]mã n.-fkv. G{_lmw hns-hmßn

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1 05 s^{_phcn 2018 hmeyw. 23 e w. 03 MEMBER: NEWS PAPERS ASSOCIATION OF INDIA hne ` 4.00 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Published from Thiruvalla on ]mã n.-fkv. G{_lmw hns-hmßn sf.]n.kn bn-se am-[y-a {]-h -Ø-I-cp-sS-bpw F-gp-Øp-Im-cp-sS-bpw A-tkm-kn-tb-j \n-e-hn h- p -sim- p- m- Dgn- n-en\v a{ n sfkiv sne-h-gn- Xv e w cq] c p IÆ-S-bpsS hne-bt Dt m amtfmsc Ip-º-\m-Sv: am-[y-a {]-h -Ø-I-cpsS-bpw F-gp-Øp-Im-cp-sS-bpw Iq- m-bv-a-bm-b sf.]n.kn t m-_ ao-un-b A-tkm-kn-tb-j \n-ehn h- p. P-\p-h-cn 19\v Ip-º- \m-sv \-S- t m-_ ao- n ]m- à tp- -_v tpm D-Zv-Lm-S- \w sn-bv-xp. ap A-Uo.No-^v sk-{i- -dn-bpw {]-i-kv-x-f-gp-øp- - Im-c-\p-am-b tum.un. _m-_pt]mƒ ap-jy {]-`m-j-ww \-S-Øn. ]m-ã si.kn.tpm t m- _ ao-un-b A-tkm-kn-tb-js \-b-{]-jym-]-\w \-S-Øn. A- tkm-kn-tb-j-s am - -tc-j-bpw kw-l-s-\m kw-hn-[m-\-hpw ]m- à cm-pp B-\n- m-sv hm-bn- p. A-tkm-kn-tb-j-s tem-tkm {]- Im-i-\w ]m-ã si.kn. tpm Fw.hn.^n-en- n-\v \-ev-in \n -hln- p. am-[y-a {]-h -Ø-I-cm-b d-h. tdm-bv hm-i-øm-\w, k-tlm-z-c- m-cm-b k-pn t]mƒ, tpm-bv Xm- \p-th-en, Sn.Fw. am-xyp, ]o- am-xyp h-ey-øv, ]m-ã -am-cmb ^n-en- v ]n txm-a-kv, tum. _- ty tpm -Pv, hn.]n.^n-en- v, kn- ]m-ã si.kn. kn.hn.am-xyp tpm t\m-pv tpm -Pv, hn -k tpmk-^v F- n-h B-iw-k-Iƒ t\ - p. ]m-ã -am-cm-b cm-pp ]q-h- me, kn.kn. G-{_-lmw F- n-h amcm-a Xn-cp-h- : am-cm-a I -h j a-e- -c k-`-bn-se \-ho-i-c- W-Øn-s A-S-bm-f-am-sW- v tum. tpm-k-^v am -tøm-ωm sa- {Xm-t m-eo-øm. ""th-z-hn-]-co-xam-b ]Tn- n- -ep-i-fpw Nn- -Ifpw {]-_-e-s - Im-e-Øv \-hoic-w hn-izm-k-øn-s B-flmhv D-b -Øn- n-sn- m-\m-wv am - tøm-ωm k-` 1895 am-cm-a I -h -j B-cw-`n- p- -Xv. am-cm-a ]- n-bp-ss B-d -apf a-w - p-d-øv {]-Y-a-th-Z-]-T- \ kw-k-aw \-S- p. Bw-t -b-k- `-bp-ss {]-K- -cm-b t\-xm- -fm- Wv {]-kw-k-i-cm-bn F-Øn-b-Xv. P-\-߃- v ku-i-cy-am-bn Xn-cph-N-\w ]Tn- n- p- -Xn-\v Hm-e, Cu-d, A-S- m-a-cw F- n-h D-]- tbm-kn- v ]- -sem-cp- -s - th- Zn-bm-bn. ]n- o-sv h -jw txm-dpw tn - p-h-cp- kw-k-a th-zn-bmbn C-Xv cq-]-s - p. I -h -j, {]-tz-i-øn-s H-cp k-l-i-c-w- {]-ÿm-\-am-bn am-dn. ]n - m-e- tpmpn sf- v am-xyqkv Ip-º-\m-Sv (]-Ø-\w-Xn- ): C- y s]- -t m-kv-xv ssz-h-k-`-bp-ss (sf.-]n.-kn) ap P-\-d {]-kn- U pw k-`-bp-ss ip-{iq-j-i- mcn {]-[m-\n-bp-am-b sl-t{_m _w- m-hn ]m-ã n.-f-kv. G- {_-lmw (Ip- q- v 93) I - Ør-k- n-[n-bn {]-th-in- p. sx-t - -d-ºn Ão-^ G-{_- lmw F- m-wv ]q -Æ-am-b t]cv. kw-kv-im-cw ]n- o-sv. izm-k-x-s-k-sø Xp-S - v P- \p-h-cn 30 \v D- - -gn- v Xn-cph- ]p-jv-]-kn-cn sa-un- timf-pv B-ip-]-{Xn-bn {]-th-in- n- p. Xn-cn-sI s^-{_p-h-cn \m-en- \v ]p-e -s Ip-º-\m-s `-h-\- ]m-ã kmw-ip- n k-pn a-øm-bn Nm-t m \n-e-ºq Im-tX- v {]m - n- p. t m-_ ao- v A- tkm-kn-tb-j `m-c-hm-ln-i-fmbn ]m-ã si.kn. tpm (c- m-[n-im-cn), kn.hn.am-xyp (ti-jw t]-pv 9) Øn sim- p h- p. F- m ho- pw tcm-kw aq - n- p-i-bmbn-cp- p. C- v (Xn- ƒ) cm-hn-se G-gv a-wn-tbm-ss I -Ør-k- n- [n-bn {]-th-in- p. k-`-bp-ss P-\-d sk-{i- -dnbm-bpw, tã- v sk-{i- -dn-bm-bpw, bp-h-p-\ kw-l-s-\-bm-b ]n.- ssh.-]n.f ÿm-]-i sk-{i- -dnbm-bpw, ss_-_nƒ skm-ssk- n amcm-a I sh j s^{_phcn 11 apx ]-Ø-\w-Xn- : 123 m-a-xv am-cma I -sh -j s^-{_p-hcn 11 ap-x 18 h-sc ]-ºm-\-Znbn-se am-cm-a a-w- p-d-øv \- S- pw. 11 \v D- -bv- v 2.30 \v tum. ^n-en-t m-kv am {In-tkm- Ãw am -tøm-ω h-en-b sa-{xmt m-eo-ø {]m-cw-` B-cm-[-\-bv- v t\-xr-xzw \ -Ipw. Xp-S - v am -tøm-ω k-` ta-e-[y- tum. tpm-k-^v am -tøm-ω sa- {Xm-t m-eo-ø D-Zv-Lm-S-\w snøpw. tum. bp-bm- nw am Iq-dntem-kv F- n-kv-tim- A-[y- X -h-ln- pw. Ko-h -Ko-kv am A-Ø-\m-kn-tbm-kv k-{^-{k Hm-^v C- y ti-c-f Hm-Iv-kn-enb-dn {]-kn-u m-bpw tk-h-\w sn-bv-xn- p- v. k-`-bp-ss th-z-]m- T-im-e sl-t{_m ss_-_nƒ tim-f-pn-s -bpw C- y ss_- _nƒ tim-f-pn-s -bpw Zo -L-Ime {]n -kn- B-bn-cp- p. C- y ss_-_nƒ tim-f-pn-s {]- kn-u v F-a-dn- -kpw sf.-]n.kn (ti-jw t]-pv 9) sa-{xm-t m-eo-ø, F- n-kv-tim- am-cm-b tum. Ko-h -Ko-kv am Xn-tbm-tUm-jy-kv, tpm-k-^v am _ - -_m-kv, txm-a-kv am Xn-a-Yn-tbm-kv, tum. sf-k-iv am ]o-e-iv-kn-t\m-kv, tum. G- {_-lmw am ]u-tem-kv, tum. am-xyq-kv am a- m-dn-tbm-kv, {KntKm-dn-tbm-kv am kv-sx-^m-t\mkv, tum. txm-a-kv am Xo-tØmkv, _n-j-]v ]o- tu-hn-uv Cu-, tum. {^m -kn-kv kp-μ - cm-pv, tum. B. cm-pv-ip-am, tum. hn-t\m-zv hn-iv-s F- n-hcm-wv ap-jy {]-kw-k-i. (ti-jw t]-pv 9) CXv \ho-i-c-w-øns AS-bmfw A-. B-[p-\n-I I-cn-kv-am- n-iv I -h -j-\p-i-fp-ss im- o-ic-w-hpw C-. th-z-]-t-\-ß-fn-eqss ]p-xn-b B-flo-b-am-\-߃ Z -in- p- -Xn-\pw B-flo-b- -kmaq-ln-i {]-Xn-_- -X D-b -Øp- - Xn-\pw ssz-h-cm-py hy-h-ÿn-xnbn k-`-bp-ss Z -i-\w ]p-xp- p- -Xn-\pw B-lzm-\w \ -Ip- th-zn-b-s{x. k-`-bp-ss km-aq-ln- I Z -i-\w kz-cq-]n- p- -Xn I -h -j-s ]- v h-ep-xm-wv. km-aq-ln-i Xn- -Iƒ-s -Xn-sc-bp- t]m-cm- -Øn-\v I -h -j-\v {]-tnm-z-\w \ -In-bn- p- v. \n-cmew-_-cpw \n - -\-cp-am-b P-\-ßtUm. tpmk^v am tømωm sa{xm-t m-eoøm Øv k-`-bp-ss an-j-\-dn {]-h -Ø- \-Øn-s ""ssi-i-fm-b'' kp-hnti-j {]-kw-k kw-l-øn-s ]- m-fn-ø-hpw t\-xr-xz-hpw I h -j-\p e-`n- p. ]n- o-sv A-Xv k-`-bp-ss ap-j-ap-{z-bm-bn, ti-c-f ss{i-kv-x-h k-aq-l-øn-s k- l-i-c-w-øn-s -bpw Xn-I- \n-jv-s-t_m-[-øn-s -bpw A- co- -Øn \n- v Xo-jv-W-am-b hn-izm-k-øn-s -bpw Zo-]v-X-am-b km- y-øn-s -bpw ]p-xn-b ]-Shp-I-fn-te- v I -h -j k-`sb B-\-bn- p. am-cm-a I h -j-\v _-lp-p-\-ß-fn \n- v e-`n- p- k-l-i-c-ww «m-l-\ob-am-wv.'' k-`m Xm-c-Ibn-se te- J-\-Øn-em-Wv C-ß-s\ ]-d- Xv. ""am-cm-a I -h -j-\v A- Xn-t -Xm-b X-\n-a-bp- v. hn-]p-eam-b ]-c-ky-ß-fn-eq-ss P-\-ß-sf B-I -jn- p- A- p-x tcm-kim- n k-tω-f-\-tam s]-cp- mtfm B-flo-b k-tω-f-\-tam k-`-bp-ss ti-c-f tã- v sk-{i- -dn-bm-bn 17 h -jw tk-h-\w sn-bv-xp. Xp-S - v P-\-d sk-{i- -dn-bm-bn 10 h -j-hpw P\- d {]-kn-u m-bpw B-dv h -j-hpw k-`m-t\-xr-xz-øn D- mbn-cp- p. A-ta-cn- -bn-se sf.-]n.kn ^m-an-en tim -^-d kn-s ÿm-]-i-\p-am-wv. tfm-sp- I-S- m-sv G-s -Sp- p- a-μn-c-߃, km-aq-ly-t -a-]- - Xn-Iƒ, ÿm-]-\-߃ F- n-h (ti-jw t]-pv 9)

2 2 ka-im-eni ]{XnI FUn-t m-dn-b s^{_phcn 05 snb am tpm h Kokv amt\-pnwkv FUn- ^n n cmpp lqã No^v FUn- A Ip v Ce- q Hmh kokv FUn- DΩ F_-t\-k Hmh kokv Ub-d-Œ tum. Fw.-F-kv.kmap-h dkn-u v FUn-t gvkv Ipcym-t mkv txm -Øn Pm kn F. h Kokv Atkm-kn-tb v FUn-t gvkv jn_p ap -wim- n h Kokv amxyp Nm eokv amxyp sdpn aqtesw amxyqkv ]n. tpm tpmkv sf -c- Sn sd n tp _v tpm Pv s_ n sim p-h-s-t k_v FUn-t gvkv sp n h Kokv spbv -txm-akv amen-bn s]m Ω kmw kvs]jy dnt m t gvkv osbkv I -amw-aq- n sdpn h Kokv shæn- pfw ^n n s_ -an h Kokv PÃkv N{μ-t_mkv kmw amxyp \yqtbm v bp.si. P\-d tim -Hm Un-t\- PnPn _tdmu bp.-f.-c. P\. tim -Hm Un-t\- tpm aømbn AXn-cp- tpm. tim -Hm Un-t\- spbnwkv taa\ tim -Hm Un-t\-t gvkv a p ]osn-tb- s_ n ]m - H etlma cmp G{_lmw tam kn hf- -h w Umf v tpmbn kmw tp _v Im\U hm jni hcn-kwjy C y-bn : 150 cq] bp.-f-kv.-f. & Im\U : $ 50 Cw v : 20 ]u v Kƒ^v cmpy-߃ : 2000 cq] hcn-kwjy Ab-bvt hnemkw acp- πmt m w timwπivkv Xncp-h- - 1, tic-f. t^m : I sh j ]d-ºp-i-fnse {InkvXp Hcm-bncw ]pwy-i Ω-߃ sim pw t\sm-\m-hmø ]m]- -abmwv tbip-{in-kvxp-hns ]c-a-bm-k-øm e`y-am-ip- -Xv. Ahn- SpsØ ]mh-\-c w kie ]m]-ßfpw t]m n \sω ip o-i-cn- p- p-sb p Xncp-h-N\w Dd p \ Ip- p. tbip-{in-kvxp-hns {Iqip-a-c-W-amWv a\p-jy-h KsØ sszh-tømsp \nc- n- -Xv. ]m]nbmb a\p-jy\pw ]cn-ip- -\mb sszhhpw XΩn kwk K-Øn-em- Ip- Xv tbip-{inkvxp apjm- c-am-sw ktμiw kphn-ti-j-߃ \ Ip- p. sszh-øns a\p-jy-cq]w {InkvXp-hn Z in- p- p. {InkvXphns kvt\l-øns ]q ÆX tkm tkmym Ip nse {Iqin ImWp- p. tdmam- mcpw blq-z- mcpw tbip-hns {Iqip-a-c-W-Øn\p DØ-c-hm-Zn-I-fm-bn-cn mw. F m Ahn-Sp p c w Nn n-bxv tdmam- m pw blq-z- m pw th n am{x-a-. `mcx P\-Xbv pw IqSn-bm-Wv; kie a\pjy h K-Øn\pw th n-bm-wv. sszhw a\pjy-\m-bn-xo p ]m]n-isf hos -SpØp kz K-cm-Py-Øn-\-h-Im-in- I-fm- nb alm kw`hamwv kphn-ti-j-߃ {]tlm-jn- p- -Xv. CXv Ncn-{X-Ønse \nkvxpeyxbm-wv. Cßs\ H p Ncn-{X-Øn as m-cn- epw \S- n- n-. A p-x-߃ snøp- -hsc Znhy- m-cmbpw a\pjy sszh-ß-fmbpw IcpXn A\p-K-an- mdpw Bcm-[n- m-dp-ap- v. B A\p-bm-bn-Iƒ ax-{]-ÿm-\-ß-fmbn cq]-s -Sp-Ibpw Znhy- m aq Øn-I-fmbn amdp-ibpw snøp- p. CØcw ax-{]-ÿm-\-ß-sf mw hnhn[ Xcw Bflo-b-X-bpsS D]m-k\ {Ia-߃ krjvsn- p- p. Bfl-im- n, tcmk-ku-jyw, `uxoi t\ -߃ XpS-ßnb F m hnj-b-߃ pw ]cn-lm-c-øn\mbn hnhn[ aq Øn-Isf a\p-jy B{i-bn- p- p. Bflob Bÿm\-ß-fn-te v ` -P\ {]hm-lw. t\ ImgvN-Iƒ A n v kmbqpyw AS-bp- p. Bflob ti{μ-ß-fn Znhy-ssN-X\yw Ds v Aß-s\-bp- -h hniz-kn- p- p. ax-ßfpw aq Øn-Ifpw ]e-xm-sw- nepw Ahbn-se mw hym]-cn- p ssnx\yw H m-sw pw F m \Zn-Ifpw IS-ente v ]Xn- p Xpt]mse F m Bflob {]hm-l-ßfpw {]] krjvsm-hmb sszh-øn- hebw {]m]n- p psb pw Ah Icp-Xp- p. GXp hgn-bm{x snbvxmepw tam w {]m]n- m-sa hnizm-k-øn- \m-[mcw Cu Nn m-[m-cbmwv. hnip Xncp-sh-gpØpIfn-eqsS shfn-s kxyw Cu Nn m-[m-cbv v FXn-cm-Wv. aq Øn-I-fpsS Iq -Øn {InkvXp-hns \maw tn m-\m-hp- n-, alm- m s m- tam tzh- m s m- tam A ss nƒ shfn-s -Sp-Øp {InkvXp Ahn- SpsØ c Wy {]h Ønbpw \nkvxp-ey-am-wv. tbip-{inkvxp Imem-Xo-X-\m-Wv. ]usemkv olm {InkvXp-hns\ n h Wn- p- Xv Cß-s\-bm- Wv. "Ah AZr-iy-\mb sszh-øns {]Xn-abpw k Δ-kr-jvSn pw BZy-Pm-X\pw BIp- p. kz K-Øn-ep- Xpw `qan-bn-ep- Xpw Zriyam-bXpw AZr-iy-am-bXpw knwlm-k-\-ß-fm-is I Ør-Xz-߃ BIs hmgvn-iƒ BIs A[n-Im-c-߃ BIs ki-ehpw Ah apjm- cw krjvsn- -s p; Ah apjm- chpw Ah-\m-bn pw kiehpw krjvsn- s n-cn- p- p. Ah k Δ-Øn\pw apsº-bp- h ; Ah kieøn\pw B[m-c-am-bn-cn- p- p... Ah-\n k Δ kºq W-Xbpw hkn- p-hm\pw Ah {Iqin snmcn c w sim v Ah apjm- cw kam-[m\w D m- n. `qan-bn-ep- txm kz K-Øn-ep- txm ki-esøbpw Ahs\ s m v Xt msp \nc- n- m\pw ]nxm-hn\p {]kmzw txm n.' CXmWv tbip-{inkvxp. Ahn- Sp p {Iqin snmcn c w apjm- cw sszh-tømsp \nc pw kam-[m-\hpw a\p-jy-h K-Øn-\p- m-bn. Ncn-{X-Øn Cßs\ Hcp kw`hw sbcp-i-te-an am{xta \S- n- p- q. kie a\p-jy-cp-ssbpw hos -Sp- n-\mbn sszh-]p-{x-\mb tbip- hnesimspøp Ign- p. ss{ikvxh hnizm-k-øns B[mcw CXm-Wv. CXns\ icn-sh- p- -XmWv ]pxnb \nbaw apgp-h-\pw. tbip-{in-kvxp-hn-ep hnizmkw XnI pw hy n]chpw \nkvxpey-hp-am-wv. {InkvXp-hns\ A\p-K-an- p ` ]msp- -Xn-ß-s\- bmwv: ""al-xz-{]`p acn B -cy-{iqsi t\m n Rm Cu temim-uw-_-c-߃ \jvsw \nμyw Fs -Æp-t {]iwk H p-am-{xta {InkvtX-ip-hn arxyp-xs Nn n-º-imcyw k Δhpw X c -Øn-\mbv hnsp-t Xr m cw inc- n \n v Hgp-Ipt kvt\lw ZpxJw Ch-bn _ w A pxw apƒap-sntbm AXn-t{ijvTw {]] w BsI t\sn Rm XzPn- nepw axn-bmim Cu Znhy-kvt\-l-Øn\p Rm Fs ap pw \ Io-SWw''. aq Øn-Iƒt m, {]hm-n-i- m t m ax-{]-nm-c-i- m t m \ Im-\m-hmØ ]m]- -abpw hos -Sp pw Bflkt m-j-hp-amwv tbip-{inkvxp \ Ip- -Xv. a\p-jys\ ]m]-øn \n pw hos -SpØp ]m]- a \ In \nxy-a-c-w-øn \n pw \c-i-øn \n pw tamnn- n p \nxypohs\ \ In \nxyx Dd- m- n. C{Xbpw Imcy-߃ {InkvXp-hns {Iqip-a-c-W-Øm km[n- p. ac-wsø hn p Dbn sø-gp-t {InkvXp-hn hniz-kn- p- -h v F m-h pw kpc- n-xxzw In p- n-. ]pxn-b \nbaw shfn-s -Sp-Øp {InkvXp-hn-s\-bmWv \mw {]tlm-jn-t - -Xv. \n `m-ky-h-im ]e I sh j ]d-ºp-i-fn-sebpw {IqtkUp-Ifn-sebpw {InkvXp-hn\v Cßs\ Hcp cq]-an-. BWn- -gpxpw apƒ n-co-s-hp-an- mø {InkvXphns cq]-amwv AhnsS hc p Im p- -Xv. hnem- p-døv apdn-hp-i-fn- mø {InkvXp! snt mepw cmp-h-kv{xhpw [cn ainl! BsI IqSn Hcp am{ n-is timew! sshzypxn \ne- m "_ƒ_p-iƒ AW- m Cu {InkvXp-cq]w am p t]mipw! Rm temi-øns shfn- -amsw p ]d tbip-\m-y Ccp-fn-te v \S p hcp-tºmƒ Ccp- n Ccn- p- -h v {]Imiw e`n- p- p. Ct mƒ \ap v apƒ ncosw ImWmw. Cu A\p-`-h-߃ e`n- p- p. {InkvXp Ah-cpsS \my\pw I Ømhpw sszh-hp-ambn amdp- p. Ah ]n K-an- p- Xv Cu tbip-hns\bmwv. Ah Npw_n- p- Xv Cu kvt\l kzcq-]-s\- bmwv. hw-ßp- Xv {InkvXp-hns\ am{x-am-wv. PohnXw Xs {InkvXptI{μo-Ir-X-ambn amdp- p. Pohn- p- Xpw acn- p- Xpw {InkvXp! thdn C\n Hcp Pohn-Xw. Cu kvt\lsø Dt]- n v thsdmcp aq Ønsb txsm-\m-hp- n-. thsdmcp D]m-k-\-{Iaw Bhiy-an- msx hcp- p. C\n temisø ImWp- Xv {InkvXp-hns IÆn-eq-sS. Ncn- p- Xv B hgn-bn-eqss CXmWv Ipcn-ins hgn. kxy-øns ]mx. kvt\l-øns {]Im-iw. F m A -Im-c-i- n-sbbpw txmev]n- p- -XmWv tbip-hns km n- yw. {InkvXp-hn hniz-kn- p- -h-cpss ]m]-߃ F mw am pt]m-ip- p. tbip-hns c -Øm ip o-i-cn- -s -Sp- p. im]-߃ C\n C. ]nxm- - m-cpss Xe-ap-d-I-fpsS ]m]-ßfpw im]-ßfpw Ahsc ]n XpS-cp-I-bn-. Xe-ap-d-I-fpsS im]-߃ am p In m- \mbn {]txyi t\ ImgvN-Itfm {]m -\-Itfm Bh-iy-an-. F m ]m]-ßfpw im]-ßfpw Ft - p-ambn amdn-t m-bn. ]pxnb \nbaw Aß-s\-bmWv ]Tn- n- p- -Xv. Xe-ap-d-I-fpsS ]m]-߃ \sω th -bm-sp-sa ]Tn- n- XnI pw Zpcp-]-tZ-i-am-Wv. Xe-apd-I-fpsS im]-߃ {InkvXp-hn hniz-kn- p- -hsc ]n XpS-cn-. Ah {InkvXp-hn kzx-{ -cmwv ]pxnb krjvsn-i-fm-wv. "Im ao, \mw sszh-a- ƒ F p hnfn- -s -Sp-hm, ]nxmhv F{X A[n-Imcw \ In-bn-cn- p p'. sszh-a- ƒ v Fhn-sS-bmWv ]nxm- - m-cpss im]-߃? h n- -s -S-cp-Xv. ]cn-ip- m-flm-hn-\m ap{zbn-s-s - -h-cn im]-øns Nc-Sn-. ]m]-øns bpw im]-øn-s bpw adp-hne tbipi Ømhp simspøp Xo Øp. \nxy-{]-xym-i-bmwv {InkvXphn hniz-kn- p h-cpss Ah-Im-iw. ]m]-tam-n-\hpw Bfl-c- -bp-am- Wv tbip-hn hniz-kn- p- -h-cpss Bfl-k-t m-jw. c n- -s -Sp txmss tcmkhpw `uxoi kml-n-cy-ßfpw amd-w-sa- n-. a abamb icocw {Zh-Øn\p hnt[-b-am-wv. acww ico-csø Iog- S- pw. ]p\-cp- m\ \mfn ac-wsø txmev]n v \mw D m\w snøpw. tbip-hn hniz-kn- p- -h v amc-i-tcm-k-ßtfm A]-I-S-aWßtfm kw`-hn- p- Xv Xe-ap-d-I-fpsS im]wsim- -, a\p-jy v kw`-hn- p- sx mw {InkvXp hnizm-kn-iƒ pw `- hn- mw. A px tcmk-im n C pw D v. F m-h pw kujy-am-ip-sa- n AXp A pxw A -t m. F mh pw kujyw "F m-h pw BtcmKyw' F m-h pw kar n Fs mcp ap{zmhmiyw ]pxnb \nb-a- Øn-en-. tcmktam Btcm-Ky-tam, kºtøm Zmcn-{Zytam ac-wtam Poht\m GXm-bmepw kω-xw. F p Xs -bm-sw- nepw {InkvXphns kvt\l-øn \n pw th ]n-cn- m-\m-hn-. CXmWv ]usemkv olm-bpss sszh-im-kv{xw. BZna k`-bn tcmknifp m-bn-cp- p. IS`mchpw srcp- hpap- -h-cp- m-bn-cp- p. ] n-wn, B]-Øv, ]ou\w CsX mw D m-bn. CsXms ]nxm- - m-cpss im]w sim mtwm? F{_m-b-te-J\w \sω Hm Ω-s -Sp- Øp- X Cß-s\-bmWv :""a p Nne G hpw \s mcp Dbn sø-gpt ev]p e`n-t - -Xn\v D m-cww ssis m- msx t`±yw G p. thsd Nne ]cn-lm-kw, NΩ- n, Nße, XShv Ch-bm-ep ]co A\p-`-hn- p. It dv G p, Cu -hm-fm Adp- -s - p, ]co- n- s - p, hmfm sim -s - p, PS-bm-Sp-I-fp-sSbpw timem-sp-i-fp-ssbpw txm [cn- p, _p n-ap pw D]-{Zhhpw IjvShpw kln- p. ImSp-Ifp-I-fnepw ae-i-fnepw Kpl-I-fnepw `qan-bpss ]nf p-i-fnepw Dg p he- p. temiw Ah v tbmkyw Bbn-cp- n-. Ah F mhcpw hnizm-k-øm km yw e`n- n pw hmkvzø \nhrøn {]m]n- n.'' AtX, CXmWv bym {InkvXym-\n-Xzw. F m-hcpw kujyam-ip- n-. F m-hcpw [\n-i-cm-ip- n-. F m-h pw `uxni t\ ߃ D m-ip- n-. F m-h pw kpc- n-xxzw In p- n-. ]pxnb \nbaw shfn-s -Sp-Øp {InkvXp-hn-s\-bmWv \mw {]tlm-jnt - -Xv. \n `m-ky-h-im ]e I sh j ]d-ºp-i-fn-sebpw {IqtkUp-I-fn-sebpw {InkvXp-hn\v Cßs\ Hcp cq]-an-. BWn- gpxpw apƒ n-co-s-hp-an- mø {InkvXp-hns cq]-amwv AhnsS hc p Im p- -Xv. hnem- p-døv apdn-hp-i-fn- mø {InkvXp! snt mepw cmph-kv{xhpw [cn ainl! BsI IqSn Hcp am{ n-is timew! sshzypxn \ne- m "_ƒ_p-iƒ AW- m Cu {InkvXp-cq]w am p t]mipw! Rm temi-øns shfn- -am-sw p ]d tbip-\m-y Ccp-fn-te v \S p hcp-tºmƒ Ccp- n Ccn- p- -h v {]Imiw e`n- p- p. Ct mƒ \ap v apƒ n-cosw ImWmw. ssii-fn BWn- gp-xp- v, hnem- p-dsø apdn-hp-iƒ' IÆp- I-fn \n pw kvt\l-øns civan-iƒ \ap p t\sc-bmwv \S p hcp- Xv \sω c n- m! Ahn-Sp p ]d-bp p: "hcn-i, Fs ]n mse hcn-i, ad- -, \nß-fpss {Iqip IqSn FSpØp simƒi'.

3 3 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn hn\hpw hym-jym-\hpw s^{_phcn 05 {]h-n-\-߃ hym-jym-\n- p-tºmƒ tum. k\ojv sndn-bm kxy-h-n-\sø bym ambn {]kw-kn- Ww (Rightly divide the word of God) F- -Xv X-s P-\-tØm-Sp- ssz-h-øns am- -an- m-ø I-ev-]-\-bm-Wv (2 Xn-sam. 2:15). ssz-h-h-n-\-ønse G-sXm-cp hn-j-b-hpw i-cn-bmb \n-e-bn a-\- n-em- -Ww F- n h-n-\w i-cn-bm-b \n-e-bn hn-`-pn- p-hm (hym-jym-\n- phm ) km-[n- -Ww. h-n-\w hym- Jym-\n- p- -Xn-\p F- v {]-am-wam-wp- -Xv? Hm-tcm-cp-Ø - pw bp- w F- pw B-flo-I h - - \-bv- v D-X-Ip- -sx- pw t_m- [y-ap- \n-e-bn h-n-\w hym- Jym-\n- p-hm kzm-x-{ yw D- t m? F- -Xv Ku-c-h-ta-dn-b H- cp tnm-zy-am-wv. Hm-tcm-cp-Ø - pw C-jv-S-ap- -Xv t]m-se h-n- \w hym-jym-\n- p-hm h-n-\w A-\p-h-Zn- p- n- F- -Xm-Wv H- hm- n Cu tnm-zy-øn-\p D- Ø-cw. h-n-\w hym-jym-\n- p- - Xn-\p h-n-\-øn-\p A-Xn-t -Xmb H-cp co-xn-bp- v. {]-am-w-ap- v. h-n-\w {I-ao-Ir-X-am-bn ]Tn- p- hy- n-iƒ- v A-Xv hy- - hp-am-wv. _-tcm-h-bn-ep- hn-izmkn-iƒ X-߃ tiƒ- p- h- N-\w A-ß-s\ X-s -tbm (i-cn-bm-b hym-jym-\-am-twm) F- v ]-cn-tim-[n- p- kz-`m-hw H- mw \q- m- n X-s D- mbn-cp- p. ssz-h-h-n-\w i-cn-bm-b \n-e-bn-em-twm A- -tbm hym- Jym-\n- p- -Xv F- v Xn-cn- -dn-bphm-\p- hn-th-n-\-h-cw B-Zn-a-Ime-Øv hn-izm-kn-iƒ- v D- m-bncp- p F- v hy- w. C pw sszh-p-\-øn-\p B-h-iy-ap- H- m- Wv Cu hn-th-n-\-h-cw. th-z-]p-kv-x-i Im-t\m sszh-p-\-øn-\p \-ev-i-s - -txm-ss h-n-\-hym-jym-\-øn-\p- A-Snÿm-\-{]-am-Ww ssz-hm-flm-hv hy- -am-bn \-ap- v B-te-J-\w sn-bv-xp X- p. A-Xp X-s -bm- Wv th-z-]p-kv-x-i hym-jym-\- Øn A-`n-Im-ay-am-b-Xv. A-Xv \mw C-{]-Im-cw hm-bn- p- p. ""btlm-h-bp-ss ]p-kv-x-i-øn A- t\z-jn- p hm-bn- p t\m- p-hn ; A-h-bn H- pw Im-Wm-Xn-cn- bn- ; H- n-\pw C-W C- m-xn-cn- -bp-an- ; A-h-s hm-b-t m I- ev-]n- -Xv; A-h-s B-flm-h-t{X A-h-sb Iq- n-h-cp-øn-b-xv'' (sbi-øm. 34:16). \-ap-t m ssz-hw X-s B-flm-hn-\m sh-fn-s - Sp-Øn-bn-cn- p- p. ssz-hw \-ap- v \ -In-b-Xv A-dn-hm-\m-bn ssz-h-øn \n- p- B-flm-hns\ A-t{X {]m-]n- -Xv. A-Xv R- ߃ am-\p-j m-\w D-]-tZ-in- p- h-n-\-ß-fm A- ; B- flm-hv D-]-tZ-in- p- h-n-\-ßfm X-s {]-kv-xm-hn- p sim- v B-flo-I- m - v B-flo-I-amb-Xv sx-fn-bn- p- p (1 sim-cn. 2:10 14). ssz-h-h-n-\-hym-jym-\- tøm-sp- _- -Øn am-\p-jn- I m-\w D-]-tZ-in- p- B- i-b-߃ ]m-sn- F- -Xv ssz-hmflm-hv hy- -am- p- p. h-n-\- sø h-n-\w sim- v hym-jym- \n- p. ssz-hm-flm-hv \ -Ip- k-tμ-iw Dƒ-s m- p-i F- - Xm-Wv hn-izm-kn-i-fp-ss I-S-a. ""\n߃ Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øp-I-sf tim-[- \ sn-øp- p.'' (you digently search the Scriptures because you think you have eternal life in them) (tbm-l. 5:39). ssz-h-h-n-\-øn- \p Zn-hy-Xzw A-Y-hm ssz-h-izmko-b-x I-ev-]n- p-hm Nn-e {]- txy-i \n-_- -\-I-fpw B-i-bß-fpw hym-jym-\-ß-fpw Nn-e I- p-]n-sn- n- p- v. h-f-sc h-iy-amb \n-e-bn A-h A-h A-h- X-cn- n- -bpw, A-h-cp-sS si-wnbn A-t\-I A-I-s - p t]m- Ip-I-bpw sn-bv-xn- p- v. Cu h- iy-am-b hym-jym-\-am-wv A-en-Kdn F- Hm-a-\-t -cn A-dn-b-s - Sp- A-\ym - hym-jym-\w. h- N-\-Øn C- m-ø-xpw h-n-\w D-t±-in- m-ø-xp-am-b A-\ym - w h-n-\-øn A-Sn-t - n- p- co-xn. C-h B-flo-I-sa- pw ssz-hn-i-sa- pw txm- p-sa- n-epw ssz-h-h-n-\-hym-jym-\- Øn Kp-cp-X-c-am-b tzm-j-߃ h-cp-øn-sh- hym-jym-\-co-xn-bm- Wv. A-en-K-dn- hym-jym-\w F- Hm-a-\-t -cn A-dn-b-s -Sp- A-\ym - hym-jym-\-co-xn ssz-h-h-n-\ hym-jym-\-cw-k-øpw ssz-h-im-kv-{x-cw-k-øpw h-f-sc Kp-cp-X-c-am-b tzm-j-߃ h-cp- Øn-sh- n- p- v. {]-h-n-\-hn-j-btøm-sp- _- -Øn-epw Cu hym-jym-\-co-xn tzm-jw sn-bv-xn- p- v. A-Xv ]n- m-se hn-i-zo-icn- p- -Xm-Wv. h-n-\w ]-cn-tim-[n- p-tºmƒ C-W In- m-ø-xpw hy- -X C- m-ø-xp-am-b hn-j-b-ß-fn am- \p-jn-i B-i-b-߃ tn - phm ]m-sn- F- pw, a-d- n-cn- p- Im-cy-߃, A-Y-hm sszhw hn-i-z-am- m-ø Im-cy-߃ ssz-h-øn-\p- -Xv F- p- \ne-bn a-\- n-em-t - -Xm-Wv. sh-fn-s -Sp-Øn-bn-cn- p- hn-jb-߃ sh-fn-s -Sp-Ø-s - \n-ebn-epw sh-fn-s -Sp-Ø-s - A-fhn-epw am-{xw a-\- n-em- p-i F- -Xp-am-Wv ssz-hw B-{K-ln- p- -Xv. F-gp-Xm- p-dw hm-bn- p- - Xpw hym-jym-\n- p- -Xpw h-n-\- tøm-sp- _- -Øn-epw tbm- Ky-a-. ss_-_nƒ hym-jym-\- Øn ]-e-cpw kz- w B-i-b߃ A-h-k-tcm-Nn-X-am-bn tn - p- {]-h-w-x ssz-h-im-kv-{x cw-k-ß-fn k -Δ-km-[m-c-W-am- Wv. {]-txy-in- pw `m-hn-im-e imkv-{x-tøm-sp- _- -Øn. C- Xv h-n-\-hn-cp- -am-b-xpw Kp-cp-Xc-hp-am-b ]-e D-]-tZ-i ssh-ir-x߃- pw h-gn Xp-d- p- p-ap- v. ss_-_n-fn-se hm-n-i-ß-sf A-h F-gp-Xn-b ]- m-ø-ew, k-μ -`w, hym-i-c-w ssi-en F- n-h ]-cn-k-wn- p b-ym-hn-[n hym-jym-\n- p- -Xn-\p ]-I-cw, F-gp-X-s - hn-j-b-߃- v am-\p-jn-i _p- n-bn D-Zn- p- sx- m-b B-flo-I A - w A-Sn-t - n p- hym-jym-\-co-xn-bm-wv A-\ym - hym-jym-\w. Cu hym-jym-\-øn F-gp-Øn-s N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b ]- m-ø-e-sø X- n- -f-bp-i-tbm A-h-K-Wn- p-i-tbm \n-km-c-h - -cn- p-i-tbm sn-øp- p-sh- p am-{x-a-, F-gp-X-s - hn-j-b-øn-s k-μ -`-Øn-\p t\-sc hn-]-co-x-amb B-i-b-߃, B-g-am-b B-flo-I k-xy-߃ hn-`m-h-\w sn-øp- p F- p- hym-p-`m-h-øn A-h-X-cn- n- p- p. {]-h-n-\-hn-j-b-ß-fp-ss hym- Jym-\-Øn am-\p-jn-i B-i-b߃ tn - p- -Xv h-f-sc Kp-cp-Xc-am-b Zp-cp-]-tZ-i-߃ X-e-s]m- p- -Xn-\p ap-jm- -c-am-bn- p- v. am-\p-jn-i _p- n sim- v a-\- n- em- p-hm km-[n- m-ø hn-j-b߃- v am-\p-jn-i B-i-b-ß-ƒ sim- v hn-i-zo-i-c-ww \ -Iphm B-fp-Iƒ {i-an- p- -Xv sim- m-wv Cu hn-]-øv h-n-\-hym- Jym-\-cw-K-Øv D- m-ip- -Xv. B- I-bm, {]-h-n-\w F-ß-s\-sbms hym-jym-\n- -Ww F- -Xv kw-_- n- v A-Sn-ÿm-\-]-c-am-bn Nn-e Im-cy-߃ \mw a-\- n-emt - -Xp- v. Cu A-[ym-b-Øn {]-h-n-\w F-ß-s\ hym-jym-\n- mw F- -Xv hn-i-zo-i-cn- p-hm-\m- Wv R-߃ B-{K-ln- p- -Xv. {]-h-n-\-hym-jym-\-cw-k-øv {]-[m-\-am-bpw c- p \n-e-i-fn-ep- hym-jym-\-ß-fm-wv \n-e-hn-ep- -Xv. B- -co-i hym-jym-\-hpw \n-g s]m-cp-ƒ hym-jym-\-hpw. \n-g s]m-cp-ƒ hym-jym-\w (Typology) F t]cn A\ym- - (Alegorical) hym-jym-\-am-wv C- v ]-e-cpw h-n-\ hym-jym-\- cw-k-øv D-]-tbm-Kn- p- -Xv. A- {]-Im-cw \n-g s]m-cp-ƒ hym- Jym-\w F- `m-h-øn A- \ym - hym-jym-\w \-S-Øn C- q- ssz-h-p-\-sø h-gn sx- n- p- p. D-Ø-a-Ko-X- -Øn-se k- `-bpw {In-kv-Xp-hpw F- hym- Jym-\w A-\ym - hym-jym-\w, \n-g s]m-cp-ƒ hym-jym-\w F- hym-p `m-h-øn I-S- p h- H-cp sh-fn- Zq-X B-Wv. h-i-xn-cn-hn- m-ø hn-izm-kn-iƒ C- q- -cp-ss si-wn-bn A-I-s - p t]m-bn. D-Ø-a-Ko-X-tØm-Sp- _- -Øn am-{x-a-, {]-h-n-\ hn-j-b-ß-fn-epw Cu hy-xn-n-e- \w Kp-cp-X-c-am-b `-hn-jy-øp-iƒ h-cp-øn sh- n- p- v. A-\ym - hym-jym-\w A-Y-hm A-en-K-dn- hym-jym-\w ss_-_n-fn-se hm-n-i-ß-sf A-h F-gp-Xn-b ]- m-ø-ew, k- μ -`w, hym-i-c-w ssi-en F- nh ]-cn-k-wn- p b-ym-hn-[n hym- Jym-\n- p- -Xn-\p ]-I-cw, F-gp- X-s - hn-j-b-߃- v am-\p-jn- I _p- n-bn D-Zn- p- sx- mb B-flo-I A - w A-Sn-t - n p- hym-jym-\-co-xn-bm-wv A-\ym - hym-jym-\w. Cu hym-jym-\-øn F-gp-Øn-s N- cn-{x-]-c-am-b ]- m-ø-e-sø X- n- -f-bp-i-tbm A-h-K-Wn- p- I-tbm \n-km-c-h - -cn- p-itbm sn-øp- p-sh- p am-{x-a-, F-gp-X-s - hn-j-b-øn-s k- μ -`-Øn-\p t\-sc hn-]-co-x-am-b B-i-b-߃, B-g-am-b B-flo-I k-xy-߃ hn-`m-h-\w sn-øp- p F- p- hym-p-`m-h-øn A-h- X-cn- n- p- p. Cu hym-jym-\- Øn F-gp-X-s - h-n-\-øn-s (ti-jw t]-pv 8)

4 4 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn hn\hpw hym-jym-\hpw s^{_phcn 05 hn\hymjym-\-øns Ncn{Xw tum. tpm -k kn. ^n-en v {-In-kv-Xo-b hn-izm-k-tøm- Sp- _- -Øn-epw D-]-tZ-i-ßtfm-Sp- _- -Øn-epw, ssh-]- co-xy-߃ D- m-ip- -Xv h-n-\- hym-jym-\ co-xn-i-fn-se A- -cw aq-e-a-t{x. _-lp-hn-[ hym-jym-\- ߃ C- v Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øn-t\m-Sp- _- -Øn D- -Xv sim- pw, A-Xv _-lp-hn-[ D-]-tZ-i߃- v h-gn sx-fn- p- -Xv sim- pw i-cn-bm-b-xv F- v F- v Xncn- -dn-bp- -Xn-\p i-cn-bm-b hym- Jym-\w F- v F- -Xv kw-_- n- v hy- -am-b t_m-[yw th-z-]- Tn-Xm-hn-\v D- m-ti- -Xv B-hiy-am-Wv. th-z-hym-jym-\ N-cn-{X-Øns B-cw-`w \mw Im-Wp- -Xv D -]-Øn ]p-kv-x-i-øn-em-wv. ssz-h-h-n-\-sø hym-jym-\w Iq- Sm-sX X-s a-\p-jy-\v a-\- n- em-ip- `m-j-bn ssz-hw A- cp-fn-s -bv-xn- pw, A-Xv Zp -hym- Jym-\w sn-bv-x ]-g-b ]m-ºn-s hym-jym-\-am-wv B-Zm-an-\pw, l- Δ-bv- pw hn-izm-ky-am-bn txm- nb-xv. F- m-e-øpw Zp -hym-jym- \ tøm-sm-wv a-\p-jy-\v {]n-bw. {]-txy-in- pw ssz-h-p-\-øn-\v. tam-i-bp-ss Im-ew B-b-t m-tg- pw F-gp-X-s - h-n-\-ß-fp-ss hym-jym-\-߃ \-S-Øp- -Xv \mw Im-Wp- p. ]n- o-sv ssz-h- P-\-Øn-s km-aq-ln-i \-ho-ic-w-øn-\p \n-zm-\-am-bn ssz-hh-n-\-sø B- -co-i-am-bn hym- Jym-\n- p- N-cn-{Xw \mw Im- Wp- -Xv s\-l-aym-hv 8:1-18 hm- Iy-ß-fn-em-Wv. A-Sn-a-Xz-Øn \q- m- p-iƒ Po-hn- p a-s-ßn-h- sb-lq-z P-\-Øn-\p h-n-\w hy- -am-bn a-\- n-em- p- -Xn- \p hym-jym-\-hpw hym-jym-\n-bpw B-h-iy-am-bn-cp- p. tam-si-bp-ss \ym-b-{]-am-ww A-Sn-a-Xz-Im-e-Øv A-h hn-kv-a-cn- p t]m-bn-cp- p. A-h - v h-n-\-øn-s {]-Xn-]m- Z-\-co-Xn h-i-an- m-bn-cp- p. X- qew {]-kv-xp-x hn-j-b-߃ kw- _- n- v {Km-ly-ap- -h A-Xv hn-i-zo-i-cn- p \ -ti- n-bn-cp- p. A-Sn-a-Xz-Øn I-gn- n-cp- -h - v h-n-\w F-gp-X-s - F- {_m-b `m-j h-i-an- m-xn-cp- -Xpw hym-jym-\w B-h-iy-am- n. F- {km C-hn-sS A-\p-h -Øn- -Xv B- -cn-i hym-jym-\-am-bn-cp- p. A-h-cp-sS ]n-xm- - m-cp-ss Ime-sØ Hm - n- p sim- v, tamsi-bv- v ssz-hw \ -In-b h-n- \-Øn-s {]m-[m-\yw F-{km hy- -am- p- p. h-n-\w F-gp-X-s - Im-e-hpw A-Xv hm-bn- p- -h Po-hn- p- Im-e-L- -hpw X-Ωnep- A- -c-hpw hym-jym-\w A- \n-hm-cy-am- p- p. ]-g-b-\n-b-a hym-jym-\-øn-\p sb-lq-z- m kzo-i-cn- n-cp- -Xv B- -co-i hym-jym-\w B-bn-cp- p. sb-lq-z d- n-am Cu hnj-b-øn {]m-ho-wyw t\-sn-bh B-bn-cp- p. sb-lq-z d- nam-cpw im-kv-{xn-am-cpw A-\ym - co-xn-bn ssz-h-h-n-\w hni-zo-i-cn- p- -h B-bn-cp- n-. bn-{km-tb-en-s N-cn-{Xw A-Snÿm-\-am- n A-h-tcm-Sp- sszhn-i C-S-s]-S-epw ssz-hw A-hcn \n- pw {]-Xo- n- p- hnj-b-ß-fpw A-Xn-\p th- n-bp- I-ev-]-\-I-fpw {I-ao-Ir-X-am-bn A- h-x-cn- n- p-i-bm-wv sn-bv-xn-cp- -Xv. A-\ym - hym-jym-\-øn-s B-hn -`m-hw H- mw \q- m- n-s A-h-km- \-tøm-sp Iq-Sn-X-s A-\ym - hym-jym-\w {In-kv-Xo-b k- aq-l-øn I-S- p Iq-Sn. A-Xn- \p Im-c-W-߃ ]-e-xm-wv. H- ma-xm-bn Im-t\m-\n-I {K-Ÿ-߃ F- m-h-cp-ss I-øn-epw D- m-bncp- n-. A-Xp-t]m-se X-s am- \p-jn-i X-Øz-im-kv-{X-ß-fn B-{i-bn- p Po-hn- hy- n-iƒ- v X-ß-fp-sS X-Xz-Nn- -Iƒ- v hym-jym-\-øn-\p A-Sn-ÿm-\-am- Ip- p. B- -co-i hym-jym-\- Øn ssz-h-h-n-\-øn-s hm-n- I L-S-\-bpw, hym-i-c-w-hpw, ]- m-ø-e-hpw, N-cn-{X-hpw A-Snÿm-\-am- p-tºmƒ, A-\ym - (A-en-K-dn- ) hym-jym-\- Øn am-\p-jn-i `m-h-\-bm-wv ap- n- p \n - p- -Xv. am-\p-jn-i `m-h-\-bn-se B-flo-I-X h-n-\- Øn A-Sn-t - n- p- co-xn. ssz-h-h-n-\-øn H-cp Im-cyw ]m-sn- F- v hy- -am-bn ]-d-bptºmƒ, A-Xn-s\ e-lq-i-cn- p Im-Wn- p- -Xn-\pw am-\p-jn-i _-e-lo-\-x-sb km-[q-i-cn- p- - Xn-\pw {]-kv-xp-x hn-j-b-sø ]- m-ø-e-øn \n- pw A-I- n, X-ß-fp-sS am-\p-jn-i Nn- -sb km-[q-i-cn- p- H-cp hn-i-zo-ic-ww B-flo-I `m-h-øn \ - Ip- co-xn-bm-wv A-\ym - hym-jym-\w A-\p-h -Øn- p- - Xv. D-Ø-a-Ko-X-Øn-se kv-{xo-bpss i-co-c-sø- p-dn- p- h -Æ- \-Iƒ A-»o-ew F- p Nn- n- p- -h, A-Xn-se ]-cm-a -i-ß-sf {In-kv-Xp-hpw k-`-bpw X-Ωn-ep- B-flo-I _- -am-bn A-h-X-cn- n- p- -Xv C-Xn-\p D-Ø-a-Zr-jv- Sm- -am-wv. k-`-sb- p-dn- p- {]-h-n-\-ß-fpw kq-n-\-i-fpw ]- g-b-\n-b-a-øn C- F- k- h-cp-ss `m-j-i-fn e-`y-am-bn F- -Xpw A-\p-{K-l-I-c-am-bn. h-n- \- hym-jym-\-øn C- pw am- \p-jn-i B-i-b-ß-fm-Ip- A- \ym - -߃ A-Sn-t - n- p- -h D-s - n-epw, h-n-\w hym- Jym-\n-t - -Xv - -h-n-\-sø h- N-\w sim- v F- {]-am-w- Øm B-sW- -Xv hy- -am-bn {]-Jym-]n- -s - n- p- -Xn-\m C- v P-\-߃- v sx- n \n- pw I-c-I-b-dp-hm A-h-k-c߃ D- v. F- n-epw a-\p-jn-i P-U-Øn-s ssh-im-cn-i-x-bv- v Du- \ -In-bp- A-\ym - hym-jym-\-tøm-sm-wv hn-izmkn-iƒ- v {]n-bw F- -Xv h-f-sc Ku-c-h-tØm-sS Im-tW- hn-jb-am-wv. D-Ø-a-Ko-X hym-jym-\- Øn B- -co-i hym-jym-\-øn- \p F-Xn-sc A-\ym - hym-jym- \n-iƒ ]-S-hmƒ F-Sp-Ø-Xpw, h- I-Xn-cn-hn- m-ø hn-izm-kn-i-fpw k-`-i-fpw am-\p-jn-i P-Uw A- \p-k-cn- p A-hn-th-I-am-bn {]-h - Øn- -Xpw A-\ym - hym-jym- \w a-\p-jy-s\ ssh-im-cn-i-am-bn F-ß-s\ kzm-[o-\n- p- p F- - Xn-s hy- -am-b sx-fn-hm-wv. A-\ym - -hym-jym-\-øn-s h- iy-x-bn a-xn-a-b-ßn-b hn-izmkn-iƒ, Xn-cp-h-N-\ k-xy-øn-s\- Xn-sc \n-e-sim- ]-cn-xm-]-i-cam-b ÿn-xn hn-ti-jw A-\ym - hym-jym-\ Øn-s h-iy-x F-{X Kp-cp-X-cw F- v hn-fn-t m- Xp- p. h-n-\-hym-jym-\-øn-se {]- [m-\-l-s-i-߃ h-n-\-hym-jym-\-øn-\p kzo- Im-cy-am-b am - w A-h-ew-_n- p- -Xp sim- v i-cn-bm-b \n-k-a- \-Øn F-Øp- p F- v D-d- nam - n eq-y Xp-S-ßn-sh- B-flo-I \-ho-i-c-w-tøm-sv _- -s - p ssz-h-h-n-\ hym-jym-\-øn Ir-Xy-X-bpw hy- -X-bpw h-c-ww F- -Xv kw-_- n- v hn-izm-kn-iƒ- v i- -am-b t_m- yw D- m-ip-ibpw, X -^-e-am-bn ssz-h-h-n-\-sø s\-l-aym-hp k-ln-x-ap- sszh-`- - m hym-jym-\n- -Xv t]m-se B- -co-i-am-bn hym-jym-\n-t - -Xv B-h-iyw F- p- X-Xzw ho- pw {]m-[m-\y-tøm-ss A-h-X-cn- n- -s - p. hn-izm-k-øm-ep- \o-xo-i-c-ww, Ir-]-bm-ep- c- F- n-xym-zn hn-j-b-߃ h-f-sc hy- -X-tbm-sS {]-Jym-]n- p-hm C-Sbm-b-Xv Cu hym-jym-\ A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-t -em-wv. \n-c- m-ø ]-e-xpw ssz-h-h-n- \-Øn Im-Wp-hm I-gn- p. X-ß-fp-sS a-\- n-s\ Xr-]v-Xn-s - Sp-Øp- -Xn-\v h-n-\-sø h-fs m-sn- p hym-jym-\n-t - -Xv ]- e - pw A-\n-hm-cy-am-bn. {]-kw- K-I-cn-epw F-gp-Øp-Im-cn-epw Nne Cu k-{º-zm-b-øn-\p ]n- mse t]m-b-xn-\m A-t\-I C- h-cp-ss si-wn-bn A-I-s -Sphm C-S-bm-bn. Im-t\m-\n-I {K- Ÿ-߃ kz- -am-bn ssi-h-iw C- m-ø-h - v C-h-cp-sS hy-xn- N-en- -s - hn-i-zo-i-c-w-߃ a- \- n-em- p-hm am - w D- mbn-cp- n-. {I-ta-W A-Xv Aw-Ko- Ir-X hym-jym-\-am-bn ]-e-cpw kzo-i-cn- p. Cu sx- m-b hym- Jym-\-co-Xn h-n-\-øn-\pw {In-kv- Xo-b hn-izm-k-øn-\p X-s -bpw tzm-j-am-bn `-hn- p- p F- v a- \- n-em- n-b `- - m h-n-\ hym-jym-\-øn-\p i-cn-bm-b am - w B- -co-i hym-jym-\w F- v F-{km-bp-sS hym-jym-\-sø D- -cn- p ÿm-]n- p-hm C-S-bmbn. b-tlm-h-bp-ss ]p-kv-x-i- Øn B-cm- p A-t\z-jn- p, s]m-cpƒ I-s -Øp-I F- sszhm-fl {]-t_m-[-\w B- -co-i Xyw C-h hn-kv-a-cn- p-i-bpw, X- ß-fp-sS `m-h-\-iƒ h-n-\-ønt B-flo-I `m-h-øn A- Sn-t - n- p-i-bpw sn-øp-i am- {X-am-Wv sn-øp- -Xv. C-Xm-Wv A- \ym - hym-jym-\w. am - n eq-y Xp-S-ßn-sh- B-flo-I \-ho-i-c-w-tøm-sv _- -s - p ssz-h-h-n-\ hym-jym- \-Øn Ir-Xy-X-bpw hy- -Xbpw h-c-ww F- -Xv kw-_- n- v hn-izm-kn-iƒ- v i- -am-b t_m- yw D- m-ip-i-bpw, X -^e-am-bn ssz-h-h-n-\-sø s\-laym-hp k-ln-x-ap- ssz-h-`- - m hym-jym-\n- -Xv t]m-se B- -co-i-am-bn hym-jym-\n-t - - Xv B-h-iyw F- p- X-Xzw ho- pw {]m-[m-\y-tøm-ss A-h-Xcn- n- -s - p. hn-izm-k-øm-ep- \o-xo-i-c-ww, Ir-]-bm-ep- c- F- n-xym-zn hn-j-b-߃ h- f-sc hy- -X-tbm-sS {]-Jym-]n- p-hm C-S-bm-b-Xv Cu hym- Jym-\ A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-t -em-wv. A-Xp-sIm- v Ir-{Xn- p-im - v h- N-\-sØ h-f-s m-sn- p-hm I- gn-bm-ø H-cp ÿn-xn-hn-ti-jw \- ho-i-c-w Im-e-ti-jw D- m-bn. h-n-\w km-[m-c-w- m - pw A- p ]-d-bp-hm km-[n- n- F- -Xv h-n-\ hym-jym-\ N-cn-{Xw ]-cn-tim-[n- m a-\- n-em-ipw. d- n-\n-kw B- -co-i hym-jym-\- co-xn A-h-ew-_n- v ap-t -dn F- n-epw, {]-kv-xp-x am - -Øn-s Zp -hy-bw aq-ew A-h h-n-\-øns ]-cn-[n hn- v t]m-ip- A-hÿ D- m-bn F- v N-cn-{Xw km- n- p- p. B-I-bm i-cn-bm-b am - w I-s -Øn-b-Xn-\p ti-jw bp- -am-b Nn-e am-\-z-fi-߃ A-tXm-Sp tn -Øv \mw A-\p-h - Øn-t - -Xp- v. ssz-h-zm-k- m A-h-sb h-f-sc {]m - -\- tbm-spw k-a - -W-tØm-Spw \-ap- v ap-ºn A-h-X-cn- n- n- p- v. 1. hm- p-i-fp-ss hym-jym-\w B-i-b-ß-sf cq-]-s -Sp-Øp- -Xv A- -c-ß-fpw A- -c-߃ tn - p- m-ip- hm- p-i-fp-am- Wv. A-Xp-sIm- v B-i-b kwhm-z-\-øn hm- p-iƒ- pw A- h-bp-ss L-S-\-bv- pw h-f-sc {]m- [m-\y-ap- v. ssz-h-h-n-\ hym- Jym-\-Øn i-cn-bm-b B-i-bw \-ap- v e-`n- p- -Xn-\p Hm-tcm hm- p-i-fp-ss-bpw L-S-\ {]-txy- Iw {i- n- p-hm-\pw, L-S-\ -{]-Im-cw A-h-sb hym-jym-\n- p-hm-\pw B-h-iy-ap- v. Hm-tcm `m-j-bn-epw hm- p-iƒ- v k-hnti-j-am-b B-i-b hym-]v-xn-bpw A - hym-]v-xn-bp-ap- v. A-hbp-sS D- m-c-ww t]m-epw h-f-sc {i- -tbm-ss sn-tø- Im-cy-am- Wv. h-n-\w i-cn-bm-bn hym-jym- \n- p- -Xn-\p hm- p-i-sf i-cnbm-b A - -Øn a-\- n-em- p-hm-\pw hn-i-zo-i-cn- p-hm-\pw km-[n-t - -Xp- v. 2. k-μ -`-ß-fp-sS / km-l- N-cy-ß-fp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep- hym-jym-\w ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am- p- th-z-`m- K-Øn-s ]- m-ø-ew F- v F- -Xv hy- -am-bn a-\- n-em- p- I F- -Xm-Wv h-n-\-hym-jym-\- Øn-se Zzn-Xo-b L-S-Iw. k-μ - `-ß-fp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn h- N-\-sØ hym-jym-\n- p- -Xn-\p Np-h-sS tn - p- Im-cy-߃ {i- n-t - -Xp- v. a. {]-kv-xm-hy th-z-`m-k-øn- \p sxm- p ap-ºpw ]n-ºp-ap- hm- Iy-߃ {i- n- p-i. {]-kv-xm-hy th-z-`m-k-øn-se {]-Xn-]m-Zyw B- -co-i-am-twm km-zr-iy-am-twm (ti-jw t]-pv 8)

5 5 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn lmcm apx ]tflmkv hsc s^{_phcn 05 ]mã t]mƒ ae-bsn hn-pm-xo-b-cp-ss C-S-bn-ep- kp-hn-ti-j-{]-h -Ø-\w B-cw-`n- -Xn-s\- - n A-t m-kv-x-e-{]-hr- Øn-I-fp-sS ]p-kv-x-iw 8:4 ap-xepw 11:19 ap-x-ep-ap- th-z-hm-iyß-fn-epw ]-d-bp- p. A-t m-iy-bn kp-hn-tijw {]-kw-kn- Ip-t{]m-kp-Imcpw Ip-td-\- m-cpw {Ko- p-im-tcm- Sm-Wv kp-hn-ti-jw {]-kw-kn- -Xv. _n.-kn.300- sk-eyq- -kv \n-t - (Seleucus Nicator 1) A-t m-iy-]- -Ww \n -Ωn- p. sk-eyq- cm-pm- - m-cp-ss Iogn h-f-sc th-kw h-f - p. C- hn-sp-sø G- -hpw ]-g-b ]- -Ww {Ko- p-im-cp-ts-xm-bn-cp- p. A- t m-iy-bn-se hn-im-e-am-b k- hn-ti-j-x-sim- p Xn-I- pw \- ho-\-am-b H-cp an-j-\-dn-kw-cw-`w B-cw-`n- m I-gn- p. ]n- o- Sv kn-dn-b tz-i-hm-kn-i-fm-b A-d-_n-Iƒ ]- -W-a-Xn-en-\p ]pd-øp-h- v Xm-a-kn- p. ]- -Ww h- f - -t mƒ C-h A-I-Øm-bn. _m-_n-tem-wn {]-hm-kn-i-fmbn-cp- sb-lq-z- m-cn Ip-d- pt] -Iq-Sn C-hn-sS-h- p Xm-a-kn- p. H- mw-ÿm-\-øv {Ko- p- Im, c- mw-ÿm-\-øv A-d-_n- Iƒ, aq- mw-ÿm-\-øv sb-lq- Z- m-cpw h- p. Cu aq- p-hn-`m-k- Øn-ep- -h-cp-ss C-S-bn kp-hnti-jw {]-kw-kn- -s - p. Im-c- Ww {Ko- p-`m-j F- m hn-`m-kw P-\-X-bv- pw A-dn-bm-am-bn-cp- p. sb-lq-z- m {Ko- p-im-tcmssm- w Xp-ey A-h-Im-i-߃ ]- n- p. G.-Un.33- -\pw 40- -\pw C- S-bv- m-wv k-` ÿm-]n- -s - sx- v A-t m-iy-bn A-\p-am- \n- -s -Sp- p. A-t m-iy-bn-se k-` F- m hn-pm-xo-b k-`-iƒ- pw am-xr-i-bm-wv. A-Xv F- m hn-pm-xo-b k-`-i-fp-ss-bpw am-xmhm-bn-cp- p. kp-hn-ti-jo-i-cn- - -s -Sm-Ø tz-i-ß-fn kp-hn-tij-zu-xy-hp-am-bn t]m-b-xv A- Ae-Ivkm-{ n-bm-bnse ]T-\-tI{μw _ -_mkpw ]utemkpw At m-iy-bn {]h Øn- p-sim- n-cp- -t mƒ tdma N{I-h Øn-bm-bn-cp utzm-kns ImeØv G.-Un.42- sbcp-i-te-an maw D mb-t mƒ At m-iy-k` sbcp-itew k`bv v kmº-øn-i-k-lmbw \ In BZysØ {InkvXob Iq m-bva-bpss amxri ImWn- p. A v sbcp-i-te-an {InkvXym-\n-Iƒ v ]ou-\-ap- m-b-t mƒ Ah FtU- m-bnepw At m-iy-bnepw FØn kphn-tijw Adn-bn- p. ChnsS sblq-z-c- m-ø, hnpm-xo-b Iq -ambn hnizm-k-øn h p. hnpm- Xo-b-cn \n pw h -h {InkvXob km yw kq n- n-cp- p. kphn-ti-j-i-cp-ss kw-k-a-`qan ambm-ø Nn-{X߃ t m-iy-bn \n- m-wv. sb-cp-itew k-` sb-lq-z- m-cp-ss C-Sbn am-{xw H-Xp-ßn-\n- p. {Inkv-Xym-\n-Iƒ F- t]-cp- m- n-b-xpw hn-hm-zw D- m-b-xpw A-t m-iy-bn \n- m-wv. k-`m-t\-xm- ƒ k-tω-fn- n-cp- H-cp {]-[m-\ ti-{μ-am-bn-cp- p C-hn-Sw. ]-t{xm-kv, ]u-tem-kv, _ - -t_m-kv, Xo-Øq-kv, tbm-l- m, am -t m-kv, bq-zm, _ - _m-kv, io-em-kv, tum.-eq-t m-kv C-h-sc- m-h-cpw A-t m-iy-bn \n- m-wv a- p ÿ-e-ß-fn an-j- \-dn-bm-{x-iƒ sn-bv-x-xv. kp-hn-ti-j-߃ F-gp-Xn-s - A v CuPn-]vXns Xe-ÿm-\-amb AeIvkm- { n-bm-bnse _p n-po-hn-i-fp-ssbpw ]WvUn-X- m-cpssbpw kmwkvim-cni th-zn-bmbn amdnb Ae-Ivkm- { nbm sse-{_-dn-bpss t] hfsc {]kn- am-bn-cp p. {Ko p kwkm-cn- p I -h-s- m-cmb sblq-z- m ChnsS [mcmfw D m-bn-cp- p. Ae-Ivkm- Z t{k ns {][m\ Xe-ÿm-\-ambn amdnb Cu \K-c- Øn ax-]-t-\-cw-køv \nc-h[n At\z-j-W-ßfpw ]T- \-ßfpw \-S- p. ss nfpw hn-\-z i-\hpw XΩn tbmpn- n- p- -Xn\v Zm i-\n-i-amb ^ntem-bpss (Philo) t\xr-xz-øn [mcmfw ]T-\-߃ \S- p. Hcp ss{ikvxh sszh-imkv{x ]T-\-tI{μw Bcw-`n- m AhnsS ss nƒ ]WvUn-X- m-cpss Hcp-\nc Xs D m-bn-cp- p. ]t - qkv (G.-Un PÃo, Smknb F n-h XpS- -an-sp-ibpw s a v, Hmdn-K F nh Cu ]T-\-tI-{μsØ imkv{xo-b-amb coxn-bn cq]- s -Sp-Øn-sb-Sp- p-ibpw snbvxp. tπt m-bpss Nn -Iƒ Ae-Ivkm-{ n-bm-bnse sszhimkv{x ]T-\-tI-{μsØ kzm[o-\n- n-cp- p. satøm-unbq-kv, ]mw^n-eq-kv, ]nsb-dn-bq-kv, slcm- -kv, sxtbmt m-ã-kv, ]o XpSßnb ]WvUn-X- m Ae-Ivkm- { n-b ]T-\-tI-{μ-Ønse {]K- -cmb BNm-c- m Bbn-cp- p. -Xp A-t m-iy-bn \n- m-sw- v ]-cm-a -in- -s -Sp- p. A- t m-iy-bn-se _n-j- m-bn-cp- C- m-øn-tbm-kv kp-hn-ti-j-ßsf- p-dn- v F-gp-Xp-tºmƒ a-ømbn kp-hn-ti-j-øn \n- p-am- {Xw D- -cn- p- -Xm-bn tc-j-s - Sp-Øn-bn-cn- p- p. kn-dn-b tc-j-i-fn kn-ums -bp-ss-bpw C- m-øn-tbm-kns -bpw Ir-Xn-I-fn a-øm-bn kp-hn-ti-jw D-]-tbm-Kn- n-cn- p- p. a-øm-bn kp-hn-ti-jw c-nn- -s - -Xp A-t m-iy-bn h- mbn-cp- p F- v kv-{so- (Streeter) i- -am-bn hm-zn- p- At ym-iy-bn-se ayq-kn-b-øn-s I-hmSw p. A-t m-iy {In-kv-Xo-b {]- tlm-j-w-øn-s Cu- n- -sa- \n-e-bn-epw kp-hn-ti-j-zu-xy-ßfp-ss kn-cm-ti-{μ-sa- \n-e-bnepw sb-cp-i-te-an-s\- mƒ D- - Xn {]m-]n- n-cp- p. G.-Un.44- sb-cp-i-te-an sl-tcm-zm-bn \n- p- m-b ]o-u-\-am-bn-cp- p A-t m-iy-bn-se k-`-bp-ss D-b - -bv- pw {]m-[m-\y-øn-\pw Imc-W-am-b-Xv. ]u-tem-kpw _ - - _m-kpw u-tzym-kn-s Im-esØ m-a-sø- p-dn- v A-K- _m-kv {]-h-nn- p- -Xn-\p ap-ºv (A.-{].11:28) H-cp h -j- m-etøm-fw A-t m-iy-bn H- n- p-{]-h -Øn- p. _ - -_m-kpw ]u-tem-kpw A-t m-iy-bn {]- h -Øn- p-sim- n-cp- -t mƒ tdm-a N-{I-h -Øn-bm-bn-cp- u-tzm-kn-s Im-e-Øv G.- Un.42- sb-cp-i-te-an m-aw D- m-b-t mƒ A-t m-iy-k-` sb-cp-i-tew k-`-bv- v km-º-øn- I-k-lm-bw \ -In B-Zy-sØ {In-kv-Xo-b Iq- m-bv-a-bp-ss am-xr- I Im-Wn- p. A- v sb-cp-i-tean {In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ- v ]o-u- \-ap- m-b-t mƒ A-h F-tUm-bn-epw A-t m-iy-bn-epw F- Øn kp-hn-ti-jw A-dn-bn- p. C- hn-ss sb-lq-z-c- m-ø, hn-pm-xob Iq- -am-bn hn-izm-k-øn h- p. hn-pm-xo-b-cn \n- pw h- -h {In-kv-Xo-b km- yw kq- n- n-cp- p. ti-c-f-øn-epw ]mc-º-cy kp-dn-bm-\n-i-fn -s - -hsc- mƒ kz-`m-h-ip- n-bpw Po-hn- X-hn-ip- n-bpw kq- n- p- -h ]n- m-se h-cp- -h-cm-sw- p-im- Wmw. A-t m-iy-bn \n- pw Pm- Xn-I-fp-sS C-S-bn-se kp-hn-ti-jth-e-bv- v B- w Iq- n. tdm-a `-c-w-im-e-øpw {In-kv-Xym-\n- Iƒ ]o-u-\-߃ t\-cn-s - n-epw G.-Un \p-ti-jw ]-e cm-pyß-fn-epw {In-kv-Xo-b hn-izm-k- Øn h- -h-cp-ss Hu-tZym-Kn-I a-x-am-bn {In-kv-Xp-a-Xw \n-e-sim- -t mƒ A-t m-iy H-cp ti-{μ B-ÿm-\-am-bn am-dn Hm-fw h -jw A-d-_n-Ifp-sS C-S-bn-epw {In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ D- m-bn-cp- p. A-t m-iy Dƒs -ss-bp- ÿ-e-ß-fn-ep- P- \-X {Ko- v A-dn-bp- -h B-bncp- -Xp-sIm- v kp-hn-ti-j-{]- h -Ø-\-Øn-s hym-]-\-i- n h - n- n- m Im-c-W-am-bn. ap- ºv {In-kv-Xo-b tim- -I-fm-bn-cp- C-hn-S-ß-fn kp-hn-ti-j-øn-\p a-ß-te- -t mƒ aq- mw-in-s cm- Py-ß-fm-b C- y-bn-epw G-jy `q-j-wv-u-øn-s a- p cm-py-ßfn-epw ssn-\-bn-epw d-jy-bn-epsa- mw kp-hn-ti-jw kzo-i-cn- p- -h-cp-ss F-Æw Iq-Sn-h-cp- p. G-jy, B-{^n-, ku-øv A-ta-cn- cm-py-ß-fn C- v h-en-b D-W -Δv \-S- p- p. A- t m-iy-bn sh- v in-jy- m - v "-{In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ-"F- p t]- cm-bn (A.-{].11:26). A-Xn-\p-ap-ºv sb-lq-z- m - n-s-bn-se H-cp A- hm- -c-hn-`m-k-am-bn {In-kv-Xym-\n- I-sf I- n-cp- p. F- m Pm- Xn-Iƒ kp-hn-ti-jw kzo-i-cn- -

6 6 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn lmcm apx ]tflmkv hsc s^{_phcn 05 acp- - ]T-\-kwLw At ym-iy-m ayq-kn-b-øn- s -Sp-I-bpw A-h-cp-sS C-S-bn {]-kw-kn- -s -Sp-I-bpw sn-bv-xt mƒ in-jy- m-cp-ss kz-`m-h-cq- ]o-i-c-w-øn-epw s]-cp-am- -Ønepw D- m-b {]-txy-i-x-bm {In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ F- ]-cn-lmk-tøm-ss hn-fn- -s - -Xv A-`nam-\-]q -Δw Aw-Ko-I-cn- -s - p. C- v tem-i-øn-se G- -hpw h- en-b am - w {In-kv-Xo-b am - - am-wv. G.-Un. 46 B-b-t mƒ A- t m-iym-k-` \- si- p-d- p- - Xpw H-cp h-en-b Iq- -am-bn h-f - -Xpw B-bn-cp- p. m-aw-aq-ew Zp-cn-Xw A-\p-`-hn- n-cp- sb-cpi-tew k-`-sb [-\-]-c-am-bn k- lm-bn- m A-h - v I-gn- p F- h-en-b t\- -ap- m-bn. am- {X-a- tem-i-kp-hn-ti-jo-i-c-w- Øn-epw hn-pm-xo-b-cp-ss C-S-bnse kp-hn-ti-j-th-e-bn-epw k- `m-ÿm-]-\-߃- pw A-t m-iyk-` ap-jy- ]- p-h-ln- p. A-t m-iy-bn-epw a- p ÿ-eß-en-epw ÿm-]n- -s - ss_- _nƒ ]T-\ ti-{μ-߃ sb-cp-ite-an \n- pw G-I-tZ-iw ap- qdp In-tem-ao- h-s- m-bn ÿn-xnsn-øp- A-t m-iy-bn G.-Un ep-kn-bm-\n-em-wv A- t m-iy ]T-\-tI-{μw ÿm-]n- -Xv. A-t m-iy kv-iq-fn-s ss_-_nƒ hym-jym-\-co-xn h-fsc {]-kn- -am-bn-cp- p. A-cntÃm- -en-s Nn- -I-tfm-Sv Iq-dp- ]p-e -Øn-b A-t m-iy kv- Iqƒ d- n-am-cp-ss B-hn-jv-Im-cco-Xn-tbm-Sv km-ao-]y-ap- -Xm-bncp- p. C-hn-sS tb-ip-{in-kv-xp-hn-s ssz-h-xz-hpw a-\p-jy-xz-hp-am-b `m-h-ß-sf B-[n-Im-cn-I-am-bn ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am- n-bn-cp- p. ss_-_nƒ kw-_- n- p N-cn-{X- ]-c-hpw km-ln-xy-]-c-hp-am-b hne-bn-cp-ø \-S-Øn. A-e-Iv-km-{ n-bm-bn-se ]T- \-ti-{μ-øn-se ]T-\-ß-fn \n- pw hy-xy-kv-x-am-b A-h-X-c-Wco-Xn, A-t m-iy-bn-se ]T-\-tI- {μ-øn-\p D- m-bn-cp- p. ssz-him-kv-{x hn-j-b-ß-sf- p-dn- p B-g-am-b ]T-\-ß-fpw ho- -Wß-fpw \-S-Øn. ss{i-kv-x-h _p- n-po-hn-iƒ- v Ku-c-h-I-c-am-bn Nn- n- m C-hn-Sp-sØ ]T-\- ߃ D-]-I-cn- p. ss{i-kv-x-h hnizm-k-{]-am-w-ß-sf kw-_- n- v kw-i-b-ß-tfm sh- p-hn-fn-itfm, hn-a -i-\-ß-tfm D- m-bt mƒ B-[n-Im-cn-I-am-bn ]T-\- ti-{μ-øn-se ]-Wv-Un-X- m {]- iv-\-]-cn-lm-cw \-S-Øn. F-tU- m-bn-se ]T-\-tI-{μw F-tU- m-bn-se ]T-\-tI-{μsØ- p-dn- p t\-c-sø kq-nn- n- n-cp- p. kp-hn-ti-jw B-Zyw {]- N-cn- n-cp- F-tU- m-bn-te- m- Wv sb-cp-i-te-an \n- pw Nn- X-dn-t m-b-h Ip-Sn-tb-dn-b-Xv. A- v G- -hpw {]m-[m-\y-ap- -ÿe-am-bn-cp- p C-Xv. _n.-kn.136- ÿm-]n- H-cp kz-x-{ cm-py-ambn-cp- H-kv-tdm-sW-bp-sS X-eÿm-\-am-Wv F-tU- m. sa-tkms m-søm-an-bm-bn-epw F-tU- m- bn-epw tb-ip-{in-kv-xp-hpw in-jy- m-cpw kw-km-cn- A-d-am-b (kp-dn-bm-\n) `m-j-bm-wv C-hn-sS \n-e-hn-ep- m-bn-cp- -Xv. A-d-amb `m-j-bp-ss "-]n- -søm- n - "F- m-wv F-tU- m A-dn-b-s - n-cp- -Xv. A-e-Iv-km-{ n-bm, A- t m-iym-t]m-se X-s {]n-kn- -am-bn-cp- p F-tU- m-bn-se ssz-h-im-kv-{x-]-t-\-ti-{μ-hpw. ]u-c-kv-xy kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-i-fpss ssz-h-im-kv-{xw cq-]-s -Sp- Øp- -Xn-epw {]m-tbm-kn-i X-e- Øn sim- p-h-cp- -Xn-epw F- tu- m {]-ap-j ]- p-h-ln- n-cp- p. A-±m-bn, am-dn F- o th-z- ]-Wv-Un-X- m-cp-ss Nn- -I-fm-Wv ]u-c-kv-xy (In-g- ) k-`-i-fpss ssz-h-im-kv-{x-øn-s A-Sn- Ø-d ]m-in-b-xv. C-h-sc "-In-g- ns {]-t_m-[-i -"F- v hn-fn- s - p. am A-t{]w (373) dm-_p- (435), C- m-kv (457) Xp-S-ßnb-h F-tU- m-bn-se {]-kn- cm-b ssz-h-im-kv-{x- - mcmwv. am A-t{]-an-s kv-xp-xn- p- I-fn txm-a-kv A-t m-kv-x-es C- y t{]-jn-x Zu-XysØ- p-dn- pw c- -km- n-xzsø- p-dn- pw tc-j-s -Sp-Øn-bncn- p- p. C-t±-lw F-tU- m-bnse {]-kn- th-z-]-wv-un-x-\mbn-cp- p. Hm-Iv-kv-t^m -Uv bq-wnth-gv-kn- n {]-kn- o-i-cn Hyms of Mar Epherim F- kv- Xp-Xn- p-i-fp-ss ti-j-c-øn ]nim-nn-s hn-em-]w F- I-hn- X-bn-epw C- y-bn F-Øn-b hym-]m-cn-bm-b Iv-\m-bn txm-ωm, A-t m-kv-x-e-\m-b txm-a-kn-s A-ÿn-Iƒ C- y-bn \n- pw a-s- n-s m- p-h- p F- N-cn- {X ]-cm-a -i-ap- v. \m-emw-\q- m- n-se N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-b dq-^n-\- kpw C- m-cyw i-cn-h-bv- p- p. "-am A-t{]-an-s\ F-tU- m-bnse Uo- F- m-wv hn-fn- s - -Xv. G.-Un.489- Cu ]T- \-ti-{μ-øn-s {]-h -Ø-\w A- h-km-\n- n- p."(b-tkm-f ss{ikv-x-h-k-` \q- m- p-i-fn-eq-ss sp.-kn.-tz-hv t]-pv 256). F-tU- m-bn-se am A- t{]w G.-Un sam-skms m-tøm-an-bm-bn-se \n-kn-_- kv ]- -W-Øn P-\n- p. G.- Un mw h-b- n kv-\m- \-s - p. I-em-im-e-bn-se hn-zym- `ym-km-\- -cw F-tU- m-bn h- p. A-hn-sS \- A- ym-]-i- \m-bn {]-h -Øn- p. j- q c- m-a, Pq-en-b F- n-h-cp-ss ]o-u-\-im-e-øv hn-izm-kn-i-tfmssm- w \n- p t]m-cm-sn. ]o-u-\- Im-e-Øv hn-izm-k-i-sf {In-kv-Xphn-izm-k-Øn \n-ev- m t{]- cn- n- p. F-tU- m-bn-se Ip- n -{]-tz-i-øv Hm-Sn A-`-bw {]m-]n-t - -Xm-bpw h- p. A- hn-ss Kp-cp-Ip-e co-xn-bn in-jysc h-n-\w ]Tn- n- p. ]n- o-sv {]- kn- -am-b F-tU- m ]T-\-tI- {μ-am-bn am-dn. k-`m-]n-xm-hv, th-zm- ym-]- I, I-hn, th-z-]-wv-un-x, km-aq-ly-{]-h -Ø-I F- o \n-e-bn {]-kn- -\m-bn. ap- -Xnb- n -]-cw {K-Ÿ-߃ A-t±lw c-nn- n- p- v. am A-t{]w {In-kv-Xo-b-am-b Io -Ø-\-km-ln- Xy-Øn-s in-ev-]n-bm-bn-cp- p. kp-dn-bm-\n km-ln-xy-øn-s tx-p- m-wv I-hn-bm-b A-t{]w. F- n-kv-tim- k-`-i-fp-ss B- cm-[-\-i-fn A-t±-l-Øn-s Io -Ø-\-߃ C- pw D-]-tbm- Kn- p- p. ]-cn-ip- m-flm-hn-s ho-w, kp-dn-bm-\n- m-cp-ss kqcy F- o t]-cp-i-fn A-t±lw A-dn-b-s - n-cp- p. Cu aq- v ti-{μ-ß-fn am- {X-a- t] -jy ]T-\-tI-{μ-hpw D- m-bn. F-tU- m-bn-se am A-t{]-an-s ]T-\-ß-fp-sS kzm- [o-\w \n-kn-_n-kn-se ssz-h-imkv-{x-]-t-\ ti-{μ-øn-\p i- n At miy ayqknbw Sqdn-Ãp-Iƒ mbn skiyq-cn n Ihm-Shpw Ign p hensbmcp si n-s-k-ap- -b-øneqss IS- p B pw hnkvab-i-c-amb ImgvN-Iƒ ImWm Ign-bpw. t]mip ÿe-ß-fnse Nne Fgp-Øp-I-sf- nepw Ipdns -Sp- m Ign-bp p. Fgp-Xm D]-I-cn- p- p. Hatay = Antoyka Treasures of Turkey Chn-SpsØ BZna a\p-jyscbpw cmpm- - mscbpw Ahn- Sp-sØ- - n-bp F m hnh-c-ßfpw Cu ayqkn-b-øn-ep- v. Xp n-bpss Hcp henb \nt ]w Chn-sS-bp- v. Hatay Arkeolgy Muzesi (Hatay Archeology Museum) Ahmarian culture Anticoh History. This under the French Jebelal-Aquara. temi-ønse G hpw henb tij-cn- -s samtk p- I-fpsS (Mosaic) Hcp Ie-h-d-bm-Wv. G.-Un. c mw-\q- m- nepw aq mw \q m- nepw Daphne \n pw ]utem-kn-s P ÿ-e-amb k kp-kn \n pw samtk- p-iƒ sim p-h- p. The New Hatay Archaeology Museum contains one of best collections of Mosaics in the world. c mw \q m- nepw aq mw \q m- nepw samtk- p-iƒ Ut m-\n-bn (Daphone) \n pw ]utem-kns P -ÿ-e-amb k kp-kn \n pw hen-b-txm- Xn samtk- ns k cw sim p-h- p. Chn-SpsØ samtk p-iƒ tpm ±m-\nse temi-{]-kn- -amb au_m samtk- p-iƒ v Xpey-am-Wv. B ÿehpw c p-{]m-hiyw kμ in- Xv acp- {Kq n Iq-Sn-bm-Wv. Cu ayqkn-b-øn _n.kn apx hsc-bp Alvamcn-b Ncn-{Xhpw kwkvim-chpw tcj-s -Sp-Øn-bn-cn- p- p. ChnsS BZn-a-a-\p-jy apx B[p-\nI a\p-jy-ncn-{xw-hsc tcj-s -Sp-Øn-bn-cn- p- p. Idrimi the son of Illi - Itimma, servants of Teshub. He who is in the house of his father, he is the noble son. BZycmP-hwiw apx F m `c-wm-[n-im-cn-i-fpss Ncn-{Xhpw {]Xn-a-Ifpw Ah D]-tbm-Kn- n-cp Bbp-[-߃, Irjn-B-bp-[-߃, ho p-]-i-c-w-߃, hkv{x-߃, hosp-i-fpss amxr-i-iƒ XpSßn [mcmfw hn m-\-{]-z-amb hkvxp-x-iƒ Cu ayqknb-øn {]Z in- n- n- p- v. Rß-ƒ HmSn-\-S v I p. F m- n-t bpw t^mt m-iƒ A Ip v FSp-Øp. `mcy-bp-ambn hcp Sqdn-Ãp-Iƒ {]Xn-a-I-fpsS ap n, B {]Xn-a-Iƒ ]nim-nn-t -Xm-bmepw At m-tfm-tz-h-t -tbm, A Ø-aokv tzhn-bp-ts-tbm, _m tz-h-t tbm ZpjvS- mcpw {Iqc- m-cp-amb cmpm- - m-cp-ts-xm-bmepw `mcysb AXns F mw ap n {]Z in- n- n p t^mt m FSp- p- p. At m-iy-bnse tdma `c-wm-[n-im-cn-i-fpss Imew G.- Un. 63 apx 610 hsc Bbn-cp- p. ]utem-kn\pw IpSpw- _-Øn\pw tdma ]ucxzw In nb Imcy-ßfpw Cu ayqknb-øn tcj-s -Sp-Øn-bn-cp- p. c -km- n-i-fmb {InkvXym-\n-I-sf- p-dn pw anj-\-dn-amsc- p-dn pw ayqkn-b-øn hnh-cn p ]d-bp- p. G.-Un. A mw-\q- m- n ChnsS c -km- n-bmb Samandaog s\- - nbpw ]d-bp- p. Mosaic ground from in Sleukia, Pieria, Celik region in 1939 belonged to around Martyrium (a church structure built over a burial ground of a christian saint A.D.526 St. Simon Manastri Martyrium. {InkvXob c -km- n-ifpss ]pd-øph-cmø hnh-c-߃ ChnsS tcj-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p- v. B - n- m C-S-bm-bn. sam- -kp-sa- m-bn-se Xn-btUm-dn-s Nn- m-k-xn-i-tfm-sv Xm-ev-]-cyw P-\n- n- \ -ssk A-e-Iv-km-{ n-b ssz-h-im-kv- {X-Nn- -I-tfm-Sv hn-tbm-pn- p. A- t m-iy ssz-h-im-kv-{x-øn- A-t ym-iy-bn kp-h-\o -tjm- v \-S-Øp- a-cn-b-tbm-ssm- w ]m-ã t]mƒ a-ebsn s -bpw th-z-hym-jym-\-ssi-enbp-ss-bpw B-[n-Im-cn-I-h- m-hmbn-cp- p Xn-b-tUm. A-t±-lw "- km -Δ-{Xn-I k-`-bp-ss {]-t_m- [-I F- p A-dn-b-s - p-"(btkm-f ss{i-kv-x-h-k-` \q- m- p- I-fn-eq-sS t]-pv 256). G.-Un Im-e-L- - Øn A-t m-iy, F-tU- m, A-e-Iv-km-{ n-b, t] -jy F- o ta-j-e-i-fn A-d-am-b- -kndn-bm-\n `m-j-i-fn-ep- th-z-]- T-\-tI-{μ-߃ h-f-sc i- -ambn {]-h -Øn- n-cp- p. A-t m-iym A-d-_n ap- oß-fp-ss ssi-i-fn A-a - txm-ss A-t m-iy {In-kv-Xob knw-lm-k-\-øn-\pw am- w kw-`-hn- p. A-Xp Zn-bm -_- -dnte- pw A-hn-sS-\n- v a -Zo-\nte- pw am- n. ]n- o-sv kn-dn-b-bnse tlmw-kn-te- pw H-Sp-hn U-am-kv-I-kn-te- pw am- n ÿm- ]n- p. kn-dn-bm-bn B-`y- -c-bp- w D- m-bn. sf.-f- n-s ssi-i-fn-em-b-t mƒ B-ÿm-\w se-_-tem-\n-te- v am- n-bn-cn- p- p. F- n-epw ] -Δ-X-Øn-s `m- K-am-bn sim-øn-bn-cn- p- Kpl-bn-se B-Zy-knw-lm-k-\w C- (ti-jw t]-pv 9)

7 7 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn lmcm apx ]tflmkv hsc s^{_phcn 05 H- mw \q- m- n-se kw-kv- Im-c-Øn-\p Xp-S- -an- -Xv tdm-ans cm-jv-{so-b A-[n-Im-cw am-{xa-, ]m- m-xy-tem-i-øn-epw ]u-c-kv-xy-tem-i-øn-epw \n-d- p-\n- b-h-\ ({Ko- v) cm-jv- {So-b A-[n-Im-c-tØm-Spw {Ko- v `m-j-tbm-sp-am-wv. _n.-kn.146- sim-cn- v ]n-sn-s -Sp- -s - -txmss I-S-Øn-s m- p-h- {Ko- v A-Sn-a-I-fpw A-h-cp-sS hn- m- \-hpw tdm-am- m-cp-ss `-h-\-߃ A-e- -cn- p- -Xn-\p D-]-tbm- Kn p. {Ko- v A-Sn-a-Iƒ tdm-am- mcp-ss `-h-\-ß-fn ho- p-tpm-en- Iƒ sn-øp-hm-\pw A- m-]-i-cmbpw ssh-zy- m-cm-bpw I-W-s gp-øp-im-cm-bpw Ir-jn-bn-S-ß-fptS-tbm hym-]m-c-ÿm-]-\-ß-fp-tstbm ta -t\m- - m-cm-bpw tdman \n-b-an- n-cp- p. Iq-Sm-sX G-Y -kv, tdm-uv-kv, X -io-iv Xp-S-ßn-b \-K-c-ß-fn-se {Ko- p k -Δ-I-em-im-e-I-fn {Ko- p-`mj h-i-ap- m-bn-cp- tdm-a bphm- ƒ tn - p-]-tn- p. tdmw {Ko- p-`m-j kw-km-cn- p- \-K-c-am-bn am-dp- co-xnbn {Ko- p-`m-j-bpw kw-kv-imc-hpw hym-]n- p. {Ko- p-im X- ß-sf bp- -Øn txm -]n- -hcp-ss-ta kmw-kv-im-cn-i-hn-p-bw t\-sp-i-bp- m-bn. tdm-an-se {]- kn- km-ln-xy-im-c-\m-bn-cp- Pp-h-ss\ C-{]-Im-cw ]-cm-xns - p. -F-s k-l-tdm-am- msc ap-gp-h-\pw {Ko- p-a-b-am-b H- cp \-K-c-sØ F-\n- v h-ln- m- \m-hn-. A-e-Iv-km- -dp-ss ssk-\n-ihn-p-b-߃ ]p-xn-b-\n-b-a-ønse kw-`-h-ß-tf-sd-bpw A-c-tßdn-b tdm-a In-g-t ]-Ip-Xnbn {Ko- p kw-kv-im-cw hym- ]n- m B-cw-`n- -Xv {Ko- p hym-]m-cn-i-fn-eq-ss-bm-wv. a-lm- \m-b A-e-Iv-km- -dp-ss ssk- \n-i hn-p-b-߃ ]u-c-kv-xy-tem- I-Øn b-h-\m-b-h - -c-wsø h-en-b A-f-hn Xz-cn-Xs -Sp-Øn. {Ko- p kw-kv-im-c- Øn-s kzm-[o-\-hpw A-e-Iv-km- -dn \- m-bn th-cp-d-bv- m Im-c-Ww tkm-{i- o-kn-s in-jy- \m-b A-cn-tÃm- n-en-s in- - W-Øn h-f - -Xpw {]-kn- km-ln-xy-im-c-\m-b tlm-a-dn-s C-e-n-b-Un-s kzm-[o-\w h-f - Øn-sb-Sp-Ø b-h-\ ]m-c-º-cy-hpam-bn-cp- p. FtU-k \Â-Ip- kq-n-\iä Ncn{Xw ti-jn- n- p- Xv. ayq-kn-bw Im-gvIƒ _n.-kn.334- sl- n-kv-t]m- v ap-dn- p-i-s- v G-jym-ssa-\- dn-se-øn-b (Xp - n) A-t±-lw {Km-\n- -kv \-Zn- p k-ao-s] D- m-b bp- -Øn t] -jy -cm- Py-sØ ]-cm-p-b-s -Sp-Øn. G- jym-ssa-\-dn B-[n-]-Xyw D-d- n- A-e-Iv-km- Cu-Pn-]v-Xnte- v \o-ßn. A-hn-sS A-e-Iv-km- { n-b \-K-cw ÿm-]n- p. kn-dn-bsb-bpw Cu-Pn-]v-Xn-t\-bpw Io-g- S- n-b-ti-jw A-t±-lw In-g-t m- p \o-ßn. A -t_-em-bn- h- v t] -jy ssk-\y-sø A- na-am-bn txm - n- p. _m-_n-tem-, t] -jy, kq-km, t]- -kn, t]m-eo-kv F- o cm-py-ß-fp-ss X- e-ÿm-\-ß-fpw kz- -am- n. X-s ssk-\n-i ]q -Δ-tZi-sØ kv-{xo-i-sf hn-hm-lw I- acp- - bm-{xm-kw-lw F-tU-k-bn-se `- -W-im-e-bn A-e-Iv-km- -dp-ss a-c-w-ti-jw km-{am-py-øn A-h-Im-in-Iƒ C- m-ø-xn-\m X- s ssk-\ym-[n-]- m ]- n-s -Sp-Øp. A-ß-s\ ssa-\ G-jm-bpw kn-dn-bm-bpw A- t m- -kv sk-eyq- -kv ssi-h-i-s -Sp-Øn. G-jym-ssa-\-dn-se sk-eyq- n-up-i-fpss B-[n-]-Xyw X-t±-i-hm-kn-Iƒ A-h-cp-sS kzm-x-{ y-sø D-d- n- p A-h-cp-tS-Xm-b cm-py-߃ ÿm-]n- -txm-ss -bn- p-hm Xp-S-ßn. F- m kn-dn-b-bn sk-eyq- n-kp-i-fp-ss `-c-ww \n-e-\n- p. ]m-e-kv-xo-\n-s cm-jv-{so-b-hy-h-lm-c-ß-fn A-hcp-sS kzm-[o-\w i- -am-bn Xp-S - p. _n.-kn h-sc-bp- Im-e-b-f-hn kn-dnb-bn-se B n-tbm- -kv aq- m-a (a-lm-\m-b B n-tbm- -kv) ]m-\n-bm-kv bp- - Øn Cu-Pn-]v-Xn-s\ txm - n- p. A-tX-Øp-S - v ]-e-kv-xo-\n-s \n-b-{ -Ww Gs - Sp-Øp. sb-lq-z- m-cp-ss ]p-xn-b `-c-wm-[n-im-cn-bm-bn. gn- m t{]m- m-ln- n- p. ap- - Xn-\m-bn-cw t] -jy- m-sc (Ad-_n-I-sf) {Ko- p-`m-j ]Tn- n- p-hm Xp-S-ßn. C- y-bn \- S-Øn-b ssk-\n-i hn-p-b-ß-fneq-ss A-t±-lw X-s km-{am-pysø kn- q-\-zo-h-sc hym-]n- n- p. _m-_n-tem-wn-se B-Uw-_- c-hpw ti-fn-i-fpw A-t±-l-Øn-s i-co-c-sø _-e-lo-\-am- n-b-xns ^-e-am-bn ]-\n _m-[n- v _n.-kn.324- X-s 32- m-a-sø h-b- n A-e-Iv-km- \n-cym- X-\m-bn. A-e-Iv-km- -dp-ss a-c-w-tijw km-{am-py-øn A-h-Im-in- Iƒ C- m-ø-xn-\m X-s ssk-\ym-[n-]- m ]- n-s -Sp- Øp. A-ß-s\ ssa-\ G-jmbpw kn-dn-bm-bpw A-t m- -kv sk-eyq- -kv ssi-h-i-s -Sp-Øn. G-jym-ssa-\-dn-se sk-eyq- n- Up-I-fp-sS B-[n-]-Xyw X-t±-ihm-kn-Iƒ A-h-cp-sS kzm-x-{ ysø D-d- n- p A-h-cp-tS-Xm-b cm- Py-߃ ÿm-]n- -txm-ss -bn- p-hm Xp-S-ßn. F- m kndn-b-bn sk-eyq- n-up-i-fp-ss `-c-ww \n-e-\n- p. ]m-e-kv-xo-\ns cm-jv-{so-b-hy-h-lm-c-ß-fn A-h-cp-sS kzm-[o-\w i- -am-bn Xp-S - p. _n.-kn h-sc-bp- Im-e-b-f-hn kn-dn-b-bn-se B n-tbm- -kv aq- m-a (a-lm- \m-b B n-tbm- -kv) ]m-\n-bmkv bp- -Øn Cu-Pn-]v-Xn-s\ txm - n- p. A-tX-Øp-S - v ]- e-kv-xo-\n-s \n-b-{ -Ww G-s - Sp-Øp. sb-lq-z- m-cp-ss ]p-xn-b `-c-wm-[n-im-cn-bm-bn. sk-eyq- n-up-i-fp-ss B-[n- ]-Xy-Øn A-h-cp-sS X-e-ÿm- \w A-t m-iy-bm-bn-cp- p. A-hntS- v Pq-X- m H-gp-In-sb-Øn ÿn-c-xm-a-k-am- n. _n.-kn.63- t]mw-]n kn-dn-b-sb H-cp tdma {]-hn-iy-bm- n. A-t m-iy tdm-am- m-cp-ss aq- m-a-sø \- K-c-am- n-øo -Øp. A- v kn-dnb A-t m-iy F- \-K-cw C- v Xp - n-bn-se H-cp \-K-c-ambn am-dn-bn-cn- p- p. C-hn-sS-sb- mw {Ko- p-`m-j-bpw km-ln-xyhpw B-g-Øn h-f - p. A-Xv ]m- m-xy-cp-ss-bpw ]u-c-kv-xy-cpam-b P-\-߃- n-s-bn kw-kv- Im-c-Øn-s H-cp s]m-xp-am-[y-aw {]-Zm-\w sn-bv-xp. H-tdm- -kv \- Zn- -c-bn-ep- A-t m-iy-bm-bncp- p sk-eyq- -kn-s X-eÿm-\w. H- m-a-sø ]v-tsm-f-an-bp-ss Im-e-Øv Cu-Pn-]v-Xn-te- v \m-sp- I-S-Ø-s - H-cp-Iq- w sb-lq-z- m A-e-Iv-km-{ n-b-bn ÿnc-hm-k-ap-d- n- p. A-hn-sS A-hcp-sS \n-e hm-wn-py-øn-eq-ss h- f-sc sa- -s - n-cp- p. Cu-Pn-]v-Xnse ]v-tsm-f-an `-c-w-i -Øm- ƒ b-lq-z- m-tcm-sv \- co-xn-bn s]-cp-am-dn. bp-h-x-e-ap-d {Ko- v `m-j ]Tn- p. A-ß-s\ {Ko- pco-xn-iƒ kzo-i-cn- p. ]v-tsm-f-an ^n-em-u -^-kn-s `-c-w-im-e- Øm-Wv sk-]v- -Pn v F- p A- dn-b-s -Sp- ss_-_n-fn-s {Ko- v ]-Xn- v c-nn- -s - -Xv.

8 ka-im-eni ]{XnI s^{_phcn 05 {]h-n-\-߃ hym-jym-\n- p-tºmƒ 3 mw t]pv XpS hm-nym - -hpw N-cn-{X-hpw ]q - Æ-am-bpw A-h-K-Wn- -s -Sp- p. X-ß-fp-sS am-\p-jn-i Nn- m-k-xn- I-fp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-epw k-`m- ]-c-am-b hn-izm-k-co-xn-i-fp-ss A- Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-epw Dƒ-sIm- phm I-gn-bm-Ø ssz-h-im-kv-{x hn-j-b-߃- v, X-ß-fp-sS a-\- n-s\ kw-xr-]v-xn-s -Sp-Øp- - Xn-\v, F-gp-X-s - h-n-\-ønt X-ß-fp-sS B-i-b-߃ h- en-b B-flo-I k-xy-߃ F- hym-tp-\ A-Sn-t - n- p- co- Xn-bm-Wv A-\ym - (A-en-K-dn- ) hym-jym-\w. Cu hym-jym- \-Øn-\p h-n-\-]m-fin-xyw B- h-iy-an-. Im-c-Ww X-ß-fp-sS B- i-bw hn-i-zo-i-cn- p-hm a-\pjy h-n-\-sø D- -cn- p-i am- {X-am-Wv A-\ym - hym-jym-\- Øn A-Y-hm A-en-K-dn- hym-jym-\-øn sn-øp- -Xv. A-Xp-sIm- v A-\ym - hym-jym-\-øn-s e- yw F- - Xv h-n-\-sø hym-jym-\n- p-i F- -Xn-ep-]-cn, X-ß-fp-sS am-\pjn-i B-i-b-߃ h-n-\-tøm- Sv Iq- n-t -Øv h-n-\-øn-s i- cn-bm-b B-i-b-sØ hn-i-e-am- p-i F- -Xm-sW- v hy- -am- Ip- p. am-\p-jn-i Im-Xp-Iƒ- v kzo-im-cy-am-b `m-jm ssi-en-bnepw h-iy-x-bn-epw A-h-X-cn- n- p- -Xn-\m P-\-lr-Z-b-ß-fn B-g-am-b kzm-[o-\-hpw Cu hym- Jym-\-Øn-\p e-`n- p- p. K-l-\- am-b ]T-\w B-h-iy-an-s - -Xpw Cu hym-jym-\-co-xn A-\p-h - Øn- p-hm A-t\-Iw ip-{iq-j- I- m-sc t{]-cn- n- p- p. h-iy-xbm-w-t m Zp-cp-]-tZ-i-ß-fpw Zpcp-]-tZ-i-I-cpw hym-]m-cw sn-øp- X-{ w. G-Z txm- -Øn ssz-h-h-n-\w Zp -hym-jym-\w sn- B-e- m-cn-i-am-twm F- v a-\- n-em- p-hm Cu ]-cn-tim-[-\ k-lm-bn- pw. b. h-n-\-øn {]-Xn-]m-Zn- ncn- p- hn-j-b-øn-s hn-i-zmwi-߃ B A-[ym-b-Øn X- s -tbm, A-Xn-\p ap-tºm ]ntºm D- A- ym-b-øn-tem ]pkv-x-i-øn-tem \ -In-bn-cn- pw F- -Xn-\m {]-kv-xm-hy th-z `m-k-øn-\p ap-ºpw ]n-ºpw D- A- ym-b-߃ {i- -tbm-ss ]-cntim-[n-t - -Xpw B-h-iy-am-Wv. c. Nn-e k-μ -`-ß-fn hn-jb-sø Ip-dn- v Iq-Sp-X hn-i-zo-ic-w-߃ \ -Im-sX H-cp hm-iy- Øn am-{xw hn-j-bw {]-Xn-]m-Zn- n-cn- mw. A-ß-s\-bp- hn-j-b߃ a-\- n-em- p- -Xn-\p sxm- p ap-ºpw ]n-ºpw {]-Xn-]m-Zn- n-cn- p- hn-j-b-ß-sf hy- -am-bn ]-cn-tim-[n-t - -Xm-h-iy-am-Wv. k-μ -`w a-\- n-em- n h-n- \w hym-jym-\n p- -Xn-\p Nph-sS tn - p- hn-j-b-߃ Iq- Sn ]-cn-k-wn- p- -Xv k-lm-b-ic-am-wv. a. ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am- p- th- Z-`m-K-Øn D-]-tbm-Kn- n-cn- p- hm- p-i-fp-ss i-cn-bm-b A - -hpw B-i-b-hpw a-\- n-em- p- -Xn-\p th-z-`m-k-øn-s ]- m- Ø-ew A-Y-hm k-μ -`w hy- - am-bn a-\- n-em-t - -Xp- v. Npcp- -Øn, hm- p-i-fp-ss A - w a-\- n-em- p- -Xn-\p k-μ - `w hy- -am-bn a-\- n-em-t - - Xv B-h-iy-am-Wv. H-cp hm- n-\p ]-e k-μ -`-ß-fn-epw hy-xy-kv-xam-b A - -hpw B-i-b-hpw D- bv-x km-øm-\pw h-iy-x F- X-{ -Øm ssz-h-p-\-sø h-gnsx- n- p- -Xv \mw Im-Wp- p. A-\ym - hym-jym-\-øn-s tzm-j-߃ 1. A-\ym - hym-jym-\-øns H- m-a-sø tzm-jw F- -Xv, A-Xv h-n-\-sø hym-jym-\n- p- n- F- -Xv X-s -bm-wv. sszh-h-n-\-øn-se {]-Xn-]m-Zy hn-jb-ß-fp-ss k-μ -`w, hym-i-c-ww F- n-h A-h-K-Wn- p sim- v H- cp hn-i-zo-i-c-ww X- n-jv-s-{]-imcw \ -Ip- -Xn-eq-sS h-n-\-sø hym-jym-\n- p-i-b-, kz- w B- i-bw ÿm-]n- m h-n-\-sø D- -cn- p-i am-{x-am-wv A-\ym - hym-jym-\n-iƒ sn-øp- -Xv. h-f-sc B-flo-I ssn-x-\yw D- -sx- v X-ß-fp-sS lr-z-b-øn- txm- p- Im-cy-ß-sf sszhn-iw F- v ÿm-]n- m h-n- \-sø D- -cn- p p F- -Xm-Wv C-hn-sS kw-`-hn- p- -Xv. 2. A-\ym - hym-jym-\-øn- \p A-Sn-ÿm-\w ssz-h-h-n-\w F- -Xn-\v ]-I-cw hym-jym-\n-bpss am-\-kn-i `m-h-\-bm-bn hy-xn- N-en- p- p F- -Xm-Wv c- m-asø hn-]-øv. H-cn- - am-\p-jn- I `m-h-\-iƒ ssz-h-h-n-\-ønt A-Sn-t - n- -s -Sptºmƒ, hym-jym-\n-bp-ss \n-e-]m- Sp-I-fpw A-Xn-t\m-Sv tn - -s - Sp- p. X-s km-aq-ln-i-hpw hy- n-]-c-hp-am-b \n-e-]m-sp-iƒ C- hn-ss h-en-b H-cp kzm-[o-\-i- nbm-bn sh-fn-s -Sp- p. 3. A-\ym - hym-jym-\-øns aq- m-a-sø tzm-jw F- - Xv hym-jym-\n \ -Ip- hn-i-zo- I-c-W-߃ i-cn-tbm F- v ]-cntim-[n- p-hm H-cp am - -hpw C- F- -Xm-Wv. A-\ym - hym- Jym-\-Øn am-\p-jn-i `m-h-\- hn\hymjym-\-øns Ncn{Xw m-ip- p F- -Xv \-Ωp-sS km- [m-c-w kw-km-c-øn t]m-epw hy- -am-w-t m. ssz-h-h-n-\ hym-jym-\-øn-epw i-cn-bm-b A - w a-\- n-em- p- -Xn-\p hm- p-i-sf A-h D-]-tbm-Kn- n-cn- p- ]- m-ø-ew A-\p-k-cn- p hym-jym-\n-t - -Xp- v. b. ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am- p- th- Z-`m-K-Øn D-]-tbm-Kn- n-cn- p- hym-i-c-w-hpw {]-tbm-k-co-xn-bpw k-kq- v-aw ]-cn-tim-[n- pi. c. {]-Xn-]m-Zy hn-j-bw Xp-S - am-\-am-bn hn-i-zo-i-cn- p- p-thm A-tXm hm-bn- p- hy- n-i-fpss hn-nn- -\-Øn-\v hn-j-bw hn- Sp-I-bm-tWm F-gp-Øp-Im-c snøp- -Xv F- v ]-cn-tim-[n- p-i. th-z-`m-k-øv \n- v hm-b-\- m-c-\v F- v txm- n F- -X-, F- v B-i-b-am-Wv F-gp-Øp- Im-c ]-I - p \ -Ip- -Xv F- m-wv {]-[m-\w. A-Xn-\p G-Xp km-l-n-cy-øn-em-wv F-gp-Øp- Im-c F-gp-Xp- -Xv F- -Xv h- f-sc Ku-c-h-tØm-sS Im-Wp-hm B-h-iy-ap- v. F-gp-Xn-b k-μ - `w hy- -am-bn a-\- n-em- phm {i- -tbm-sv Iq-Sn-b ]T-\w B-h-iy-am-Wv. 3. N-cn-{Xw A-Sn-ÿm-\-am- n-bp- hym-jym-\w G-sXm-cp th-z-`m-k-øn-s - bpw hym-jym-\-øn aq- m-a-xv ]-cn-k-wn-t - hn-j-bw {]-Xn- ]m-zy hn-j-b-øn-s N-cn-{X ]- m-ø-e-am-wv. ssz-h-h-n-\w N- cn-{xm-[m-c-am-bn c-nn- -s - -Xm-Ibm N-cn-{X-Øn-\p h-n-\ hym- Jym-\-Øn h-f-sc {]m-[m-\y-ap- I-fpw k- -ev-]-ß-fpw C-S-X-S-hn- m-sx s]-cp-in h-cp- p. ssz-hh-n-\ k-xy-sø hy-xn-n-en- n- p- I F- -Xm-Wv A-\ym - hym- Jym-\-Øn-s e- y-hpw ^-ehpw. A-\ym - hym-jym-\-øns h- m- ƒ X-ß-fp-sS \n-e- ]m-sv \ym-bo-i-cn- p-hm A-t mkv-txm-e-\m-b ]u-tem-kv A- \ym - hym-jym-\w D-]-tbm-Kn- -Xm-bn A-h-Im-i-s -Sp- p. K-em. 4: \mw A-Xp hm-bn- p- p. Cu th-z-`m-kw {i- n- p hmbn- p t\m- n-bm, ]u-tem-kv C-hn-sS A-\ym - hym-jym-\w A-\p-h -Øn- p-i-b-s - pw, B- e- m-cn-i hym-jym-\w F-s - v hn-i-zo-i-cn- p-i am-{x-am-sw- pw a-\- n-em- p-hm km-[n- pw. B-i-b kw-hm-z-\-øn-\p B-e- m-cn-i {]-tbm-k-߃ am-\pjn-i kw-`m-j-w-ß-fn D- -Xn- \m, Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øn-epw A-e- mc h-n-\-߃ ]-e ÿ-e-øpw Im-Wp-hm km-[n- p- p. F- m h-n-\w hym-jym-\n- phm am-\p-jn-i ssi-en-i-fpw A- \ym - -ß-fpw D-]-tbm-Kn- p- - Xn-s\ ssz-h-h-n-\w A-\p-tam-Zn- p- n-. B-e- m-cn-i {]-tbm-kß-sf a-\- n-em- p- -Xn-\p {]- txy-i-am-b h-n-\-]t-\w B-h-iyam-Wv. F- n am-{x-ta A-h-bpsS i-cn-bm-b B-i-bw a-\- n-em- p-hm km-[n- p-i-bp- q. B- -co-i hym-jym-\w ss_-_n-fn-se Hm-tcm hm- pw hm-n-i-hpw A-Xn-s kzm- `m-hn-i B-i-b-Øn-epw A - - Øn-epw hym-jym-\n- p hn-i-zo-icn- p- co-xn-bm-wv B- -co-i hym-jym-\w. hm- p-i-fp-ss hym- I-c-Ww, ]- m-ø-ew ssi-en- F- n-h h-f-sc {]m-[m-\y-tøm-ss ]-cn-k-wn- p \-S-Øp- hym-jym- 4 mw t]pv XpS v. F-gp-Øn-s N-cn-{X ]- m- Ø-ew a-\- n-em- m-sx F-gp- Øp-Im-c F- v D-t±-iy-Øn F-gp-Xn F- v a-\- n-em- p-i km-[y-a-. F-gp-Xn-b k-a-bw, F- gp-xp-hm-\p- m-b km-l-n-cyw, F- gp-øn-s D-t±-iyw F- n-h h-n- \-hym-jym-\-øn Ku-c-h-tØmsS ]-cn-k-wn-t - -Xp- v. F-gp- Xn-b hy- n-sb- p-dn- pw X-s F-gp-Øn-s ssi-en-sb- p-dn- pw a-\- n-em- n-bm am-{x-ta h-n- \w i-cn-bm-bn a-\- n-em- p-hm km-[n- p-i-bp- q. 4. hym-i-c-ww A-Sn-ÿm-\-am- n-bp- hym-jym-\w {]-Xn-]m-Zy th-z-`m-k-øn-se `m-j-bp-ss hym-i-c-ww ({Km-a ) hy- -am-bn a-\- n-em- p-i F- -Xm-Wv h-n-\-hym-jym-\-øn-se A-Sp-Ø ]-Sn. {]-txy-in- pw th- Z-`m-Kw F-gp-Xn-b `m-j-bp-ss hym- I-c-W ssi-en. aq-e-`m-j-sb Ipdn- p- i-cn-bm-b {Km-lyw C- msx C-Xv a-\- n-em- p-i km-[ya-. F- n-epw C- v Hm-tcm `m-jbn-epw h-n-\w `m-jm- -cw snøp-tºmƒ, `m-jm- -cw sn-ø-s - `m-j-bp-ss hym-i-c-w ssi-enbn {]-Im-c-am-Wv ]-cn-`m-j-iƒ an- -hm-dpw \-S- p-i F- -Xn- \m, hm-b-\- m-c Xm ssi- Im-cyw sn-øp- `m-j-bp-ss hym- I-c-W ssi-en-sb h-f-sc {]m-[m- \y-tøm-ss X-s hym-jym-\- Øn ]-cn-k-wn-t - -Xp- v. B-e- m-cn-i {]-tbm-k-ß-fp-ss hym-jym-\w {]-h-n-\ hym-jym-\-øn h- f-sc {]m-[m-\y-ap- H-cp hn-j- \w. H-cp hm-t m hm-n-i-tam A- Xn-s kzm-`m-hn-i D-]-tbm-K-Ønse B-i-b-Øn X-s ]-cn-k- Wn- pw A-h-bp-sS ]- m-ø-e- Øn-s A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-epw hym- I-c-W-Øn-s A-Sn-ÿm-\-Ønepw hn-i-zo-i-cn- p- co-xn-bm-wv B- -co-i hym-jym-\w F- v e- fn-x-am-bn ]-d-bmw. ss_-_n-fn-t\m-sp- _- - Øn am-{x-a-, G-sXm-cp hn-jbw ]Tn- p- -Xn-\pw A-Xv F-gp- Xn-bn-cn- p- `m-j-bp-ss hym-ic-w co-xn, F-gp-Xn-b ]- m-øew, km-[m-c-w kw-km-c-øn {]-kv-xp-x ]-Z-Øn-\p- A - w F- n-h ]-cn-k-wn- p- hn-i-zo- I-c-W-am-Wv A - -]q -Æw F- -Xv km-am-\y \n-b-a-am-wv. Cu A-Sn-ÿm-\ \n-b-a-sø a-dn-i-s- p- hn-i-zo-i-c-w-߃ F-gp- Øp-Im-c-t\m kw-km-cn- p- hy- n-tbm D-t±-in- m-ø \n-ebn hm- p-i-sf h-f-s m-sn- p- ÿn-xn-bp- m- pw. ssz-h-h-n-\w a-\p-jy - v A- h-cp-ss kw-km-c `m-j-bn X- s sh-fn-s -Sp-Øn \ -In-b-Xn- \m, `m-j-bp-ss hym-i-c-w \nb-a-hpw, ]- m-ø-e-hpw a-\- n- em- n A-Xn -{]-Im-cw X-s hni-zo-i-cn-t - -Xv B-h-iy-am-Wv. A-ß-s\ sn-øp- -h - v am-{xta h-n-\-sø b-ym-hn-[n a-\- n- em- p-hm km-[n- p-i-bp- q. Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øn \n-g-ep-i-fpw kq- N-I-ß-fpw D-]-tbm-Kn- p- p F- n-epw A-h-bp-sS hym-jym-\-øn- \p ]n- n-epw B- -co-i hym- Jym-\ X-Xz-߃ A-\p-h -Øn- p- p F- n am-{x-ta k-xyw a-\- n-em- p-hm km-[n- p-ibp- q. h-n-\-sø h-n-\w sim- v hym-jym-\n- p-i F- -Xm-Wv {]-am-ww. h-n-\-sø `m-h-\ sim- pw am-\p-jn-i bp- n sim- pw hym-jym-\n- p- -Xv `q-j-w- F- v km-cw. A-\ym - hym- b-am-wv B-e- m-cn-i (typology) hym-jym-\w. Im-c-Ww {]-h-n-\- hn-j-b-߃ ]-e-xpw B-e- m-cn- I {]-tbm-k-ß-fm-em-wv sh-fn-s - Sp-Øn-bn-cn- p- -Xv. K-l-\-am-b hn-j-bw e-fn-x-am-bn A-h-X-cn- n- p- -Xn-\m-Wv B-e- m-cn-i {]- tbm-k-߃ km-[m-c-w-bm-bn D- ]-tbm-kn- p- -Xv. Xn-cp-sh-gp- Øn [m-cm-fw {]-tbm-k-߃ Cu \n-e-bn Im-Wm-hp- -Xm- Wv. I -Øm-hpw `q-an-bn B-bncp- -t mƒ ssz-hn-i hn-j-b߃ P-\-Øn-\p a-\- n-em- n sim-sp- p- -Xn-\p D-]-a-I-fpw A- e- m-c-ß-fpw D-]-tbm-Kn- p- -Xv \mw Im-Wp- p. {]-h-n-\-hn-j-b߃ Iq-Sp-X K-l-\-am-I-bm hn-j-bw a-\p-jy - v a-\- n-em- Ip- -Xn-\p th- n B-e- m-cn-i {]-tbm-k-߃ [m-cm-fw D-]-tbm- Kn- n- p- v. F- m {]-h-n-\ hnj-b-ß-fn-se ]-cm-a -i-߃ F- mw B-e- m-cn-i-߃ A- Xm- \pw. B-I-bm G-sXm-s hnj-b-ß-fm-wv B-e- m-cn-iw F- pw B- -cn-iw F- pw h-i-xncn- p a-\- n-em-t - D-Ø-c-hm- Zn-Øw hm-b-\- m-cn \n- n-]v- X-am-Wv. B-e- m-cn-i {]-Xn-]m-ZysØ B- -co-i-am-bn hym-jym- \n- p-i-tbm, B- -co-i hn-j-bsø B-e- m-cn-i-am-bn hym-jym- \n- p-i-tbm, sn-bv-xm Kp-cp-Xc-am-b sx- p-iƒ h-n-\-hym-jym- \-Øn h- p `-hn- pw F- -Xn- \m h-f-sc {]m - -\-tbm-spw k-a - -W-tØm-Spw ssz-h-`-btøm-spw ssi-im-cyw sn-tø- H- m-wv {]-h-n-\ hym-jym-\w. H-cp {]-Xn-]m-Zyw B-e- m-cn- I-tam B- -co-i-tam F- v a-\- Jym-\-Øn hym-jym-\w i-cn-tbm F- v ]-cn-tim-[n- p-hm D-]-Ic-W-߃ A-s - n ap-jm- -c߃ C- F- -Xv \mw ap-ºv I p. B- -co-i hym-jym-\- Øn G-sXm-cp hy- n- pw, hym- Jym-\w i-cn-tbm F- v ]p-\-c-htem-i-\w sn-øp- -Xn-\p- km-h- Im-iw D- v F- -Xv B- -co-i hym-jym-\-øn-s ta- -bmwv. Im-hyw, \n-g, A-e- m-c {]- tbm-k-߃ F- n-h Xn-cp-sh-gp- Øn Im-Wp- -Xn-\m B- co-i hym-jym-\w F-ß-s\ km- [y-am-ipw F- v ]-e-cpw B-i- - s -Sp-I-bpw, B- -co-i hym-jym- \-tø- mƒ D-]-cn A-\ym - hym-jym-\-sø B-t«-jn- phm Xm - -cy-s -Sp-I-bpw snøp- p. F- m B- -co-i hym- Jym-\w Im-hy-sØ Im-hy-am-bpw \n-g-en-s\ \n-g-em-bpw Im-cy-Imc-W k-ln-xw hn-i-zo-i-cn- p- p. \n-g-em-bn sh-fn-s -Sp-Ø-s - hnj-bw s]m-cp-fm-bn ssz-h-h-n-\w sh-fn-s -Sp-Øp-tºmƒ \n-g-en-s\ \n-g-em-bpw s]m-cp-fn-s\ s]m-cpfm-bpw B- -co-i hym-jym-\w sh-fn-s -Sp-Øpw. a-dn- p, ss_- _n-fn-se G-sX- n-epw H-cp hn-jb-sø, hy- n-sb, h-kv-xp-hn-s\ F-Sp-Øv Im-Wn- p, A-Xn-\p ]-gb-\n-b-a-øn \n- pw \n-g I- s -Øp- -Xv Ip-_p- n-i-fm-wv. A-Xv Zp -hym-jym-\-am-wv. ssz-hmflm-hv H-cp hn-j-bw \n-g-em-bn sh-fn-s -Sp-Øp-tºmƒ A-Xn-s s]m-cp-fpw hy- -am-bn X-s shfn-s -Sp-Øpw. A-Xn-\p am-\p-jn- I _p- n-bn-ep- hym-jym-\- ߃ B-h-iy-an- ; A-ß-s\ am- \p-jn-i _p- n-bn hym-jym-\n- p- -Xn-s\-bm-Wv A-\ym - hym-jym-\w A-Y-hm A-en-K-dn- hym-jym-\w F- v ]-d-bp- -Xv. C-Xv {In-kv-Xo-b hn-izm-k k-aq-l-øn-\p im-]-am-b H-cp hym-jym-\-co-xn-bm-wv. n-em- p-i F- -Xm-Wv hm-b-\- m-c-\v a-dn-i-s- p-hm-\p- H-cp I-S-º. F-gp-Xn-b hn-j-bw A-ßs\ X-s hn-i-zo-i-cn- p-tºmƒ bp- -am-b A - w e-`n- p- p F- n A-Xv B- -co-i-am-b {]- Xn-]m-Zy-am-Wv. F- m H-cp {]- tbm-kw B- -co-i-am-bn hym-jym- \n- p-tºmƒ bp- -am-b B-ibw e-`n- p- n-s - n A-Xv B- e- m-cn-i {]-tbm-k-am-wv. bp- - am-b-xv F- v C-hn-sS A - -am- p- -Xv {]-kv-xp-x hn-j-bw F- gp-xn-bn-cn- p- ]- m-ø-e-sø A-Sn-ÿm-\-am- n-bm-wv. H-cp hnj-bw B-e- m-cn-i-am-bn hym-jym- \n- p-tºmƒ ]- m-ø-e-hp-am-bn H-Øp-t]m-Ip- n-s - n A-Xv B-e- m-cn-i {]-tbm-kw A- F- v km-cw. Im-Wp- -Xv F- mw B-e- m-cn-i-am-bn hym-jym-\n- phm a-\p-jy-\v ssz-h-h-n-\w A- \p-hm-zw \ -Ip- n-. ssz-h-h-n- \-Øn-se {]-Xn-]m-Zy-߃ N-cn- {Xm-[m-cw B-I-bm `q-cn-`m-kw th-z-`m-k-ß-fpw B- -co-i-am-bn hym-jym-\n-t - -Xm-Wv. B- co-i hym-jym-\w k-μ -`-hp-am-bn Xp-e-\w sn-øp-tºmƒ tn - v t]m-ip- n-s - n am-{x-ta B- e- m-cn-i hym-jym-\-øn-\p hm- Xn Xp-d-t - -Xp- p. ssz-hmflm-hv \ -Ip- hn-th-n-\-{]m- ]v-xn-sb D-]-tbm-Kn- p hn-j-bw hy- -am-bn h-i-xn-cn- p a-\- n-em- p-i F- -Xv {i-a-i-c-am-b H-cp Im-cy-am-Wv. Cu h-i-xn-cn-hv A- ev-]w ITn-\m-[zm-\w B-h-iy-ap- H-cp hn-j-bw B-sW- n-epw, A- Xv sn-øp- H-cp hy- n- v am-{xta h-n-\w i-cn-bm-bn hym-jym-\n- p-hm km-[n- p-i-bp- q.

9 9 ka-im-eni ]{XnI hm -ØIƒ s^{_phcn 05 s]-s -t m-kv-xv an-j sim- m-c- -c km -Δ-tZ-io-b I -h -j s^-{_p-h-cn 7 ap-x Nm-t m si.txm-a-kv sim- m-c- -c: Zn s]-s -t m-kv- Xv an-j k-`-bp-ss ti-c-f-ønse G- -hpw h-en-b I -h -j- \m-b sim- m-c- -c km -Δ-tZ-iob I -h -j s^-{_p-h-cn 7 ap-x 11 h-sc ]p-e-a 's^-bv- Øv tlmw' Pw-Mv-j I -h j {Ku- n \-S- pw. I h -j-\v ap-t m-sn-bm-bn 7 \v (_p-[ ) ssh-in- v aq- v a-wn- v ip-{`-h-kv-x-[m-cn-i-fm-b B- bn-c- -W- n-\v ip-{iq-j-i-cpw hnizm-kn-i-fpw ]-s -Sp- p- kphn-ti-j hn-fw-_-c Pm-Y sim- mc- -c Su h-gn I -h -j {Ku- n k-am-]n- p- -txm-ss I -h -j-\v Xp-S- -am-ipw. Zn-h-k-hpw cm-hn-se G-gn-\v ss_-_nƒ m-kv, 9.30 \v s]m- Xp-tbm-Kw, aq- n-\pw cm-{xn ]- Øn-\pw Im-Øn-cn- v tbm-kw, ssh-in- v 5.45\v kw-ko-x ip-{iqj, kp-hn-ti-j {]-kw-kw, tcm- K-im- n ip-{iq-j F- n-h-bpw i- \n-bm-gv-n aq- n-\v bp-h-p-\ k-tωf-\-hpw k-am-]-\ Zn-h-k-am-b Rmb-dm-gv-N cm-hn-se 9 -\v sim- m-c- -c sk k-`-bp-ss Io-gn-ep- 39 {]m-tz-in-i k-`-i-fn-se ip- {iq-j-i-cpw hn-izm-kn-i-fpw ]-s - Sp- p- kw-bp- k-`m-tbm-khpw D- m-bn-cn- pw. hn-hn-[ {]mtz-in-i `m-j-i-fn an-j {]-h - Ø-I Km-\-߃ B-e-]n- pw. k-`-bp-ss No-^v ]m-ã -am-cpw, ko-\n-b sk -d ]m-ã -am-cpw I -h -j-\n {]-kw-kn- pw. k-am-]-\ Zn-h-kw Rm-b ssh- In- v 5.45\v {]-txy-i ssz-ho-i tcm-k-im- n ip-{iq-j D- m-bn-cn- pw. tcm-k-im- n ip-{iq-j-bp-ss A-\p-{K-l-Øn-\m-bn P-\p-h-cn 26 \v sim- m-c- -c sk -dn-s Iogn-ep- {]m-tz-in-i k-`-i-fn-se hn-izm-kn-i-fpw ip-{iq-j-i-cpw ]- ]mã n.-fkv. G{_lmw hns-hmßn 1 mw t]pv XpS Ip-º-\m-Sv sk ip-{iq-j-i-\pam-wv. k-`-bp-ss ko-\n-b P-\- d an-\n-ã ÿm-\w \ -In B- Z-cn- p. k-`-bp-ss ÿm-]-i ]- tc-x-\m-b ]m-ã si.-c.-g-{_- lm-an-s -bpw (D-Æp-Æn-km ) A- -Ω G-{_-lm-an-s -bpw ko-a- ]p-{x-\m-wv. `m-c-x-øn-se s]- t m-kv-xv N-cn-{X-tØm-sSm- w Iq- n-hm-bn-t - Ip-Spw-_-am-Wv ]m- à si.-c. G-{_-lm-an-t -Xv B-ep-h bq-wn-b {In-kv-Xy (bp.-kn) tim-f-pn _n.f bv- v ]Tn- p-tºm-gm-wv k-`-bp-ss bp-h-p-\ kw-ls-\- bmb s]- -t m-kv-xv bp-h-p-\ kw-l-s-\-bv- v (]n.-ssh.-]n.-f) cq-]w \ -Ip- -Xv. Xp-S - v ssh- Zo-I ]T-\-Øn-\m-bn A-ta-cn- bn-se ss-iv-k-kn F-Øp-I-bpw A-hn-sS \n- v _m- n-e Hm-^v Un-hn-\n- n-bpw, _n-cp-zm- -c _ncp-z-hpw t\-sp-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. Xncn-sI C- y-bn F-Øn B- { m-bn-epw ti-c-f-øn-epw k-`m {]-h -Ø-\-ß-fn ]- m-fn-bm-bn. k-`-bp-ss ti-c-f tã- v sk-{i- dn-bm-bn 17 h -jw tk-h-\w snbv-xp. Xp-S - v P-\-d sk-{i- dn-bm-bn 10 h -j-hpw P-\-d {]- kn-u m-bpw B-dv h -j-hpw k- `m-t\-xr-xz-øn D- m-bn-cp- p. A-ta-cn- -bn-se sf.-]n.kn ^man-en tim -^-d -kn-s ÿm- ]-I-\p-am-Wv. s -Sp- p- {]-txy-i D-]-hm-k {]m -Y-\ \-S- pw. C- y-bp-ss hnhn-[-bn-s-ß-fn \n- pw hn-tz-i cm-py-ß-fn \n- p-ap- ip-{iqj-i-cpw hn-izm-kn-i-fpw I -h j-\n ]-s -Sp- pw. 12-\v cm-hn-se k-`-bp-ss tic-f-øn-se 12 sk -dp-i-fn \n- pw X-an-gv-\m- n-se a-[p-c, \m-k - tim-hn, ]m-f-bw-tim-, Xq-Øp- p-sn, \-t{k-øv F- o sk - dp-i-fn \n- p- ]p-xn-b ip-{iqj-i-sc sx-c-s -Sp- p- tbm- K-hpw D- m-bn-cn- pw. sim- -h -jw s]-s t m-kv-xv an-j {]-h -Ø-\w sim- w Pn- -bn B-cw-`n- p-ibpw 1110 sim- m-c- -c-bn s^bv-øv tlmw ÿm-]n- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp ap-x B-cw-`-amb sim- m-c- -c sk I h -j C- v 84a-Xv km -Δ-tZio-b I -h -j-\pw ti-c-f-ønse s]-s -t m-kv-xv an-j k- `-I-fp-sS G- -hpw h-en-b B-flob kw-k-a-hp-am-wv {io-e- -bn a-e-bm-fnbm-b ]m-ã t]mƒ kn-tem s]-s -t m-kv-xv an-j F- t]-cn ÿm-]n- k-`-bm-wv C- v tem-i-øn-se {]-ap-j s]-s t m-kv-xv k-`-i-fn H- m-bn h- f - p I-gn- Zn s]-s -t mkv-xv an-j '. tem-i-øn 65- ]-cw cm-py-ß-fn {]-h -Øn- p- s]-s -t m-kv-xv an-j k-`-bp-ss ti-c-f-øn-se B-ÿm- \ a-μn-cw sim- m-c- -c-bn-epw, C- y-bn sn-ss C-cp-º- n-bqcn-epw, A-ta-cn- -bn \yq bm - n-ep-am-wv. k-`m No-^v ]m-ã - F. Ão-^, U-]yq- n No-^v ]m-ã G-{_-lmw am-xyq, A- tkm-kn-tb- v U-]yq- n No-^v ]m- Ã. Pn. sp-bw F- n-h-cm-wv k- `-sb \-bn- p- -Xv. b-lq-z-\pw ]m-e-kv-xo-\pw, ]p- Xn-b \n-b-a k -th, th-z-]p-kv- X-I `q-an-im-kv-{xw, s]- -t mkv-xv {]-ÿm-\w, th-z-]p-kv-x-i hn- m-\w, s]- -t m-kv-xv ip- {iq-j-i - v am -K-Z -in, sf.- ]n.kn 75 h -j-߃ sf.-]n.-knbp-ss {l-kz-n-cn-{xw F- o {K- Ÿ-߃ c-nn- n- p- v. k-`-bp-ss ap-j-am-kn-i-bm-b ko-tbm Iml-f-Øn-s No-^v F-Un- -dm-bncp- p. `m-cy : Ip-º-\m-Sv ]q-gn- m-embn ]-tc-x-bm-b ta-cn G-{_- lmw (sf.-]n.kn tkm-z-cn k-am- Pw ap {]-kn-u v, dn-. sl-uvan-kv-{s-kv & F.C.H.). a- ƒ : ]m-ã tum. n. h -k G- {_-lmw sf.-]n.kn ap P-\-d sk-{i- -dn, sf.-]n.kn ]- m-_v tã- v {]-kn-u v, C- ym ss_- _nƒ tim-f-pv {]-kn-u v, B- \n tp- -_v (Ip-ssh- v), Ãm -em eq- v (C- ym ss_-_nƒ timf-pv ssh-kv {]-kn-u v) tj - en Nm-t m (bp.-f-kv.-f). a-cp-a- ƒ: Ip-gn- m-e sx-t -Xp- nbn em-en G-{_-lmw ]p- m-sv a-ßm-sv tp- -_v txm-a-kv (Ipssh- v), \n-c-ww a- -bv- sh -]-d-ºn ta-p hn.-sf. eq- v \n-e-ºq ]-\- -aq- n hn- P-bv ]n.-nm-t m (bp.-f-kv.-f) k-tlm-z-c : ]-tc-x-\m-b ]m-ã D-Ω G-{_-lmw. ]m-ã cm-pp B-\n- m-sv, ^n- n cm-pp, jn-_p ap- w-im- n, ^n- n ]n.am-xyp, tsm-wn Un sn-hq- m-c 1 mw t]pv XpS b -am ), k-pn a-øm-bn Im-tX- Øm-\w, Ip-cy ^n-en- v, jm-pn (snb -am ), ]m-ã kmw-ip- n v (P-\-d sk-{i- -dn), ]m-ã Im-c-bv- k-tlm-z-c- m-cm-b Nm-t m \n-e-ºq (ssh-kv sn- cm-pp B-\n- m-sv, ^n- n cm-pp, hn-tpm-bv k- -dn-b, sh-kv-fn amjn-_p ap- w-im- n (sk-{i- -dnam ), ^n- n ]n.am-xyp ({S-j-dm- sh- p-h- m-\w, Fw.hn.^n-en- v, Xyp, D-Ω G-_-t\-k, \n-_p amcm-a ), tsm-wn Un sn-hq- m-c (P- si.-_n. sf-k-iv, jm-pn am-dm-\m- I sh j \-d tim -Un-t\- ), ]m-ã -amcm-b A- -Ip- v C-e- q, {_-lmw, kn-ã à em eq- v F- Y, cm-p B-cy- - n, tpm- -Pv G- 1 mw t]pv XpS kn.-]n. tam-\m-bn, tdm-bn hm-i- n-h-sc sx-sc-s -Sp-Øp. am-[y-a {]-h -Ø-I-cp-sS-bpw F-gp-Øp-Im-cp-sS-bpw A-tkm-kn-tb-j 14 \v cm-hn-se 10 \v F-Iypsa-\n- k-tω-f-\-øn hn-hn- [ k-` ta-e-[y- - m ]-s -Sp- pw. D- - v c- n-\v t_m-[-h-xv- I-c-W k-tω-f-\-øn _n-j-]v D-Ω tpm -Pv kw-km-cn- pw. ssh-in- v \m-en-\v a-zy-h -P-\ k- an-xn t\-xr-xz-øn {]-txy-i Iq- m-bv-a-bpw \-S- pw. ip- -Pew e-`y-am- p- -Xn-\pw \-Zo-P-e- \n-c- v \n-b-{ n- p- -Xn-\pw tdm- Up-I-fp-sS A- -Ip- - -Wn \-S-Øp- -Xn-\pw hn-hn-[ k - m h-ip- p-iƒ {I-ao-I-c-Ww sn-bv-xp-hcp- p. si.-f-kv.-b.-sn.kn hn-hn- [ ÿ-e-ß-fn \n- v {]-txy-iw _-kv k -ho-kv {I-ao-I-cn- n- p- v. I -sh -j \-K-dn-epw ]- cn-k-c-øpw πm-ãn-iv, ^v-sf-iv-kv t_m -Up-Iƒ \n-tcm-[n- n- p- v. am-cm-a I -sh -j ]- cn-ÿn-xn I-Ωn- n B-`n-ap-Jy- Øn H-º-Xn-\v D- -bv- v c- n\v am-cm-a dn-{so- v sk -dn ]-cnÿn-xn sk-an-\m a-{ n am-xyp Sn. txm-a-kv D-Zv-Lm-S-\w sn-øpw. hm -Øm-k-tΩ-f-\-Øn P- \-d sk-{i- -dn tpm -Pv G-{_- lmw sim- -\m-sv, kn.-hn.-h -Ko-kv, km-ap-th k-t m-jv, A-\n am-cm-a, ]n.-]n.-a- -Ip- v, A-\o-jv Ip- - p-g, ]n.-f. k-pntam F- n-h ]-s -Sp-Øp. CXv \ho-i-c-w-øns AS-bmfw 1 mw t]pv XpS cq-]w sim- -Xv am-cm-a I h -j-s kzm-[o-\-øn-em-wv. C- m-e-øpw kw-k-x-am-b km-aqly-{]-h -Ø-\-߃ I-s -tø- -Xp- v. am-cm-a a-w - p-dhpw ]-º-bm-dpw A-Xn-s ssph-k-º-øp-sam-s kw-c- n- psim- p- {]-h -Ø-\-ß-fm-Wv Xp-S - p-h-cp- -Xv. k-`-bp-ss ]- cn-ÿn-xn ku-lr-z Im-gv-N- m-sns D-Zm-l-c-W-am-Wv Cu a-w - -c- pw Iq-Sn-h-c-hpw. kp-hn-ti-jo- I-c-W-Øn-\v H-cp ssp-hn-i am- \-ap- v. Po-h-s F- m `m-h-ßsf-bpw ]-cn-c- n- p- ssp-hn- I ho-s -Sp- n-s\ km- y-s -Sp- Øp- {]-{In-b-bm-Wv kp-hn-tijo-i-c-ww. k-a-kv-x kr-jv-sn-itfm-spw ]- n-sm-\p- -Xm-Wv kp-hnti-jw. kp-hn-ti-jw {]-kw-kn- s -Sp-I am-{x-a- ; a-dn- v, Po-hn- p- bm-ym - y-ß-fn cq-]m- n- -c-øn-s A-\p-`-h-am-bn-Øo-c- Ww. A-t m-gm-wv h-n-\w P-Uw [-cn- p- -Xv. `q-an-bp-ss D- m-bpw tem-i-øn-s sh-fn- -am-bpw ssh-cp- y-ß-fp-ss a- y-øn {]-Xn-I-c-W-ti-jn-bp- hn-ømbpw \n-e-\n- v Z -i-\w ]p-xp- phm Cu h -j-sø I -h j-\pw ap-jm- -nc-am-i-s -sb- v {]m - n- p- p-sb- v tpm-k-^v am -tøm-ωm ]-d- p. lmcm apx ]tflmkv hsc 6 mw t]pv XpS t m-gpw A-t m-iy ]m-d-a-ebn Sq-dn-Ãp-I-sf B-I -jn- psim- p a- p Xp - n-bn-se {Inkv-Xy ayq-kn-b-߃-t]m-se kq- n- n-cn- p- p. k-μ -i-i-cmb {In-kv-Xy `- -P-\-߃ hnhn-[ \n-e-bn-ep- t^m-t m-iƒ F-Sp- p- p. A-t\-I `- n-]pc-k-cw Ip-ºn- p-h-w-ßp- p. C-kv-Xmw-_qƒ X-e-ÿm-\-amb In-g- tdm-am-km-{am-pyw X- I-cp- p. tdm-a -N-{I-h -Øn-bmb ]-Xn-s\m- m-a-s Im-e-Øp ap- ow A-[n-\n-th-iw D- m-bn. Hm-t m-a kp -Øm ap-l-ω- Zv c- m-a G-gp B-gvN \o- p-\n- bp- -Øn-eq-sS C-kv- Xmw-_qƒ ]n-sn- -S- p-i-bpw 1506 h -jw \o- p-\n- tdm-a -km- {am-pyw A-kv-X-an- p-i-bpw snbv-xp. A-ß-s\ a- p Xp - n-bnse `m-k-߃-t]m-se F-tU- m- bpw A-t m-iy-bn-epw C- mwh - -cn- -s - p. A-t m-iy-bnepw F-tU- m-bn-epw ss{i-kv-xh-cp-ss F-Æw \m-a-am-{x-am-bn Ip-d- p. {In-kv-Xy ]- n-iƒ ap- ow tam-kv-ip-i-fm-bn. R-߃ Kp-l-bn \n- pw C-d-ßp- -Xn-\p ap-ºv I-cp-\m-K- - n-bn-se {_-Z txm-a-kv am- Xyp {]m - n- p. A-Sp-Ø e- yw {]-kn- -am-b A-t m-iy ayq-kn-b-øn-te- m-wv. kn.fkv.fkv ]pkvx-i-hm Ø km[p sim p-ip v D]-tZin PohnXw Z i\w IrXn-Iƒ dh. tum. amxyp Um\n-b t{]jn-x-hrøn Pohn-X-{h-X-ambn kzoi-cn km[p sim p-ip v D]-tZinbpsS kºq Æ-Ir-Xn-Iƒ. km[phns Pohn-Xhpw Z i- \hpw A]-{K-Yn- p {]uv-amb Bap-J-]-T-\-tØmsS BZyambn {]kn- o-i-cn- p- p. ]c-a-{in-kvxym-\n-xzw, ]c-am-\-μ{inkvxobpohnxw, kv{xo[-\-xym-kw, hym]m-c-[ Ωw, ` n-c-kw, ae- -c-k-`bpw Bflob DW hpw, btlm-hm-`- - m p Bizmk-Ko-X-߃ XpSßn ]{ v IrXn-Iƒ; ]pkvx-i-cq-]-øn {]kn- o-i-cn- n- n- mø cn-\-i-fpw. _u v thmfyw Fgp- q-tdmfw t]pp-iƒ. hne: 600 cq] amcm-a I h j Ãmfp-I-fn 450 cq] am{xw kn.fkv.fkv. _p vtjm v

10 10 ka-im-eni ]{XnI [ym\w s^{_phcn 05 F.-sF. tpm p-ip n a-\- n-s hn-im-c-x-e-ßfn km-l-n-cy-߃- v h-enb kzm-[o-\-ap- v. B-flo-b Nn- -I-fn G-Im-{K-am-bn a-\- n- s\ D-d- n- p-\n -Øm E-jnam \n-»-_v-z-am-b ÿ-e-ßfpw D-b - ] -Δ-X-ß-fp-am-Wv Xn-c-s -Sp-Øn-cp- -Xv. G-Im- [ym-\-øn-eq-ss ssz-h-kmao-]yw A-\p-`-hn- p- -Xn-\v hm-rv-on- n-cp- B-Nm-cy- m an- a-x-ß-fn-epw D- m-bn-cp- p. i-_v-z-tim-em-l-e-ß-fp-ssbpw h-en-b Xn-c- p-i-fp-ss-bpw \-Sp-hn Po-hn- p- \-K-c-hmkn-I-fp-sS a-\- v Xm-c-X-tay-\ Iq-Sp-X A-kz-ÿ-am-bn-cn- pw. ] -Δ-X-ß-fp-sS ap-i-fnse Ip-fn -Ω-tb-Ip- Im-emh-ÿ-bpw, Zr-iy-a-t\m-l-c-am-b Np- p-]m-sp-i-fpw, ip- -hm-bp-hpsa- mw i-co-c-øn-epw- a-\- n- epw \-thm-t -jw ]-I-cm k- lm-bn-t - mw. kr-jv-sn-xm-hmb ssz-h-tøm-sv A-Sp-Øp-sN- p- -Xn-\pw kw-k - -Øn-em- Ip- -Xn-\pw km-[n- p- -Xv a- \p-jy-\v G- -hpw B-\-μ-I-c-amb A-\p-`-h-am-Wv. A-Xn-\m-bp- Zm-lw D- -h-sc-bm-wv `- ] -Δ-X-ß-fpw ]q-wy-ÿ-e-ß-fpw! - m F- v hn-ti-jn- n- p- - Xv. a- p-a-\p-jy h-ep-sx- v I- cp-xp- [-\-hpw `u-xo-i-kp-jß-fp-sa- mw A-h - v A-{]-[m- \-am-bn-cn- pw. b-ym - `- - m G- -hpw hn-e-a-xn- p- -Xv ssz-h-km-ao-]y-am-bn-cn- pw. ssz-h-km- n- yw e-`n- p- a-\p-jy a-s - mw a-d- v C-cp- pt]m-imw. i-co-c-øn-\v `- -W-]m- \o-b-߃ t]m-se-bm-wv B-flmhn-\v ssz-h-km- n- yw F- v ]- d-bmw. `- -W-]m-\o-b-ß-tf- mfpw A-[n-Iw {]m-[m-\yw Zn-hym- Xn-c- p-i-fn -\n-s m-gn- v [ym-\-\n-c-x-am-bn ssz-h-kw-k - -Øn k-a-bw Nn-e-h-gn- m ]- n-b ÿm-\w F- \n-e-bn ] -Δ-X-ß-fpƒ-s -ss G-Xv ÿ- e-hpw ]-cn-k-wn- p- -Xn sx- n-. F- m A-h-bv- v Zn-hy-Xzw I-ev-]n- p-tºmƒ A-Xv A- -hn-izm-k-am-ipw. ]n-xm-hn-s -b-sp- -te- p- G-I h-gn ssz-h-]p-{x-\m-b tb-ip am-{x-am-wv. Rm -X-s h-gn-bpw k-xy-hpw Poh-\p-am-Ip- p, Rm ap-jm- n-c-a- m-sx B-cpw ]n-xm-hn-s -b-sp- F-Øp- n- F- v tb-ip-h- m-sx a- m-cpw C- p-h-sc A-h-Im-i-s - n- p-an-. \p-`-h-߃- v I-ev-]n- p- -h [m-cm-fw D- v. Nn-e L- -ß-fn `- -W-]m-\o-b-߃-t m Hu-j- [-߃-t m \-ev-im I-gn-bm- Ø A- p-x-i-c-am-b im-co-cn-i ku-jy-ß-fpw ssz-h-km-ao-]y- Øm ]-e - pw e-`n- m-dp- v. ssz-h-]p-cp-j-\m-b tam-i bmsxm- pw Xn- p-i-tbm Ip-Sn- p- I-tbm sn-øm-sx \m-ev-]-xv cmhpw \m-ev-]-xv ]-I-epw ho-xw c- p-h- w ] -Δ-X-Øn ssz-h-ap- ºm-sI Nn-e-h-gn- p (B-h.9:18). ssz-hw kw-km-cn- -Xp-\n-an-Øw tam-i-bp-ss ap-j-øn-s Xz- v {]- Im-in- p. 120 mw h-b- n tami-bp-ss a-c-w-k-a-b-øp-t]m-epw i-co-c-øn-s _-ew Ip-d-bm-sXbpw I-Æp-Iƒ a-ßm-sx-bp-an-cp- -Xv (B-h.34:7)A- p- m-b ssz-h-i- n-bp-ss kzm-[o-\w \nan-ø-am-bn-cn- mw. H-cn- tb-ip X-s in-jy- m-cn Nn-e-cp-am-bn H-cp D-b - a-e-bn-te- v {]m - n- m- I- b-dn-t m-bn-. {]m - n- p- thf-bn tb-ip-hn-s ap-jw kq-cys\-t m-se {]-Im-in- p-i-bpw h- kv-{xw sh-fn- w-t]m-se sh- bm-bn Xn-f-ßp-I-bpw sn-bv-xp. tam-i-bpw G-eo-bm-hpw A-hn-sS {]-Xy- -am-bn tb-ip-hn-t\m-sv kw-km-cn- p. A-t mƒ ]-t{xm-kv A-dn-bm-sX ]-d- p-t]m-bn: Kptcm, \mw C-hn-sS C-cn- p- -Xv \- -Xv. R-߃ aq- v Ip-Sn D- m- -s? H- v \n-\- pw, H- v tam-i-bv- pw, H- v G-eo-bm-hn- \pw. a-dp-cq-]-a-e-bn-se B Z -i- \w \n-an-øw A-hn-sS aq- v Ip- Sn D- m- mw (ÿ-e-øn-\v {]m-[m-\yw) F- ]-t{xm-kn-s B-i-b-sØ Xn-cp-Øp-hm-\m-Imw ta-l-øn -\n- v: C-h F-s {]n-b-]p-{x, C-h- Rm {]- km-zn- p- p, C-h-\v sn-hn-sim- Sp- n (a-øm.17:5) F- i-_v-zw ]n-xm-hv tiƒ- n- -Xv. Xm {]- km-zn- p- -Xv ti-h-ew H-cp ÿ- e-øn-tem h-kv-xp- -fn-tem A-, {]-Xyp-X, H-cp hy- n-bn - - X-s {]n-b ]p-{x-\n - -B-Ip- psh- v km-cw. X-s `-b-s -Sp- I-bpw X-s Z-b-bn {]-Xym-in- p-i-bpw sn-øp- -h-cn ssz-hw {]-km-zn- p- p F- v k- o -Ø- \-w- 147:11 ]-d-bp- p. F- m, H-cp `- -\v ssz-h- {]-Xy- -X-tbm ssz-h-km- n- ytam D- m-b-xv F-hn-sS h- mtwm, B ÿ-e-øn-\v Zn-hy-Xzw I-ev-]n- v, ]p-wy-ÿ-e-sa- v hnti-jn- n- p- -Xpw, ssz-h-`- - cm-bn Po-hn- Nn-e-cp-sS a-c-w-tijw A-h-cp-sS i-h-ip-so-c-øn sn- p- -h -s - mw- A-h-cp-tS-Xn- \v k-am-\-am-b A-\p-`-hw e-`n- psa- v {]-N-cn- n- p- -Xpw `- nsb hm-wn-`-am- p- - -Xn-\v D-Zm-lc-W-am-Wv. tam-i-bp-ss i-co-cw ssz-hw-x-s A-S- n-sb- - Xpw A-Xn-s ÿm-\w B - pw A-dn- p-iq-sm F- Xpw a-d- -cp-xv. hm-kv-x-h-øn ÿn-c-ambn ssz-h-i- n-bpw ssz-h-{]- Xy- -X-bpw bm-{ n-i-am-bn e- `n- p- - H-cp {]-txy-i-ÿ-ehpw I-_-dn-S-hpw `q-an-bn-en-. B-flo-bm-\p-`-h-߃ e-`n- p- -Xv G-sX- n-epw ÿ-e-øns -tbm {]-Ir-Xn-`w-Kn-bp-sStbm ] -Δ-X-ß-fp-sS-tbm {]- txy-i-x- sim- -. `q-an-bn-se G-sX- n-epw {]-txy-i ÿ-ehp-am-tbm h-kv-xp- -fp-am-tbm ssz-h-sø _- n- p-\n -Øphm a-\p-jy-\v km-[y-hp-a-. F- n-epw, ssz-hw C- n- ptºm-sgm-s -bpw X-s `- - m - v X-s -Øm sh-fn-s - Sp-Øp- -Xm-bn A-{_-lmw, bnk-lm- v, bm-t m-_v ap-x-emb A-t\-Iw `- - m-cp-ss N- cn-{x-w hy- -am- p- p. Xn-c- p-i-fn -\n-s m-gn- v [ym-\-\n-c-x-am-bn ssz-hkw-k - -Øn k-a-bw Nn-eh-gn- m ]- n-b ÿm-\w F- \n-e-bn ] -Δ-X-ß-fpƒs -ss G-Xv ÿ-e-hpw ]-cn-k- Wn- p- -Xn sx- n-. F- m A-h-bv- v Zn-hy-Xzw I- ev-]n- p-tºmƒ A-Xv A- -hnizm-k-am-ipw. ]n-xm-hn-s -b-sp- -te- p- G-I h-gn ssz-h- ]p-{x-\m-b tb-ip am-{x-am-wv. Rm -X-s h-gn-bpw k-xyhpw Po-h-\p-am-Ip- p, Rm ap- Jm- n-c-a- m-sx B-cpw ]n-xmhn-s -b-sp- F-Øp- n- (tbm-l.14:6)f- v tb-ip-h- msx a- m-cpw C- p-h-sc A-h- Im-i-s - n- p-an-.

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12 MARUPPACHA Planthottam Complex Tiruvalla Ph: s^{_phcn 05 R.N.I. Reg No.67619/97 Postal Reg. No. KL/TLA/100/ License No. KL/TLA/WPP-116/ Licensed to Post without Prepayment Date of Publication ASp-Ø bm-{x G-{]n 17 Kƒ^v, Ata-cn-, Cw v XpS-ßnb cmpy-ß-fn \n pw- t\cn p Sqdp-Iƒ. k`-iƒ pw anj kwl-s\iƒ pw th n {]txyiw ]mt -PpIƒ! \yq-u ln, apw-ss_, _mw q, sim- n F- n-hn-s-ßfn \n pw bm-{xm-kw-l-߃. JORDAN ISRAEL PALESTINE EGYPT Departures from USA, UK, CANADA, MIDDLE EAST & INDIA.. bm{x snøp {][m\ ÿe-߃ C{k-tb : t_xvetlw, sbcp-itew, _Y\n, \{k-øv, iacy, Im\, akvz-e, \bow, slt{_m, Xn_-cymkv, sakntzm, ssl^, I tω, tpm, ss Ahohv, spcnt m, Jpw{_m, F Icow. CuPn]vXv: m_m, t\mbn_, ko\mbv, Ibvtdm. tpm ±m : AΩm, az_, s\t_m Cu bm{x-bpss {]txy-i-x-iƒ tami hmkvzø \msv Zqsc-\n pw Z in s\t_m ] Δ-X-Øn \n pw bm{xm-cw`w Keoem S-en t_m p-bm{x tbip tbml- m-\m kv\m\-ta tpm ±m- \Zn- -Shn kvtxm{x ip{iqj Ipcn-ins hgnsb [ym\-bm{x Acn-a-Xy- m-c tpmk-^ns I d txm -Øn Bcm- [-\bpw I Ør-ta-ibpw ]q Δ ]nxm- - m-cpss I -d-i-fp slt{_m kμ i\w sl Ω KtZm bp w \S- m t]mip sakntzm Xmgvhcbn-eqsS bm{x ^nen- ns ssik-cy-bn kμ i\w sbcp-itew tzhm-ebw \n Ωn- m Xøm-sd-Sp- p ÿew Nmhp-I-S-ense A\p-`-h-߃ bn{k-tb a ƒ XmhfaSn ÿeøp IqSn {]bmww sn -S XocØv cm{xn hn{iaw kqbkv I\m IS p sibvtdm-bn-te v ss\ \Zn-bn I bm{xbpw AØm-ghpw CuPn-]vjy ayqkn-bw, ]nc-anup-iƒ, kv^nßvkv, tpmk^pw adn-bbpw tbip p- p-ambn Hfn p ]m Ø ÿe-߃.. Hm Ω-bn kq n- m F{X-sb{X ÿe-ßfpw ImgvN-Ifpw... DS _p- v snøpi Printed, published and owned by Achenkunju Elanthoor, Planthottam Complex, Tiruvalla-1. Printed at Rashtra Deepika for MGM Offset Press, Kottayam, Published at Planthottam Complex, Tiruvalla-1 Editor : Achenkunju Elanthoor.

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