ß-fn-sem pw a-g-sbbpw a-\p-jy C-S-s]-S sim- p- B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-sØbpw _- n- n- p- sx-fn-hp-iƒ e-`n- n- n. I-W- p-iƒ A-\p-k-cn- v tem-i-øn-se \-Zn-I-fnse P-e-Øn-s A-f-hn 1951 ap-x 2000 h-sc-bp- Im-e-b-f-hn hen-b hy-xym-k-sam pw h- n- n. Xm-]\n-e Iq-Sp -Xv tem-i-øn-se \-Zn-I-fp-sS H-gp- n-s\ Im-cy-am-bn _m-[n- p-sa- I-ºyq- A-[n-jvTn-X am-xr- I-Iƒ D-]-tbm-Kn- p- {]-h-n-\w sx- m-sw- mwv Cu I-W- p-iƒ kq-nn- n- p- -Xv. C-t m-g-tø-xn-t\- mƒ Nq-Sv Ip-Sp-X-em-bn-cp- ap -Im-eß-sf A-t]- n- v C-t mƒ sh- -s m- -ß-fp-sSbpw h-cƒ- -bp-ssbpw F-Æ-Ønepw hen-b Ipd-hv h- n- p v. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv aq-e-ap- m-ip- B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w A m - n- -bn-sebpw {Km -em Unsebpw ln-a-]m-fni-sf th-k-øn \-in- n- p-sa- pw A-Xv hen-b Zp-c- -Øn I-em-in- p-sa- p-ap A-h- Im-i-hm-Z-sØbpw tem-i-øn-s hnhn-[ `m-k-ß-fn \-S- \n-ch-[n ]T-\-߃ sh p-hn-fn- p- p v. A m - 12

13 {][m-\-s hkvxp-x-iƒ Npcp- -Øn n- -bp-ss Im-cy-Øn sf.]n.kn.kn \n-k-a-\-ß-fp-ss F-Xn tn-cn-bn-emwv Cu ]T-\-߃- v ]n- n {]-h - Øn- h. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uv aq-e-ap- m-ip- B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\w temi-sø CØ-cw Zp-c- -ß-fn \n- v kwc- n- p-sa- m-wv A-h-cp-sS A-`n-{]mbw. A-Sp-Ø-Im-e-sØßpw k-ap-{z-\n-c- v D-bcp -Xns txmxv IqSnbn- n. k-ap-{z-\nc- v D-b-cp -Xv kw-_- n- {]-[m-\ L-S-Iß-sf Ip-dn-s mw sx m-b [m-c-w-i-fmwv sf.]n.kn.kn h- p-]p-e -Øn-bXv. k-ap-{z-\n-c- n-s\ _m- [n- p- ]-e L-S-I-ß-fpw \n-an-jw txmdpw am-dn-s m- n-cn- p- -h-bmwv. {Ko -em Un \n- pw A m - n- -bn \n pw a- p-cp-in k-ap-{z-ß-fn-se-øp- P-e- Øn-s Af-hv, kap-{z-p-e-øns BsI-bp k pex XpS-ßnb Imcy-ß-fnse k n-kv m-hÿ ImcWw ]e {]Xn-`m-k-ßfpw icn-bmbn C\nbpw a\- n-em-t - n-bn-cn- p- p. AXp-sIm- v, Xm-]-\n-e-bn D- m-ip- sndn-b am -ß-fp-sS ^-e-ambn k-ap-{z-\n-c- n F{X hy-xym-k-ß-fp- m-ipw F v F-{X ani-hv ]p-e -Ønbmepw I-W- n-se-sp p-i {]-bm-k-am-wv. A-[ymbw 5: ku-c-hy-xn-bm-\-ßfpw Im-emh-ÿmN- {I-ßfpw sf.]n.kn.kn hn-e-bn-cp-ø A-\p-k-cn- v kqcy-\n \n- p- hn-in-c-w-ß-fp-ss ^-e-am-bn 1750 apx D- m-bn- p- td-un-tb- o-hv t^m-gv-knw-kv +0.12Wm-2 BWv. a-\p-jy-s C-S-s]-S-en-eq-sS D- m-bn- p- -Xn-t\- mƒ hf-sc Ip-d-hm-WnXv Wm-2 B-Wv a-\p-jys C-S-s]-S-en-eq-sS D- m-bn- p- -sx- mwv sf.]n.kn.kn-bp-ss A-h-Im-i-hmZw. F- m I-gn- \q- m- p-i-fn D m-b Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\-øn-s {][m-\ Imc-Ww kq-cy-\m-sw- m-wv an- ]T-\-ßfpw sx-fn-bn- p- Xv. Hcp tkmfm ssk n-fn kq-cy-\n \n- p- Du - -Øn-s A-f-hn 0.1 i-x-am-\-øn-s hy-xymkta D- m-imdp q. F- m \q- m- p-iƒ sim- v henb hy-xym-kw D- m-bn-cn- m-\p- km-[y-x-bp v. t\tc adn v kq-cy-\n \n- p- Aƒ-{Sm-h-be- v hnin-c-w-ßfp-ss A-f-hn tkmfm ssk n-fn-t\- mƒ hen-b hy-xym-k-ap mimw. kv-{smt m-kv-^n-b-dnse Hm-tkm-Wn D- m-bn-s - n-cn- p- am- w C-Xp-am-bn tn -Øp-hm-bnt - -XmWv. ku-c- m- n-s Xo-{h-X-bnepw {K-l-߃- n-s-bn-se Im n-i ta-j-e-bnepw BWv G hpw henb hy-xn-bm-\-߃ D- m-ip- Xv. ]-g-bim-e Im-em-h-ÿ ]cn-tim-[n- m kq-cys Im n-i {]-h -Ø-\hpw Xn-f- hpw `q-an-bp-ss Xm-]-\n-e-bp-ambn A-Sp-Øv _- -s - n-cn- p- -Xmbn a-\- n-em-ipw. Im -_ ssu HmIv-sskUpw Xm-]-\nebpw X-Ωn-ep- -Xn-t\- mƒ A-Sp-Ø _- -am-wnxv. kq-cy-s {]-h Ø-\w F-ß-s\-bm-Wv Im-emhÿ-sb _m-[n- p- -sx- v a-\- n-em- m tim-kv-an- Iv In-c-W-߃- k-lm-bn- pw. kq-cy-\n-se Im n-i {]-h Ø-\w Iq-Sp-tºmƒ A- -co- -Øn-s Xm-tg X- nte- v I-S- p-h-cp tim-kv-an-iv In-c-W-ß-fp-sS Af-hv Ip-d-bpw. C-Xv kq-cy-{]-im-iw {]-Xn-^-en- n- m ti-jnbp- ta-l-ß-fp-ss cq-]o-ic-ww a-μo-`-hn- n- p-itbm C m-xm- p-itbm sn-øm Im-c-W-amIpw. X-Xv-^-e-ambn `q-an-bn F-Øp- kq-cy-in-c-ß-fpss Af-hv Iq-Sp-w AXv `q-an-tbm-sv A-Sp-Øv In-S- p- hm-bp Nq-SmIm\pw B-Xy- n-i-am-bn B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn-\v Im-c-W-am-Im\pw CS-bm-Ipw. ku-tcm -hy-xn-bm-\-߃ v a- p-ho-gv-n, h-cƒ-, sh- -s m w, a-g Xp-S-ßn-b-hbpambp _ - sø Ip-dn- v tem-i-øn-s ]-e `m-k-ß-fnepw tc-j-s -Sp- Øn-bn- p v. Cu _- -߃ Im- -_ ssu HmIvsskUpw Im-emh-ÿm {]-Xn-`m-k-ßfpw X-Ωn-ep- _- -tø- mƒ i- -amwv. ku-c-{]-h -Ø-\-߃ Im-emh-ÿm hy-xn-bm- \Øn D m- p {]{Inb Xn-I pw k- o -Æ-amWv. C-Xv kw-_- n- p- kn- m- -ß-fn A-[n-Ihpw im-kv-{xo-b-am-bn sx-fn-bn- m-\m-bn- n. Im -_ ssu HmIv-sskUpw B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\hpw X-Ωn-ep- _- hpw Ir-Xy-am-bn sx-fn-bn- m-\mbn- n-s v Im-emh-ÿm im-kv-{x- kω-xn- -Ww. A-[ymbw 6: {]- p-œamb Im-em-h-ÿbpw (extreme weather) \n-co- -W-ßfpw NqSm-b `q-an h-cƒ-, ag, sh- -s m w, sim-sp- m v, Np-g-en- m v, Im- p-xo Xp-Sßn-b \nc-h[n {]-Ir-Xn Zp-c- -߃- v A-Sn -Sn km- n-bm-ti- n h-cp-sa- mwv sf.]n.kn.knbp-ss I-s -Ø. Xm-] h- - \-hv G- hpw Iq-Sp-X A-\p`-h-s -s v sf.]n.kn.kn X-s ]-d- I-gn- \q- m- v ]cn-tim-[n- m Cu \n-k-a-\-øn henb Im-cy-an-s - v a-\- n-em-ipw. tam-iw Im-em-h-ÿ-bnte- v `q-an \o-ßp- -Xn-s F-Sp-Øp-]-d-b-Ø- H-cp kq-n-\bpw I-s -Øm-\m-bn- n. B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øn-s ^-e-am-bn I-Sp-ØtXm Im-ew sx- n-bp- txm B-b h-cƒ- -sbm pw D- m-bn- n. B-{^n-, Gjy, a- v `q-j-fi-߃ F- n-hn-s-ßfn \n- p- sx-fn-hp-iƒ A-Sn -Sn h-cƒ D- m-im- \p- km[y-x X- n- -f-bp- -h-bmwv. Im-emh-ÿm N-cn-{X-Øn tc-j-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p- I-Sp-Ø h-cƒ- -Iƒ t]m-epw `q-an-bp-ss Xm-]\n-e Ip-d-hm-bn-cp- Im-e-Øp mb h-cƒ- -I-tf- mƒ ImTn\yw Ip-d- -h-bm-bn-cp p. NqSp-Iq-Sn-sb p ]d-b-s -Sp C-t m-g-tø- mƒ sh- -s -m w Akm-[m-c-Whpw A-]-I-S-I-c-hp-am-bn-cp - Xv en- n sf-kv G-Pn-em-bn-cp p. Gjy, bq-tdm v, hs-t A-ta-cn- F- n-hn-s-ß-fn sh- -s m- -Øn-s F-Æhpw \-ioi-c-w ti-jnbpw C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n Ip-d- n- p v. 13

14 Imemh-ÿm hy-xn-bm-\w H-cp ]p-\ Nn -\w D-jv-W-taJ-em k-ap-{z-ß-fp-ss D-]-cnX-e Du-jv-amhv h - n- p- -Xn-\m D-jv-W-taJ-em {]-tz-i-ß-fn sim-sp- m pw Np-g-en- m pw Iq-Sp-X Xo{h-am-Ip-sa v sf.]n.kn.kn hn-e-bn-cp-øn-bn-cp- p. F- m A-{]- Xo n-x Xm-]-h - \-hv D- m-bn F- p- ]-d-b-s -Sp- C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n temi-øv sam-øøntem G-sX- nepw {]-txy-i ta-j-ebntem Np-g-en- m- p-i-ƒ A-Sn - Sn ho-in-b-sn- p-itbm Iq-Sp-X A-]-I-S-Im-cn B-Ip-Itbm sn-bv-xn- n. C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-s A-hkm-\ `m-k-øp mb F \nt\m k-tx Hm-kn-te-j km-l-n-cy-߃ A-h-bp-sS F-Æhpw i- nbpw F-Sp-Øv ]cn-tim-[n- m Ah A-{]-Xo- n-xambn-cp n-s - v sx-fn-bpw. C-Xn-\v ]n p-w \ -Ip- \n-ch-[n \n-co- -W-߃ ti- J-cn- -s - n- p v. ]-g-bim-e tc-j-i-fn \n- v hy- - am-ip -Xv `q-an-bp-ss Nq-Sv C- -tø- mƒ Iq-Sn-bn-cp- k-a-b-ß-fn F \nt\m k-tx Hm-kn-te-j Ip-dbp-Itbm A-{]-Xy- -am-hp-itbm sn-bv-xn- p-s - mwv. Nq-Sp temi-øv a-g hy-xym-k-s -Sp-sa pw Xo-{h-am-Ip-sa- pap hn-e-bn-cp-ø AwKo-I-cn- m-\mhn. C-Xv sx- m-sw- v kq-nn- n- p- \n-co- -W-߃ \n-e-hn-ep- v Xm-\pw. Cu hn-h-c-߃ A-\p-k-cn- v ku-c- {]-h -Ø-\-ß-fn-ep- m-ip- Nm-{In-I hy-xn-bm\-ß-tfm- Sm-Wv a-g Iq-Sp-X {]-Xn-I-cn- p- Xv. en- n sf-kv G-Pn-\v ti-jw `q-an-bp-ss Nq-Sv Iq-Sn-s m- n-cn- p-i-bmwv. Cu {]-{In-b G-Xm- v 150 h -j-am-bn Xp-S-cp- p. F- m {]- p-œam-b Im-em-hÿ A-Sn -Sn D- m-ip-itbm A-Xn-s Xo{h-X h - n- p-itbm sn-bv-xn- n ap-x 2002 h-sc-bp- Im-e-b-f-hn A- co- -Øn-se Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-f-hn 20 i-x-am-\w h - \-hv D- m-bn- p v. F- m C-Xv hst A-ta-cn- - `q-j-fi-ønse a- p-im-e-øns B-cw`sØtbm A-Xn-s ssz -LysØtbm _m-[n- n- n. ]t a- p-ho-gv-n-bnepw Xp-S - p- m-ip- Zp-cn- X-ß-fnepw Ip-d-hp- mbn. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-f-hn-ep mb h - \-hv sim-sp- m- paqe-ap- m-ip IS-en-f- -ßfpsS F-Ætam i ntbm h - n- m Im-c-W-am-bn- n. a-dn- v A-h-bp-sS FÆhpw i- nbpw Ip-d-bv- p-i-bm-wv sn-bv-x-sx- v ]T-\-߃ kq-nn- n- p p. icm-icn A- -co- Xm-]\n-e D-b-cp- -X-\p-kcn- v Nq-Sn-se Nm eyw Ip-d-bp- -Xm-bm-Wv Im-em-Im-eß-fm-bp- \n-co- -W-߃ sx-fn-bn- p- Xv. hfsc ]g-bxpw ]pxn-bxpw Ime-ßfnse Nq-Sv IqSn-b h -jßfpw Nq-Sv Ip-d- h -j-ßfpw X-Ωn Xm-c-X-ay-s - SpØn ]Tn- m C-Xv hy- -am-ipw. B-tKm-f-Xm]-\w Iq-Sp-X {]- p-_v[am-b Im-em-h-ÿ-bn-te pw Xm-]\ne h - -\-hn-te pw \-bn- p-sa- A-h-Im-i-hm-Z-Øn-\v ]n p-w \ -Ip- hn-h-c-ß-sfm pw tem-i-øn-s H-cp `m-k-øp-\n pw I-s -Øm I-gn- n- n. C-cp-]Xmw \q- m- n-s Ah-km-\sØ ct m aqt m Z-i-I-ß-fn tem-i-øn-s Nn-e `m-k-ß-fn Im p-xo-bn-eqss \miw Iq-Sp-Itbm Ip-d-bp-Itbm snbv- X `q-hn`mkw B pw Xn-cn- -dn-bm-hp- -XmWv. F- m tem-iw sam-ø-øn F-Sp-Øm B-tKm-f-Xm-]-\hpw Im- p-xobpw X-Ωn bm-sxm-cp _- -hp-an-s - v a-\- n- em- mw. A-[ymbw 7: Im -_ ssu HmIv-sskUpw Po-h-Pme-ßfpw A- -co- -Øn Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns A-f-hv 300 ]n.]n.fw h - n- p -Xv sndn-b k-kyß-fp-ss D-Xv-]m-Z-\- -a-x-bn aq n-sem- v h - -\-bp- m- pw. {]-Im-i-kw-iv-tf-j-W-Øn-\v aq- v am - -ßfn GXv D-]-tbm-Kn- p- k-ky-ß-fnepw C-Xv A-\pIq-e {]-Xn-Ic-Ww D- m- pw. a-c-ß-fn C-Xn-s {]-h Ø- \w C-Xnepw i- -amwv. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns A-f-hn-se h - -\-bp-ss Kp-W-^-e-߃ P-e-k-kyßfpw {]-tbm-p-\-s -Sp-Øp- p v. B -KIƒ, ssa-t{imss^- vkv, ssa-t{im B -K-Iƒ F- o P-e-k-ky-߃ C-Xn-\v D-Zm-l-c-W-amWv. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s Af-hv Iq-Sp - Xv kky-ßsf h-cƒ A-Xn-Po-hn- m Iq-Sp-X {]m-]v-x-cm- pw. C-Xn-\v ]pdsa P-e Zu -e`y-ap- km-l-n-cy-ß-fn h-f-cp k-ky-ß-fn _-tbm-am-kv D-Xv-]m-Z-\hpw Iq-Sp-X-em-bn-cn- pw. A- -co- -Øn Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns Af-hv h - n- p -Xv k-ky-ß-fp-ss h-f - -bv- v Bh-iy-amb t]mji-ß-fpss Ipdhv, X-S- -am-ip- a-æn-se e-h-wmwiw, D-b - A- -co- Du-jv-am-hv, kq-cy-{]-im-i-øn-s e-`y-x-bn-se Ipd-hv Xp-S-ßnbh-bpsS ^-e-ß-ƒ e-lq-i-cn- m k-lm-bn- pw. Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s A-f-hv IqSn-b A- o- -Øn XWp p IqSn-bmepw F- v Ip-d-hp-I-fp- m-bmepw k-kyß-fp-ss h-f - m \nc- v Iq-Sp-X-em-bn-cn- pw. A- -co- -Øn Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Uns A-f-hv Iq-Sp- -X-\p-k-cn- v {]-Im-i-kw-iv-tf-j-W-hpw _-tbm-am-kv D-Xv-]m-Z-\hpw h - n- pw. Np- p-]m-sp-i-fn-se Nq-Sv Iq-Sp-tºmƒ h-f - m \nc- v t{]m- m-ln- n- m-\p- Im -_ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s ti-jnbpw Iq-Spw. Im _ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s h - \-hv hnf- I-tf- mƒ IqSp-X-embn I-f-I-fp-sS h-f - -bv- v A-\p- Iq-ea. k-ky-ß-fp-ss h-f - ]-I k-ab-sø {]Imi kw-iv-tf-j-w-øn-eq-ss am-{x-a \-S- p- Xv. Im - _ ssu HmIv-ssk-Un-s km- n[yw cm-{xn-im-e-ßfn A-h-bp-sS iz-k-\- \nc- v a-μo-`-hn- n- pw. CXpw k-ky-ß-fp-ss h-f - -bv- v k-lm-b-i-amwv. 14

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