A[n-\n-thi kwkvim-cw ac- m- nse sxø-ß-fn

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1 A[n-\n-thi kwkvim-cw ac- m- nse sxø-ß-fn Nimmy Kurian Assistant Professor, Pavanatma College, Murickassery kw{klw (Abstract) DØ-cm-[p-\nI cn-bn-xmhmb Aw_n-Im-kp-X amßm-sns "ac- m- nse sxø-߃' F t\mh h Øam-\-Im-e-Øns {]Xn-k- n-i-fpss ]cn-t -Z-amWv. `mhn-sb- p-dn- p BIp-e-X-I-fpw \ne-\n p A[n- Imc hyh-ÿn-xn-tbm-sp {]Xn-tcm-[hpw \nd Cu t\mh A[n-\n-thi kwkvim-c-øns IS- p-i-b- - tømss Hcp P\-kw-kvIrXn Fßs\ \nt»jw XI -s -Sp- p-sh v hy -am- p- p. A[n-\n-th-i-Øns Zpc- -^-e-߃ Hcp \m nse ]cn-ÿn-xn-bnepw kv{xobnepw Gev]n p BLmXw F{X-tØmfw hn\m-i-ic-am-sw hkvxpx ac- m v F ÿe-cm-in-tbbpw, \ -bpss {]Xo-I-amb Dºn n F ti{µ-i-ym-]m- {XsØbpw ASn-ÿm-\-am n At\z-jn- p-i-bmwo tej-\-øn. ka-im-eni Pohn-XsØ Nqgv p-\n p thh-em-xn-iƒ cn-\-bn-eqss A\p-`-h-th-Zy-am- n-ø-cp kmln- Xy-Im-c-\mWv Aw_n-Im-kp-X amßm-sv. B[p-\nI Ime-L- -Øn a\pjypo-hn-x-øn A\yw\n p-t]m- Ip \ bpw ss\k n-i-xbpw Xncn- p-]n-sn- p-hm DØ-cm-[p-I-\n-I-\mb Cu Fgp-Øp-Im-c Xs cn- \-I-fn-eqsS {ian- p- p. At±-l-Øns F a-i-sp, ac- m- nse sxø-߃ F o t\mh-ep-i-fn \nxm ]mcn-ÿn-xni Pm{KX ]pe Øp Hcp Fgp-Øp-Im-cs\ Is -Ømw. ]cn-ÿn-xn, kv{xo, ZfnXv XpS-ßn DØ-cm-[p-\n-IX IÆ-b-bv p hnhn[ ]cn-k-c-߃ kq vahpw auen-i-hp-ambn Cu t\mh-ep-i-fn At±lw AS-bm-f-s -Sp-Øp- p. inev]-l-s-\-bnepw {]ta-b-ønepw Gsd hyxy-kvx-x-iƒ ]pe Øp t\mh-emwv Aw_n-Im-kp-X amßm-sns ac- m- nse sxø-߃. {XnIm-e-߃ IqSn- p-g- p-in-s- p Hcp {]tl-fn-i-bmbn A\p-hm-NI a\- n Ah-ti-jn- p cn-\- bmwv ac- m- nse sxø-߃. BtKm-f-h-Xv -c-w-øns X{ -ß-fn-sem- mb D]-t`m-K-kw-kvIm-c-Øns sisp-xn-ifpw AXn-s\-Xn-sc-bp {]Xn-tj-[hpw t\mh-en A\m-hr-X-am-Ip- p. Iº- q tim -sb ]pcm- X-\-tIm- bpw AXn-t\mSp _ -s ac- m v F IS-tem-c-{Km-a-hp-amWv t\mh-ens `qan-i. acn- -h v Pohn- n-cn- p- -h-tc- mƒ {]m[m\yw simsp- p ÿe-amwv ac- m- v. acn- p-t]mb ]q n-i sxø-ßfmbn amdp-sa pw Ahsc kwc- n-t - Xv Pohn- n-cn- p- -h-cpss A\- -c-x-e-ap-d-bm-sw pw ac- m- p- Im hniz-kn- p- p. X\-Xmb \m p-h-g- -ßfpw X\n-a-Ifpw ambw Ie-cmsX Ah ImØp-kq- n- p- p. P\n-ar-Xn-I-fp-sS, \nkq-vm-fl-i-x-bpss Imh m-cmwv ac- m- p-im. CXn-hrØ LS-\-bnepw hnj-b-kzo-i-c-w-ønepw DØ-cm-[p-\n-I t\mh-ens khntij-x-iƒ h p-]pe Øp t\mh-emwv ac- m- nse sxø-߃. AXn-\m Xs ]cn-ÿn-xnbpw kv{xobpw Cu t\mhens ti{µ-ÿm-\øv {]Xn-jvTn- -s - n-cn- p- -Xmbn ImWmw. kv{xobpw {]Ir-Xnbpw XΩn-ep kam- \X A\m-Zn-Imew apx kmlnxy kmln-txy-xc N -Iƒ v hnt[-b-am-bn- p- v. {]Ir-Xnsb kv{xotbm- Sp-]-an v {]Ir-Xn-bn amxrxzw Btcm-]n- p coxn F m Ime-ß-fnepw tzi-ß-fn-ep-ap- v. Cu kmayx hnnn- \w snøp-tºmƒ, DØ-cm-[p-\nI kmln-xy-n -Iƒ v hgn-sbm-cp- p- ]cn-ÿnxn hn m-\obw, s^an-\n-kw, Ct m s^an-\nkw XpS-ßnb \nc-h[n m\-ta-j-e-ifn-tebv v t\mh ssiimcyw snøp hnj-b-߃ tnt -dp- -Xmbn ImWmw. A[n-\n-th-i-Øns IpSn-e-X-{ -߃ ac- m- nse sxø-߃ F t\mh-en F{]-Imcw Bhn-jv -cn- s - n-cn- p p F At\z-j-W-amWv Cu tej\w. Ncn-{X-Ønepw kmln-xy-øn-ep-apƒs ss Pohn-X-Øns \m\m taj-e-i-fn ]e-x-c-øn A[n-\n-th-i-߃ kw`-hn- m-dp- v. Ah-bmWv tzi-søbpw Ime-sØbpw Ncn-{X-h-Xv -cn- p- Xpw kwkvim-c-ß-fpss `mhnsb ]p\ \n Æ-bn- p- -Xpw. A[n-\n-th-i-Øns KqV- PESQUISA- International Journal of Research Vol.2, Issue-1, November

2 X-{ -ß-fn-sem- mb Sqdn-kw hni-k-\-øns hnp-b-a-{ -ß-fn H mbn amdp-tºmƒ ]n m-ºp-døv \jvss -Sp- Xv kmwkvim-cni X\n-abpw ]Icw hbv m-\m-hmø ss]xr-i-hp-am-wv. CØcw \ntj-[m-fl-i-i- n-i-fpss Nhn- -Sn-bn Ac- p-xo-cp- Xv \ne-bv mø \ -bpss Dd-hn-S-ß-fmWv F bmym yw A[n-\n-th-i-Øns ImS bp n-iƒ v apºn ap p-a-s- p- -h {Kln- msx t]mip- p. Cu A -Xbvs -Xn-sc-bp {]Xn-tj-[-amWv ac- m- nse sxø-߃ Db Øp- -Xv. A[n-\n-th-i-Øns ^e-ambn aæpw s]æpw Fßs\ aen-\-am- -s -Sp p F -Xns t\ m-gvn-i-fmwv ac- m- nse sxø-߃ F t\mh BJym\w snøp- -Xv. Pohs \ne-\n-ev]n-\m-[mcw {]Ir-Xnbpw kv{xobp-am-wv. hnøv G p-hmßn apf- n- p {]Ir-Xnbpw _opw G p-hmßn inip F ]q Æ-X-bntebvs -Øn- p kv{xobpw kmln-xy-kw-_- n-bmb shdpw kmay-i-ev]-\-i-fn HXp-ßp- n-. adn v c pw H p Xs -bm-wv. ]c-kv]-c-]q-c-i-amb Cu LS-I-߃ Xs -bmwv krjvsn pw Poh\pw \nzm-\w. Ch kwc- n- -s -ts- -Xns\ kw_- n Bi- -bpw, Cu LS-I-߃ {]Xn-Iq-em-h-ÿ-bn FØn-s -Sptºm-gp kwl j-søbpw ac- m- nse sxø-߃ F t\mh-en\v \ms-iob am\w \ Ip- p. Sqdn-k- Øns `mk-ambn XI -Iƒ G p-hmßn A]-I-S-I-c-amb ]pxpa \n _- -]q w G p-hm-ß-s -Sp ac- m- nse ]cn-ÿn-xnbpw kam\ Zpc- -Øn-\-Sn-s -Sp Dºn n F \mbn-im-i-ym-]m-{xhpw Pohs XpS bpss AS-bm-f-am-Wv. "Cu `qan-bn, Cu aæn Rm\p-ap v `qkp-c- m-sc' F v Bh-em-Xn-tbmsS hnfn- p-]-d v Xs ÿm\- ap-d- n- m {ian- p Ip n- m-ø sxø-øns Ah-X-c-W-Øn-eqsS ]cn-ÿnxn \mi-øn-s\-xn-sc-bp ap -dn-bn- mwv t\mh-enãv \ Ip- -Xv. "C v a\p-jy-\mwv F mw Xocp-am-\n- p- -Xv. kz w hn[n am{xa-, `qan-bpss hn[nbpw Ah \n Æ-bn- p p' F sxø-øns hm p-i-fn A eo-\-am-bn-cn- p- Xv Fgp-Øp-Im-cs hyy Xs -bm-wv. Iº- q tim -tbbpw ac- m v IS- p-d-tøbpw ti{µo-i-cn v \S- n-em- m t]mip Sqdn-k-Øns hcpwh-cm-bvi-i-sf- p-dn v t_m[y-hm-\mb temd kv F ]cn-ÿnxn {]h Ø-Is Ah-X-c-W-Øn-eq-sSbpw kw`m-j-w-øn-eq-ssbpw ac-w-øn-eq-ssbpw ]cn-ÿn-xn-hn-[zw-k\w F{X-am{Xw hn\m-i-i-c-amb Hcp kw`-ham-bmwv t\mh-en \n_- n- n-cn- p- -sx v {]Y-a-ZrjvSym hmb-\- m v t_m[yw hcp- p. temd kpw Iº- q Sqdnkw tim -td-j Fw.-Un. Kncn-[-c\pw XΩn-ep IqSn- m-gv bpw hmkzm-z-ßfpw \nd t\mh-ens ap -Øn-sbm ]Xmw A[ymbw `mhn-sb- p-dn v BIp-e-s -Sp cn-bn-xm-hns Xs sxm s]m- p \ne-hn-fn-bpss tcjob BJym-\-am-Wv. Sqdn-k-Øn-eqsS ka-{k-hn-i-k-\-amwv e y-am- p- -sx p ]d Fw.-Un. v temd kv \ Ip adp-]sn {it -b-am-wv. ] -\- {X tlm -ep-ifpw kznωnwkv ]qfp- Ifpw akmpv ]m e-dp-ifpw tkmƒ^v p-ifpw F p-hcn ]mx-ifpw A m-cm-jv{s hnam-\-øm-h-f-ßfpw ISen t]mip ap p-h\v Fßs\ D]-bp- -am-ip- p-sh v temd kv tnmzn- p- p. ]pxnb ] Xn \S- nem- m XpS-ßp- -txmss ]c-º-cm-kx sxmgn-ep-i-fn \n pw ]n m-dp km[m-c-w- m-sc- p-dn pw temd knse ]cn-ÿn-xn-kvt\ln Bi- -s -Sp- p- v. Sqdn-kw-sIm p am{xw hni-knx cmpy-ß-fpss ] n- I-bn Ib-dn- - n-bn- p cmpy-ß-sf- p-dn- p Kncn-[-cs ]cm-a i-øn\v Ahn-S-ß-fn \S- p- Xv skivkv Sqdn-k-am-sW pw N -bn hn -s -Sp- Xv ico-c-ßfpw BNm-c-ßfpw A\p-jvTm-\-ßfpw a v kmwkv mcni kºm-zy-ß-fp-am-sw- p Ic-W-Ø-Sn- p t]mse-bp adp-]-sn \ Im temd kn-\m-bxv Abmƒ Atß-b w Bflm -bp {]Ir-Xn-kvt\lnbmbXn-\m-em-Wv. acp- p-i-s-bn tpmen-bp temd kv B sxmgn taj-e-bn \n w-k-\m-bmwv hym]-cn- p- -Xv. CXn-s\- p-dn v Bcm kplr-ømb IrjvW Ip- n-tbmsv temd kv ]d-bp adp-]sn "Xm\pw Hcp acp- p-is \S- p-i-bm-wv. `qan-tbmfw henb acp- p-is' F m-wv. Cu hm p-i-fn Xpfp-ºn-\n p temd kns Bflm X Af-h- -Xm-Wv. "BtKm-f-h-Xv -c-w-øn-\p-th n apx-em-fnø cmpy-ßfpw _lp-cmjv{s IpØ-I-Ifpw tn v Is -Ønb DtØ-PIacp- mwv Sqdn-kw. Sqdn-Ãn-eqsS \msp-np- p Xv Htc kabw A[n-\n-thi cmjv{so-b-øns kwkvimchpw kmº-øni imkv{xhp-am-wv. Sqdnkw Hcn- epw kmº-øni hf -bv p Ffp- -h-gn-b-. adn v Zcn-{Z-cm-Py-߃ kzbw ih- pgn txm p G m-sm-w-xv. AXns Z mƒ]-wn-bmwv'. CXmWv Sqdn-ksØ- p-dn- p temd kns ImgvN- m-sv. ]cn-ÿn-xn pw ss]xr-i-øn\pw th n `c-w-iq-s-tømspw A[n-Im-c-h -tømspw Iem]w Im nb temd kv F ]cn-ÿnxn kvt\ln, ]cn-ÿn-xn-bpss ka-xp-en- Xm-hÿ \in- n- p On{Z-i- n-i-tfm-ts- p-ap n sim -s -Sp- -txm-ss A[n-\n-thii n-iƒ hnp-b-øns BZy-]-S-hp- Xm- p- p. X߃ p-th n acn temd kn-s\-t mepw ac- m- p-im t\m p-si- p-iƒ p apºn ad- p- p. sszh- PESQUISA- International Journal of Research Vol.2, Issue-1, November

3 ßfpw a\p-jycpw acn- -hcpw GI-a-\-t mss h Øn- n-cp Iº- q tim -bn Xt±-i-hm-kn-Iƒ pw ]m v G s -Sp-Øn. acn v sxø-ß-fmbn amdnb ]q n-i pw CXv AwKo-I-cn- m _p n-ap- p kwk-xnbm-bn-cp- p. \ntbm shfn- -ßfpw dtãm-d p-ifpw ss\ v p-ifpw Bƒs -cp-am- -ßfpw sim v tim bn-sebpw ac- m- n-sebpw cm{xn-iƒ ]I-em-Ip- -Xn-s\- p-dn- mwv Ip n- m-ø sxø-øn-s bpw {_ -c- -kn-s bpw Bi-. cm{xn-i-fn- mø ]I-ep-Iƒ am{x-am-ip Xv {]Ir-Xn-bpsS Ak- p-en-xm-h-ÿ-bmwv {]I-S-am- p- Xv. ]c-º-cm-kx sxmgn-ep-i-fn G s - n-cn- p Xt±-io-b p ]Icw ac- m- n ]c-tz-in- Iƒ s]cp-in-bn-cn- p- p. cm -I aæp-am- p-ibpw tim {Io v snøp b{ -ß-fp-sSbpw ]Wn- m-cpssbpw i_vz-øm apj-cn-x-amwv ac- m- v. Ahn-sS-\n pw IpSn-sbm-gn- p-t]m-ip- -h v ]Icw `qan ]Xn- p-\ In IpSn-sbm-gn- n- -s -Sp-tºmƒ In p \jvs-]-cn-lmc kwjy-bn-emwv ]pxp-x-e-ap-d-bpss IÆv. ]c-º-cm-kx sxmgn am{xw ssih-i-ap X߃ ae-{º-tz-i-ß-fn Fßs\ Poh \ne-\n Øpw F i -bv p-t]mepw Ah n-s-bn ÿm\-an-. kz w InS- m-shpw ss]xr-ihpw Ime-Sn-bn \n v Du pt]m-ip-tºmgpw \jvs-]-cn-lm-c-sa t]cn e`n- p t\m p-si- p-iƒ v hiw-h-z-cm-ip Xt±-i-hm-kn-Ifn-eqsS A[n-\n-th-i-sa IpSn-e-X-{ -Øns I si- mwv \ap v t_m[y-am-hp-i. Iº- q tim -bn ]ms -SpØv Ib-td- -h-cmbn ac- m v \nhm-kn-iƒ amdp A\y-h-Xv -c-w-øn-eqss A[n-\n-th-i-Øns sn -Sn-hnZy ]q Øn-bm-Ip- p. IS-en \n pw Ib-dn-h-cp `oam-im-c-\mb R ns\ Hm Ωn- n- p-sim- mwv FkvI-th- F Iq b{ w ac- m- ns\ \nt»jw XpS- p-am- p- -Xv. ]q n-i-cpss I -d-ifpw, X߃ v kz -ambncp InS- m- S-ßfpw b{ ss timcn-sb-spøv \in- n- p- Xv ImWm\pw, AXn-s\-Xnsc i_vz-ap-b Øm\pw ac- m- n A[n-I-amcpw D m-bn-cp- n-. Xs IpSn-ense Ccn- -e-i-bn IpSn-bn-cn- p sszh-߃ pw, \mec sk v `qan pw th n Ah-km\w hsc ]nsn- p-\n- Xv Dºn n F \mbni am{x-am-wv. Ah-km\w Ahfpw A[n-\n-thi kwkvim-c-øns Xpdp- p-no- mbn amdp- n-søv ac- m- ns ]cn-ÿn-xn-\miw ]q Æam-Ip- p. hnik\w sim v apj- mb amdn-t mb ac- m v F ÿe-cmin Ah-km-\-`m-KØv Zriy-am-Wv. ac- m- ns X\Xv hn`-h߃ v ]Icw hntz-in-isf BI jn- m-\p t_m km-bn-ifpw Hm n-up- Ifpw hf Ø-s - p. \mep-si- p-ifpw Huj-[-k-ky-ßfpw ]ngp-sx-spøv ac- m- n ÿm]n- -s - p. F ph-cn- m-x-bpss Kmw`o-cyhpw BƒØn-c pw hml-\-øn-c pw. akmpv ]m e-dp-iƒ, tbmk ]cn-io-e-\-a-t߃, sl Øv p-iƒ XpS-ßn-bh \nd ac- m v AtN-X-\-amb tim {Io v ImSmbn Ah-ti-jn- p- p. ac- m- nse ]mcn-ÿn-xni Zpc- -tøm-ssm w Iq n-hm-bn- m-hp- -XmWv Dºn n F IYm-\m-bn-I-bpsS Pohn-X-hn-Imk ]cn-wm-a-߃. t\mh-en Hcp P\-kw-kvIm-csØ samø-øn AS-bm-f-s -Sp-Øp IYm- ]m-{x-amwv Dºn- n. Ahƒ Hcp {]Xo-I-am-Wv h mø \ -bpss {]Xo-Iw. [mcmfw kv{xoi-ym-]m-{x-߃ Ib-dn-bn-d-ßn-t m-ip t\mh-en t]cp-t]mse hyxy-kvxx ]pe Øn BZy w \nd- p-\n p Icp- Øp IYm-]m-{X-amWv Dºn- n. t\mhen ]cm-a in- p ÿe-øns \mihpw Dºn- n v t\cn-ts- n-hcp Zpc-\p-`-h-ßfpw ]e-t mgpw GI-Xm-\X ssis m- p- p. t\mh-en A[n-\n-th-i-Øns Cc-bmbn hmwn-py-h-xv -cn- -s -Sp kv{xokz-xz-amwv Dºn- n. ac- m- nse BZy-hn-tZ-in-I-fmb kmbn- n-s\bpw azm-ω-tbbpw B {Z-X-tbmsS kzoi-cn Dºn n Xs -bmwv A[n-\n-th-i-X-{ -߃ v hn]wn Is - Øp A[n-Im-cn-h -Øn-s bpw `c-w-iq-s-øn-s bpw ssi n-sn-bn srcn- -a v aen-\-bm- -s -Sp- -Xv. kv{xobpw ]cn-ÿn-xn-bp-sa mw A\m-Zn-Imew apx ]pcp-js \nb-{ -W-Øn Iogn-em-Wv. Ah\p tbmpn hni-k-\-x-{ -ß-fn-eqsS c n-s\bpw hi-øm- m Ct mfw ]pcpj ta t mbva Pm{KX ]pe Øp- p. Hcp kv{xo F \ne-bn Dºn n IS- p-t]m-ip hnhn[ PohnX kml-n-cy-߃ t\mh-en ImWmw. kvss{xw-x-bpss hnhn[ `mh-t`-z-߃ Ah-fn an n-a-d-bp- p. BZy-`m-KØv A -\- -cmb hntz-in- Iƒ v Xs IpSn-en A`bw \ Ip-tºmƒ kv{xok-l-p-amb A\p-Iº Dºn- n-bn Z in- m-w. Cu {]hr-ønsb IS t m-sxn tnmzyw snøp-tºmƒ tnmzy-i-c-߃ p apºn BZyw Ahƒ ]X-dp- p. "Hcp KXn-bp-an- m-ø-hsc IpSn-bn \n n-d- n-hn-sm X\n- m-bn-. AXv sx m-sw- n IS t m-sxn Fs \msp-i-s-øn-t m' F p ]d-bm-\p Xt -Shpw Xm t]m-cn-abpw DS-\Sn ImWn- m\pw Dºn n Xøm-dm-Ip- p. kv{xoi-sf- p-dn- p ac- m- p-im-cpss ImgvN- msv at -sxmcp kaq-l-øn-ep-sa- -t]mse Krl-`-c-Whpw ]c-º-cm-kx sxmgn-ep-i-fp-am-bn-cp- p. Xs \mec sk v `qan-bn sxø-߃ hkn- m XpS-ßn-b-Xn\p ]n mse Ahƒ v Ipe-sØm-gn-emb ao I- -hsw Dt]- n v kuµ-cy-h I hkvxp- - PESQUISA- International Journal of Research Vol.2, Issue-1, November

4 fpss hnev]\ \S-tØ- n-h-cp- p. GsXmcp bmym-ÿn-xni kaq-l-øn-ep-sa- -t]mse Dºn- n v Xs \m nse kv{xo]p-cp-j- m-cn \n pw CXns t]cn ]gn tiƒt - n-h- p. AØcw A]-hm-Z-{]-N-c-W߃ p snhn simsp- msx Xs \mec sk v `qan-bpss ] -b-øn-\p-th n t]mcm-sp Dºn- nsb BZym-h-km\w ImWmw. ac- m- nse ]e ]pcp-j- m-cp-ssbpw \n{z-bn Dºn n Xo -\-en p F ]cma ihpw AXns\ {]Xy- o-i-cn- p kw`-h-ßfpw t\mh-en ImWmw. ]pcp-j- msc BI jn- m t]m kuµcyw Dºn- n-bpss kzøm-bn-cp- p-sh v CXn \n p a\- n-em- mw. hf Ø-Ω-bpsS ac-whpw hnhm-l-øns aq mw-\mƒ Xs ]ncn- p-t]mb `ocp-hmb ` Øm-hns Hm Ωbpw AXn-Po-hn v snωo F t\mh-en Pohn-X-Øns A -X-e-߃ txsp-tºmƒ km[mcw kv{xoiƒ -\y-amb Hcp-Xcw Aam-\p-jnI ]cn-thjw Dºn n v e`n- p- p. \mec sk v `qan-bpss ] -b-øn-\p-th- n-bp PohnX ka-c-øn Ah-km\w Dºn- nbpw Nqj-W-hn-t[-b-bm-Ip- p. Akm-[mcW ssh`hw sim v Ahƒ Hgn- m-bn-cp ]pcp-js t`mk-xr-jvwbv v Ahƒ At_m-[m-h-ÿ-bn hiw-h-z-bm-b-t mƒ A_-ebpw A\m-Y-bp-ambn H -s -Sp Dºn- n-sb-bmwv \mw ImWp- -Xv. em v Assk sa v Hm^o-k temln-xm- F m BgvNbpw Ahsf Hm^o-kn FØn- v, A\ym-b-ambn ssi qen hmßn HSp-hn ] bw Ab m-cn- v \ Ip- p. AXp Xncn- p-]n-sn- m-\p Hm -Øn-\n-S-bn NXn-bn-eq-sS-bm-sW- nepw Ahƒ v \jvs-am-bxv AXp-hsc B pw ASn-bd hbv mø kv{xoxz-am-bn-cp- p. At_m-[m-h-ÿ-bn Ahsf Zpcp-]-tbmKw snbvx-h A[n-Im-c-h -Øns hnhn[ t{iwn-i-fpss {]Xn-\n-[n-I-fm-Wv. Sqdn-k-Øn-s bpw a pw t]cn \S- p hni-k-\-øn\p ]n nse sisp-im-cy-ÿ-x-bm- Wn-hnsS ad-\o n shfn- -Øp-h-cp- -Xv. ChnsS \nb-a-]m-e-i \nb-a-ew-l-i-cm-ip- p. kv{xoi-cocw tihew D]-t`m-K-h-kvXp-hm-Ip- p. ac- m- p-im \jvs-]-cn-lmcw hmßn IpSn-sbm-gn- p-t]m-b-t mƒ Bi-b- -h-fm-bn- p-t]mepw "F\n v snehn\v sxcv Xv k m-c, F\n v k m-cn ' F v Dºn- n-bpss [m jvsyw \nd hm p-i-fn \nd- p-\n p- Xv ]pcp-j- m p tbmpn Xt -S-am-Wv. `mc-xob ImgvN- m-sn ]nxr- ƒ v tij-{inb sntø- Xpw Ahsc th -hn[w BZ-cn-t - Xpw ]p{x- m-cm-wv. ChnsS ac- m v F IS-tem-c-{KmasØ AXns F m {]txy-i-x-i-tfmspw IqSn s\ n-te n kwc- n- m-s\m-cp-ßp Dºn- n-bn \nd- p-\n p- Xpw Xt±-io-b-cmb ]pcp-j- m n- msxt]mb ]ucp-j-am-wv. \n mc em`-øn-\p-th n ]mc-º-cy-søbpw ss]xr-i-søbpw hn p-xp-e-bv m Xøm-dmb Xt±-io-b-tcmSpw hni-k-\-øns ad-hn aæn-s\bpw s]æn-s\bpw Hcp-t]mse NqjWw snøp, BtKm-f-h-Xv -c-w-øns ]pø X{ -߃ Gs -SpØv hym]n- n- p A[n-Im-c-h -tøm-spap AS-ßmØ ]Ibpw {]Xn-tj-[-hp-amWv Dºn- n-bpss hm pw {]h Øn-bpw. AXns {]Xn-^-e-\-amWv temln-xm- s ]pcp-j-xzsø Adp-sØ-SpØv IS-ense-dn Dºn- n-bn ImWp- -Xv. Xs Nmcn-{XysØ \in- n- m CS-\n-e- m-c-\m-b-hs ]pcp-j-xzsø \in- n- -t mƒ {]Ir-Xn-t]mepw Ah-tfm-Sp-tN p-\n- p. AXp-hsc Ah-fpsS at\m-\n-e-bpss {]Xy- o-ic-w-sa a n hnim-c-hn- p-_v[-amb IS temln-xm- s ]X-\-tØmsS im -am-ip ImgvN ImWmw. Xnc-am-e-ss -I-fn \n pw A\-]-XyXm ZpxJa-\p-`-hn- n-cp A - n v e`n Ip mwv Dºn- n. Ahƒ Ah-km\w FØn-t -cp- Xpw IS ss -øn Xs. A v cm{xn apsºm-cn- -ep-ap- m-im-ø hn[-øn IS Cf-In-s m n, ]mxn-cm-bv p-tijw hnj-ap IS m-ºp-iƒ Ic-bn-tebv p Ib-dn-h- p XpS-ßnb ]cm-a i-߃ {]Ir-Xnbpw AXn-t\m-Sn-Wßn Pohn- p a\p-jy-cpƒ -ss-bp Poh-Pm-e-ßfpw XΩnep At`-Zy-_- sø kqnn- n- p- p. B timbva kwkvim-c-øns tijn- p-i-fn Nne-Xp-IqSn t\mh-ense a p Nne kv{xoi-ym-]m-{x-߃ Ah-ti-jn- n- p- p. ac- m- ns s\dnbpw samdbpw ImØp-kq- n- n-cp kv{xoxz-]-cn-th-j-am-bn-cp p Dºn- n- v. t\ hn]-co-x-kz-`mhw h p-]p-e Øp- -h-fm-bn-cp- p alna F s] Ip- n. PohnXw Bkz-Zn- m th n-bp- -Xm-sW ImgvN- m-smwv Ahsf \bn- p- -Xv. A[n-\n-thi i n-iƒ v InS- msw Xosd-gpXns mspøv ae-{º-tz-i-tø-bv v IpSn-tb-dp ac- m v \nhm-kn-i-sf-t m-se kv{xoxz-øns ]cnip- n v hne-i-ev]n- msx Pohn-Xm-kzm-Z-\-Øns ]pxnb taj-e-i-fn-tebv v IpSn-tb-dp-I-bm-W-hƒ. \q m- p-iƒ p apºp kw`-h-ßfpw tzi-n-cn-{x-ßfpw Cg-tN Øv ]min at\m-l-c-am- nb t\mh-en P n- Ip-Sn-bm- m-c-s-ßp ^yqu hyh-ÿn-xn-bpss sim -cp-xm-bva-ifpw hnj-b-e-º-s-xzhpw IS- p-h-cp- p- v. X\n v hg-ßmø Noa F tx hn-ev]-\- mcn s] Ip- nsb ] n-wn- n v sim a F P nbpw, Imf-Im- n- sø the- mcn \oen-s -dp-ansb ]ng- n v NmØs P\-\Øn\v Imc-W- m-c-\mb hmgp- -hcpw kv{xosb D]-t`m-Kn- p-xo p A[o-i-Xz-kw-kvIm-c-Øns Imh-em-f- m-cm-wv. "azm-ω-s Æv \ PESQUISA- International Journal of Research Vol.2, Issue-1, November

5 Nc- m-sw p ti t m' F p tnmzn- p ]pxnb Ime-Øns h m-hmb temln-xm- -\n A p-cn- p- Xpw `qx-ønt\m, `mhn-t m, h Ø-am-\-Ønt\m AXn-cn v Xncn- m-\m-hmø CtX A xtnmz\ Xs -bm-wv. t\mh-ens Ah-km-\-`m-KØv I\-I-cm-Ps Bbq thz _o v dntkm v AS- -ap ÿm]-\-߃ v hn]wn txsn ]pxnb Ime-Øns sxø-ambn Dºn n Ah-X-cn- n p- p. Dºn- n-bpss DS kar- nbpw sim p Nncnbpw ho pw ho pw hmwn-py-h-xv -cn- -s -Sp- p. ac- m- ns X\n-abpw kwkv m-c-hpsa mw I -h-s-h-xv -cn- -s -Sp ImgvN ]cn-]q Æ \n w-k-x-tbmss t\mh-enãv Cu `mk-ß-fn Ah-Xcn- n- p- p. ac- m- nse ]cn-ÿn-xn- -\p-`-h-s kam-\-zp-c- -amwv Dºn- n pw kw`-hn- -Xv. ac- m- nse aæpw s]æpw Hcp-t]mse Nqj-W-Øn\p hnt[-b-am-bn. c n-s\bpw ss\k ni ]cn-x-ÿn-xn-i-fn \n - S Øn-am n tihew D - -am n am n-bxv BtKm-f-h-Xv -c-w-øn-s bpw A[n-\n-th-i-Øn-s bpw X{ ß-fn-sem- mb Sqdn-k-am-Wv. ac- m v F A]q ÿe-cm-insb AXns F m khn-ti-j-x-i-tfmspw IqSn Adn- Xpw A\p-`-hn- Xpw Dºn- n-bm-wv. Ah-km\whsc Xs bpw Xs Nqgv p-\n p ]q n- I-c-S-ßp aæn-s\bpw ImØp-kq- n- m Hcp-ºn- n-d-ßn-bxv ac- m- ns Cu ]p{xn-bm-wv. \in- n- s -Sp ]cn-ÿn-xnbpw Nqj-W-hn-t[-bbmb kv{xobpw A\p-`-hn- p thz-\bpw H -s -Sepw hni-k-\- Øns t]cn ASn-t -ev]n- -s -Sp \mtim- p-j-amb ]pxp-abpw H p-x-s -bm-wv. Cu ImgvN- m-sn \n p-sim v ac- m- nse sxø-߃ F t\mh-ens\ kao-]n- p-tºmƒ Ct m s^an-\nãv ho -Whpw Cu cn-\-bn Dƒt n-cn- p- -Xmbn ImWmw. kv{xobpw {]Ir-Xnbpw ssph-]-c-ambn {]txy-i-x-iƒ sim pw hym]m-c-ß-fnse Xpey-XsIm pw H p-x-s -bm-sw ImgvN- m-smwv ]cn-ÿnxn kv{xohm-z- Øn-\-Sn-ÿm-\w. ]pcp-j-ta t mbva hyh-ÿnxn si n-s m- nb AXn h-c-ºp-iƒ p- n \n p-sim v \yq\-]- -Øns kzm -em-`-߃ mbn A\ym-b-ambn sim -sn-ø-s -Sp Cu c p LS-I-ßfpw H p-t]mse kwc- n- -s -ts- -Xm-Wv. ImcWw kky-e-xm-zn-i-fp-ssbpw sshhn- y-am Pohn-h -ßfp-sSbpw a\p-jy-s bpw `mhn {]Ir-Xn-bnepw kv{xobnepw \n n-]vx-am-wv. ]e-xcw hnim-c-߃ \mbn-ibpss lrz-bsø ayn- p-tºmƒ AXn-\-\p-kr-X-ambn t m`n- p-ibpw im -am-hp-ibpw snøp IS Hcp kqn-i-amwv. FkvI-th- F Iq b{ w Ib-dn-bn-d-ßnb ac- m pw Imam-Xp-c-cmb At\Iw ]pcp-j- m-cpss t`mk-xr-jvw-bv -Sn-a-s Dºn- n-bpss ico-chpw H p Xs -bm-wv. A[n-\n-th-i-X-{ - Øns KqV-h-i-ß-fn-sem- mbn s]æp-s-ens\ BtLm-jn- p ]ckyw F I -h-s-x-{ -søbpw t\mh ]cn-l-kn- p- p- v. kzm`m-hn-i-x-bpss khn-ti-j-x-isf \n Ωm \w snøp A[n-Im-cn-h -Øns IpSn-e-X-{ -ß-tfmSpw {]Xn-tem-a-i- n-i-tfm-sp-ap {]Xn-tj-[-amWv ac- m- nse sxø-߃. Sqdn-k-Øns ad-hn Zpc-aqØv {]Ir-Xnsb \in- n- p-, ]cn-ÿn-xn-bpss k p-en-xm-hÿ ]mts \in- n- p A[n-Imc DtZym-K-ÿt{i-Wn-tbmSpw, Xmev m-eni em`w am{xw {]Zm\w snøp ]pø hni-k-\-\-b-ß-tfm-sp-ap Ie-lamWv Cu t\mh. A[n-\n-th-i-X-{ -Øns \nkq-v-\o- -ßfn On -`n- -am-ip- Xv aæpw s]æp-amsw bmym yw Ac- n- p-d- n- m ac- m- nse sxø-߃ F t\mh-en-eqss Aw_n-Im-kp-X amßmsv {ian- n-cn- p- p. tihew D]-cn-π-h-amb ]pi-gvø-ep-iƒ p-a- pdw B Øn-]n-Sn BW-[n-Im-c-cq- ]-ß-fpsS {]tem-`-\-߃ v \n _- -]q w hg-tß- n-h-cp kv{xobptsbpw {]Ir-Xn-bp-tSbpw Zpc-hÿ H m-sw t_m[yw CXn-eqsS A\p-hm-N-I v e`n- p- p. klm-bi {KŸ-߃ 1. Aw_n-Im-kp-X amßm-sv, ac- m- nse sxø-߃, Id v _pivkv, Fcp-taen ]c-ta-iz-c ]n-, ae-bmf kmlnxyw Ime-L- -ß-fn-eqsS, Id v _pivkv, tum. si.-si. inh-zmkv (F-Un- ), ae-bmf t\mh c m-bn-c-øn-\p-tijw, ]m n-dkv _pivkv, tum. si.-si. inh-zm-kv, tum. hn.-kn. kp{]n-b, tum. kt mjv am\n-t cn, s^an-\nkw, ZfnXv kmlnxyw, ]c-ky-ie, amfp-_ ]ªn-t -j kv, 2013 B\p-Im-en-I-߃ 1. acn- -h-cpss Hm Ω-Iƒ, Fw.-B. atl-jv, ae-bmfw dnk v tpw sk]vxw-_ Unkw-_ kv{xok-a-xz-nn- -bnse {]Ir-Xn-]m-T-߃, ayqkv tacn tpm v, hn m\ssic-fn, BKÃv 2010 PESQUISA- International Journal of Research Vol.2, Issue-1, November

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