aebmfw a-ebm-f `m-j-bp-ss B-Zn-a-apJw bq-wn-äv þ H- v (1) {]-[m-\-s -«kn-²m- Ä: aq-e-{zm-hnuw, X-angv, kw-kv-ir-xw F- o `m-j-bnâ \n pw B-hnÀ-`m-hw

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1 aebmfw a-ebm-f `m-j-bp-ss B-Zn-a-apJw bq-wn-äv þ H- v (1) {]-[m-\-s -«kn-²m- Ä: aq-e-{zm-hnuw, X-angv, kw-kv-ir-xw F- o `m-j-bnâ \n pw B-hnÀ-`m-hw t]- À 1 bq-wnäv 1.1. `m-tjmâ- - n-sb- p-dn- p-å ]-Þn-Xm-`n-{]m-b- -fm-wv ]T-\-hn-t[- b-am- p- Xv. a-ebm-f `m-j-bp-ss DÂ-]- n-sb- p-dn- v hy-xykv-x A-`n-{]m-b- -fm-wv ]-Þn-X- mà- n-s-bn-ep-åxv. {Zm-hn-U-tKm-{X- nâs]-«a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bp-ss hn-im-k-]-cn-wm-a- Ä- v A-\y- `m-j-iä ]-expw k-lm-b-i-am-bn- oà- n-«p v. F- mâ B-Zy-Ime- v {]-[m-\-ambpw k-lm-bn- n-«påxv X-angpw kw-kv-ir-x-hp-amwv. A-Xn-\m a-e-bm-f- n-sâ DÂ-]- n- p Im-c-W-am-bn- oà- `m-j-i-fm-wn-h-sb- v hy-xy-kv-x-ho- -W- n-eq-ss A-h-X-cn- n- m\pw A-Xn-\v D-t]m-Xv-_- e-iam-b bp-àn-iä D- -bn- m\pw \-½p-sS {]ap-j km-ln-xy-]-þn-x- mà {i-an- n-«p v. kw-kv- Ir-X- n-sâbpw X-an-gn-sâbpw kzm-[o-\i-àn a-e-bm-f- nâ Im-Wp- -txm-ssm- w kz-xx-kn-²-ambp-å hyàn-xzhpw a-e-bm-f- n-\p v. C-Xn \n-s Ãmw a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bp-ss DÂ-`-h-s -än {]- [m-\-ambpw \m-ev hm-z- -fm-wv D- m-bn-«p-åxv. 1. kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-hm-zw 2. X-an-gv-P-\y-hm-Zw 3. an-{i-`m-jm-hm-zw 4. aq-e-{zm-hn-u-`m-jm-hm-zw I. kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-hm-zw tz-h-`m-j-sb v bm-ym-øn-xn-ià I-cp-Xn-t m- kw-kv-ir-x- nâ \n- v P-\n- `m-j-bm-wv a-e-bm-f-sa- A-`n-{]m-b-am-Wv kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-hm-z- n-\-sn-øm\w. kw-k-vir-xhpw a-e-bm-fhpw X½n am-xrþ]p{xn _-Ô-am-Wv C- q-«à I-ev-]n- n-cn- p- -Xv. eo-em-xn-e-i-im-c³ kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-am-wv a-e-bm-fw F- [m-c-w B-Zy-am-bn Im-Wp -Xv eo-em-xn-e-i- n-emwv. a-ebm-f `m-j-bp-ss DÂ-]- n-sb -än {]-txy-i-am-sbm-cp NÀ- {]-kv-xp-x-{k-ù- nâ Im-Wp- n-sã- nepw kw-kvir-txm-zv-`-h- -fm-wv a-e-bm-fw Xp-S n-b {]m-tz-in-i-`m-j-iä F- H-cp Nn- mk-xn eo-em-xn-e-i-im-c-\p- m-bn-cp p. eoem-xne-iw c- mw-in-ev-]- nâ Du-l\o-b kw-kvir-x {]- IrXn kw-kvir-x `hm F 15þmw kq-{x- nâ B-Nm-cy³ C- mcyw kq-nn- n- p p. kw-kvir- X {]IrXn Du-ln- m-hp- i-ð-am-wv kw-kv-ir-x-`-hw F- m-wv kq-{xmà- w. C- mcyw C -s\ hni-zo-i-cn- mw: kw-kv-ir-xw A-\m-Znbm-b `m-j-bmwv. a-äp-å `m-j-bv- v B-Zn-bp v. A-h kwkv-ir-x- nâ \n pw D- m-b-xm-bn-cn- pw. A-h-bn Nn-e i-ð- -fnâ {]-Ir-Xn kw-kv-ir-xamsw v Du-ln- m³ I-gn-bpw. Ch-sb kw-kv-ir-x-`-h- -fm-bn I-ev-]n- p p. F- mâ aäp Nn-e i-ð- -fnâ {]-IrXn Du-ln- m³ ]-äm- co-xn-bnâ a-d-ªn-cn- pw. Ah-sb cq-v- -sf- p ]-dbp- p. txhà, ]n-, I-apIv, ImSv, Ip-Xn-c ap-x-em-b-h kw-kv-ir-x-`-h- -fm-sw- v B-Nm-cy³ ]-dbp p. Ch-bv- v {]-Ir-Xn tz-h, `n n, {I-ap-I, Im-SnIm, IpZp-c F- n-h-bm-wv. C s\ a-e-bm-fw kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-sa- v hy-à-am- p- Xn-t\m-sSm- w X-s a-e-bm-fw kwkv-ir-x- nâ \n pw hy-xy-kv-x-am-sw pw ]-e k-µà-`- -fnâ B-Nm-cy³ kq-nn- n- p- p v. `m-jm-kw-kvi-rx-tbmtkm a-wn-{]-hmfw F- kq-{x- nâ `m-jm]-zw ti-c-f-`m-jm-]-z-am- NEO IAS , , Page 1

2 sw- v hy-à-am- n-bn-«p v. Iq-Sm-sX ti-c-f`m-j {Zm-hn-U-`m-j-I-fn \n pw B-hnÀ-`-hn- -XmsW- v ]-d-bp- -Xn-eq-sS-bpw, enw-k- n-sâbpw h-n-\- n-sâbpw Im-cy- nâ kw-kv-ir-x- n\pw ti-c-f-`m-j-bvv pw X-½n-ep-Å hy-xym-kw Im-Wn- p- k-µà-`- nepw a-e-bm-fw kw-kv-ir-x- nâ \n- pw hyxy-kv-x-am-sw- m-wv eo-em-xn-e-i-im-c³ kq-nn- n- p- Xv. tim-hp- n s\-sp- m-sn ti-c-f-iu-ap-zn F- {K-Ù- nâ tim-hp- n s\-sp- m-sn aw-k-f-tçm-i-am-bn sim-sp- n-cn- p {]-kv-xm-hw ]-e-scbpw sx-än-²-cn- n- n-«p v. kw-kvir-x ln-a-kn-cn K-fnXm {Zm-hn-U-hm-Wo I-fn-µ-Pm-anfXm ti-c-f-`m-jm-kwkm hn-lc-xp ta lrâ km-c-kz-zm-kwkm kw-kv-ir-x-am-ip- ln-a-hm-\nâ \n- v ]p-d-s -«v {Zm-hn-U hm- m-ip- Im-fnµn-tbm-Sv tnà- v H-gp- Ip- ti-c-f-`m-j-bm-ip- Kw-K, F-sâ lr-z-b-am-ip- k-ap-{z- nâ hn-l-cn- s«f- m-wv ImhymÀ w. a-e-bm-fw kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-am-sw- v hm-zn- m³ h-s- pw-iq-dn-s\-t m-se-bp-åh-sc t{]-cn- n -Xv tim-hp- n-bp-ss A-e- m-c-`m-j-bmwv. A-e- m-c-`m-j-bnâ A-t±-lw B-ap-J-am-bn C s\-sbm- p ]-d-ªp-sh- -XÃmsX, C-Xn A-t±-l- n-\px-s th -{X D-d- p- m-bn-cp- psh- p txm- p- nã tim-hp- n-s\-sp- m-sn-bp-ss aw-k-f-tçm-i- n-\v kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-]- -]m-xaã Im-Wp- -sx- v km-ln-xy-n-cn{xw {]-Øm-\- -fn-eq-ss F- {K-Ù- nâ C{]-Imcw tum.si.fw.tpmà-öv hy-à-am- p p. ti-c-f-iu-ap-zn-bnse `m-jm-k-aw F- A-[ym-b- nâ tim-hp- n-s\-sp- m-sn `m-tjmâ-`-hs -kw-_-ôn- v c- p-aq- v A-`n-{]m-b- Ä tc-j-s -Sp- n-bn-«p v. AsXÃmw kw-kv-ir-p-\yhmzs F-XnÀ- p- -Xp-amWv. kw-kvir-txm- mc-ww {]mbx... F- v Xp-S- p- tçm-i- nâ D mc-ww sim- v kw-kv-ir-t m-s-[n-iw tnà- -bp- m-bmepw `m-j-bp-ss co-xnbpw aäpw X-an-gv-apd-bvv- px-s F- -Xn-\p bm-sxm-cp kw-ibhpw CÃ-Xm-\pw F- n -s\ A-`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. C-Xv kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-hm-z- n-s\-xncm-b h-kv-xp-x-bmwv. AXp-t]mse, B-cy-{Zm-hn-U-hm-Kv-Pm-Xm ticfo-tbm-àn-i-\yim... F- p Xp-S- p- tçm-i- n-eq-ss kw-kv-ir-x- n-sâbpw X-an-gnsâbpw I-eÀ- nâ \n- v a-e-bm-f`m-j D-Û-hn- -Xm-bn tim-hp- n s\-sp- m-sn A-\p-am-\n- p p. Cu ticf-s ]-c-ip-cm-a-t\m-sv \oà-sim- p IpSn-sIm- -hcm-b \-¼q-Xn-cn-amÀ B-cym-hÀ- - n-se B-cy-{_m-Ò-W-cpw, iq-{zm-zn-iä A-bÂ-tZ-i- -fn-se X-angpw B-bn-cp p. taâ-]-d-ª C- cp-iq-«- m-cp-ssbpw `m-j-iä X-½n I-eÀ- v \-½psS Cu a-wn-{]-hm-fhpw D- mbn F- n - s\ th-sdm-c-`n-{]m-bhpw tim-hp- n s\-sp- m-sn \-S- n-bn-«p v. C-{]-Im-cw X-an-gv-P-\y-hm-Zs bpw an-{i-`m-jm-hm-z-s bpw ]n- m- p- A-`n-{]m-b- Ä ti-c-f-iu-ap-zn-bnâ Im-Wm³ I-gnbpw. h-s- pw-iqà cm-p-cm-p-hའkw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-hm-zw H-cp hm-z-am-bn B-Zy-am-bn A-h-X-cn- n -Xv h-s- p-iqà cm-p-cm-p-hà-½bm-wv. km-ln-xo-kàh-kz nse `m-jm-kz-cq-]-\n-cq-]ww F- H- mw {]-I-c-W- nâ A-Xn- ZoÀ-L-am-bn A-t±lw Cu hnj-bw A-h-X-cn- n- n-cn- p p. hm- p-i-fp-ss _-Ô-s -bm-wv {]- [m\ -bp-àn-bm-bn A-t±-lw kzo-i-cn- n-cn- p- Xv. `m-c-xo-b-cp-ss hy-h-lm-c`m-j kw-kv-ir-x-am-bn- NEO IAS , , Page 2

3 cp- p-sh pw C-Xn \n- v k-i-e tz-io-b-`m-j-ifpw D- m-sb pw A-t±-lw kn-²m- n- p p. X- angpw a-e-bm-f-hp-sa-ãmw kw-kv-irx- nâ \n- v D-Û-hn- -Xm-sW- m-wv A-t±-l- n-sâ hmzw. a-ebm- -an-gv hy-h-lm-c-`m-j-bm-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- n-cp- P-\-k-aq-lw kw-kv-ir-x n-sâ kzm[o-\-h-e-b- nâ-s]-«v A-Xn-sâ hà- -am-ebpw ]-Z-k- -b-hpw kzo-i-cn- -txm-ss A- ph-sc D-]-tbm-Kn- n-cp- `m-j-bp-ss co-xn am-dn a-e-bm-f-am-bn Na-ªp F- \n-k-a-\- n-em-wv h-s- pw-iqà sn-s - p- Xv. Xsâ hm-zw k-aà- n- p- -Xn-\m-bn h-s- pw-iqà ap-t m-«p-h-bv- p- Im-cy -sf C-{]-Imcw kw{k-ln- mw. 1) A-Xn-Jcw, arzp, tlmjw, Du-jv-am- Ä, F- o A- -c- -fp-ss kzo-i-cw n-eq-ss kw-kv- Ir-X- n-sâ hà- am-e a-e-bm-fw kzo-i-cn- p. 2) a-e-bm-fw ]n- p-s-cp- k-ôn-hn-j-b- Ä kw-kv-ir- n-se t]m-se-bmwv. 3) kw-kv-ir- n-se-t m-se `m-j-bnepw G-gv hn-`-àn-i-fpw A-h-bv- v {]-txy-iw {]-Xy-b- -fpap v. 4) k-am-k-hn-j-b- nepw `m-j-bv- v kw-kv-irx-t m-sv _-Ôw Im-Wp- p v. 5) IÀ-½-Wn{]-tbm-K- nâ IÀ-½- n\pw IÀ- m-hn-\pw D-]-tbm-Kn- p- hn-`-àn-{]-xy-b- Ä kw-kv-ir-x- n-se co-xn-bmwv. 6) hn-ti-j-w-hn-ti-jy-s m-cp- w a-e-bm-f- n-sâ co-xnbã. kw-kv-ir- n-sâ-xmwv. N-¼p- - fnâ \n pw D- p-\o-en k-tµ-i- nâ \n pw D-Zm-l-c-W- Ä D-²-cn p-sim- v hn-ti-j-whn-ti-jy-s m-cp- w `m-j kzo-i-cn -Xv kw-kv-ir-x- nâ \n- m-sw- v h-s- pw-iqà Øm- ]n- p p. 7) hy-mi-c-w-{k-ù- Ä an- -hmdpw kw-kv-ir-x-hym-i-cw-s A-\p-k-cn- p- -Xn-\m a-ebm-fw kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-am-sw- v h-s- pw-iqà ]-d-bp p. 8) a-wn-{]-hm-fw H-cp {]-Øm-\-sa- -\n-e-bnâ h-fà- p-]p-ãn-{]m-]n -Xv a-e-bm-f- nâ am-{xamwv. C-Xn-\p Imc-Ww a-e-bm-fw kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-am-b-xm-sw- v h-s- pw-iqà ]-d-bp p. taâ- -d-ª \n-k-a-\- -fn-eq-ss a-e-bmfw kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-am-sw- v Øm-]n- m³ h-s- pw- IqÀ {i-an- p p. F- mâ kw-kv-ir-xhpw a-e-bm-fhpw c- v tkm-{x- nâ-s]-sp- `m-j-i-fmwv. Hcp tkm-{x- nâ-s -«`m-j a-säm-cp tkm-{x- nâ-s -«`m-j-bp-ss D-Û-h- n-\v Im-c-W-am-Ip- p F -Xv bp-àn-k-laã. hym-i-c-w-]-c-ambpw ]-Z-L-S-\m-]-c-ambpw kw-kv-ir-xhpw a-e-bm-fhpw hyxym-kw Im-Wn- p- p- v. hm- p-i-fp-ss _-Ô-s A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n-bm-wv a-e-bm-f`m-j kwkv-ir-x-p-\y-am-sw- v h-s- pw-iqà hm-zn- p- Xv. F- mâ `m-jm-nà- -bnâ hm- p-i-fã, hymi-c-w L-S-\-bm-Wv \n-bma-iw F- A-Sn-Øm-\ X- z-s A-t±-lw hn-«p-i-f-bp- p. ImÄsUzÂ, G.BÀ.cm-P-cm-P-hÀ-½, B-äqÀ Ir-jv-W-]n-jm-c-Sn, tkm-z-hà-½ ap-x-em-b-hà A-t\-Iw D-Zml-c-W- Ä F-Sp- p-im-wn p-sim- v kw-kv-ir-xhpw {Zm-hn-Uhpw `n- -tkm-{x- nâ-s -«`m-j-ifm-sw pw a-e-bm-fw {ZmhnU tkm-{x- n-se H-cw-K-am-sW pw Øm-]n- -txm-ss kw-kv-ir-p-\y-hm- Z- n\pw {]-k-àn-bnãm-xmbn. II. X-an-gv-P-\y-hm-Zw `m-tjm-xv-]- n-sb- -än-bp-å kn-²m- - -fnâ G-ähpw {]-_-eam-b hm-z- fn-sem- mwv Xan-gv-P-\y-hmZw. {Zm-hn-U-`m-j-I-fn-sem m-b X-an-gn \n pw a-e-bm-fw D-Û-hn- p F- hm-z-amwv X-an-gv-P-\y-hmZw. X-angpw a-e-bm-fhpw X-½n am-xrþ]p{xn _-Ô-am-sW- v C- q-«à I-ev-]n- p- Xv. F-^v.U»yp. FÃn-kv a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bp-ss D-Û-h-s kw-_-ôn- v B-Zy-am-bn im-kv-{xo-b-]t-\w \nà-æ-ln -Xv F^v.U»p. FÃn-km-Wv se "A Dissertation on the Malayalam Language" F- {]_-Ôw NEO IAS , , Page 3

4 `m-jm-n-cn-{x-]t-\- n-se hn-e-s -«H-cp tc-j-bmwv. a-e-bm-fw sn- -an-gn-â \n- v D-S-se-Sp- -XmsW A-`n-{]m-b-am-Wv `m-tjm-xv-]- n-bp-am-bn _-Ô-s -«v FÃn-kn-\p- m-bn-cp- Xv. Z- n-tw- y³ `m-j-iä H-cp {]-txyi tkm-x- nâ-s]-«-h-bm-sw- v B-Zy-am-bn I-s - nb-xv FÃn-km-bncp- p. X-angv, sx-ep v, I- -Sw, a-e-bm-fw F- o `m-j-iä kw-kv-ir-x-`m-j-bnâ \n- v D-Û-hn- -Xsà pw F- mâ kw-kv-ir-x-`m-j-bp-am-bp-å Zr-V-_-Ô- n-sâ ^-eam-bn Cu `m-j-i-fnâ Nn-e- Xn-\v ]nâ- me- v Nn-e-am-ä- Ä h- n-«p-s pw FÃn-kv I-s n. a-ebm-f `m-j kw-kv-ir-x- nâ \n pw D-Û-hn- p F- hn-izm-k-am-wv FÃn-kn-sâ ]T-\- Ä- p ap-¼p-h-scbpw s]m-xpsh D- m-bn-cp- -Xv. F- mâ a-ebm-f kw-kv-ir-x- Ä X-½n-ep-Å _-Ôw ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am n-b FÃnkv a-e-bm-fw kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-am-sw- ap³-[m-c-w Xn-cp- n F-gpXn. a-e-bm-fhpw X-angpw X½n Zr-Vam-b _-Ô-am-Wp-Å-sX- v FÃn-kv D-d- n- p ]-d-ªp. temi- v a-säm-cp `m-j-tbmspw CÃm- B-ß_-Ôw a-e-bm-f- n-\v X-angn-t\m-Sv D-s pw FÃn-kv I-s n. a-e-bm-f- n-sâ B-g-apÅ th-cp-iä X-an-gn I-s - m-sa pw FÃn-kv {]-Jym-]n p. tdm-_à-«v ImÄ-sUz (D-]-`m-jm-hmZw) 1856se {Zm-hn-U-`m-j-I-fp-sS Xm-c-X-ay hym-i-c-ww (A Comparative Grammer of the Dravidian or South Indian Languages) F- {K-Ù- nâ X-angv, a-e-bm-f `m-j-i-fp-ss _Ôs A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n D-]-`m-jm-hmZw ImÄ-sUz A-h-X-cn- n p. C-Xp-{]-Imcw X-an-gn-sâ H-cp D-]-`m-j-bm-Wv a-e-bm-fw. D-]-`m-jm-hm-Zw C-{]-Im-c-am-Wv: F-sâ A-`n-{]m-b- nâ, a-e-bm-fw X-angn-sâ A-Xn-{]m-No-\am-b H-cp im-j-bmwv. ]p-cp-j-t`-z-\n-cm-kw sim pw kw-kv-ir-x-]-z{]-tbm-k- _m-lpeyw sim pw B-Wv C-t mä A-Xp ap-jy-ambpw X-an-gn \n- p thà-xn-cn-ªp \nâ- p- Xv. AXp-sIm- v a-e-bmf-s {Zm-hn-U-tKm-{X- nâ-s -«H-cp kz-x-{ `m-j F- p IÂ- n- p- - Xn-s\- mä X-an-gn-sâ H-cp D-]-`m-j-sb- p I-cp-Xp-I-bm-Wv t`-zw X-an-gn\pw a-e-bm-f- n-\pw X- ½n BZy-Im-e- p- m-bn-cp- t\cn-b hy-xym-kw Im-e-{Ita-W h-ep-xm-sb- n-epw, ImÄ-sUz-ensâ A`n-{]m-b- nâ, X-an-gn-sâ h-f-sc-tb-sd am-äw-h- H-cp im-j-x-s -bm-wv a-e-bmfw. X-an-gnsâbpw a-e-bm-f- n-sâbpw B- -c-l-s-\-bnâ k-am-\-x-bp--s pw a-e-bm-fw X-an-gn-sâ ]p-{xn-bmsw pw ImÄ-sUz hm-zn- p- p. sx-ep v, I- -U F- o `m-j-i-sf- mä L-S-\-bn a-e-bm-f- `m-j-bv- v X-angn-t\m-Sv _-Ô-ap-s - A-`n-{]m-b-am-Wv ImÄ-sUz-en-sâXv. C- m-c-w- mâ a-ebm-fw X-an-gnsâ D-]-im-J-bm-sW- \n-k-a-\- nâ ImÄ-sUz F- n-t À p. FÃn-kn-sâ hm-z- -fp-ss Nph-Sv ]n-sn- v a-e-bm-f- n-sâ DÛ-hw X-an-gn \n- m-sw- v hmzn ImÄ-sUz X-sâ hm-zw k-aà- n- m³ In-g v F- ]Z-s D-Zm-l-c-W-am-bn F-Sp- n-cn- p p. X-an-gv-\m-«n ]qà-æ-zn- n-s\ kq-nn- n- p- -Xn-\v In-g pw ]-Ýn-a-Zn- n-s\ Ip-dn- m³ taâ pw B-Wv D-]-tbm-Kn- p- Xv. X-an-gv-\m-Sn-s\ kw-_-ôn- n-s-t m-fw In-g-t m«v t]mhp-i F p h- mâ I-S In-g- mb-xp sim pw B `m-k-t - v `q-an-bp-ss ap-iä-]c- v A- ev-]m-ev-]w Xm-Wp t]m-ip- Xp-sIm pw Io-tgm-«v t]m-hp-i-bmwv. t\-sc a-dn v, ti-c-f- nâ Ing- v D-bÀ- pw taâ- v XmWpw In-S- p p. ]-t Zn- pi-sf Ip-dn- m³ X-an-gn-se A-tX ]-Z- Ä X-s -bm-wv C pw D-]-tbm-Kn- p- Xv. ti-c-f- n-se B-Zn-a \n-hm-kn-iä X-an-gv-\m-«n \n pw Ip-Sn-tb-dn ]mà- -h-cmb-xv sim- mwv Cu X-an-gv ]-Zw k-am-\am-b AÀ- - nâ ti-c-f- nepw D-]-tbm-Kn- p- -sx- v A-t±-lw hm-zn- p p. ImÄ-sUz-en-sâ hm-z- -sf G.BÀ. cm-p-cm-p-hà-½, FÂ.hn. cm-a-kzm-an-a- À F- o `mjm-]-þn-x- mà Aw-Ko-I-cn- p- p v. F- mâ ImÄ-sUz-ensâ In-g v taâ v F- o ]-Z- -fpss \n-jv-]- n- v hy-xy-kv-xam-b a-säm-cp \n-jv]- n s{]m-^.kn.fâ.bâ-wn \nà-t±-in- p- p v. ImÄ-sUz ]-d-bp- -t]m-se `q-an-im-kv-{x-]-cam-b {]-txy-ix-i-sfm- paã Cu ]-Z- -fpss \n-jv-]- n- p Im-cWw. kq-cy-sâ D-Z-bm-kv-X-a-b sf B-{i-bn- mwv Cu ]-Z- -fp- m-bn-«p- NEO IAS , , Page 4

5 Å-sX- v kn.fâ.bâ-wn hy-à-am- p p. kq-cy³ D-Zn- p -Xv Io-tg B-b-Xn-\m D-Zn- p- Zn v Ing pw ta-te sn- v A-kv-X-an- p- -Xn-\m A-kv-X-an- p- Zn v taâ- pw B-bn F- m-wv At±-lw A-`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- Xv. G.BÀ.cm-P-cm-P-hÀ-½ (sim-sp- -an-gv hmzw) 1896em-Wv s{]m-^.g.bà.cm-p-cm-p-hà-½-bpss ti-c-f-]m-wn-\o-bw ]p-d- p-h- Xv. AXnsâ ]otn-i-bnâ A¼-Xp ]p-d- -fn-em-bn a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bp-ss DÂ-]- n-sb- p-dn- v A-t±-lw khn-kvx-cw {]-Xn-]m-Zn- n-cn- p p. {]mtb-w ImÄ-sUz-en-sâ amà- - n-eq-ss-bm-wv A-t±-lw k- -cn- p- Xv. ImÄ-sUz sx-sãm- p kq-nn- n- p-itbm hn-i-zo-i-cn- p-itbm snbv-x ]-e kp{][m\ Im-cy- fpw hn-z-kv-²-am-bn -s ti-c-f-]m-wn-\n A-]-{K-Yn p. Ncn{X]c-amb sxfn-hp-iä \nc n ae-bmfw XangvP\y-am-sW v sxfn-bn `mjm-]-þn- X-\mWv G.-BÀ.-cm-P-cm-P-hÀ½. asse-\m-smb ae-bm-f- nse BZn-a-\n-hm-kn-IÄ Xan-gcpw AhcpsS `mj Xangpw Bbn-cp p F v ]d-ªp-sim- mwv G.-BÀ.-Xsâ simsp- -angv hmzw XpS- p- Xv. FÃm- m-e pw {KÙ-`mj AsÃ- nâ hcsamgn \mtsm-sn-`mj AsÃ- nâ hmsamgn Fs mcp hyxymkw FÃm PohÂ`m-j-I-fnepw D m-bn-cp- p. {KÙ-`m-jbv v sn angv F pw \mtsm-sn-`m-jbv v simsp- -angv F p-amwv t]cv. C -s\-bp- m-bn-cp ]e-xcw simsp an-gp-i-fnâ H v ae-bm-f-ambn ]cn-w-an p. F mwv tic-f-]m-wn-\n-bpss A`n- {]m-bw. Cu simsp- angn\v tziy-t`-z- Ä (Hcp `mj-bv p-ånâ \ne \nâ p `mjm-hy-xymks tziy-t`-z- Ä F v hnfn- p- p) D m-bn-cp- p. thwm-sv, Ip«\mSv, IpS-\m-Sv, ]qgn-\msv, IÀ m-\msv XpS n Xan-g-I- n-sâ-xmb A p \msp-i-fnâ kwkm-cn- n-cp simsp- -an-gp-i-fnsem v ae-bm-f-ambn ]cn-w-an p F mwv G.-B-dnsâ A`n-{]m-bw. C- mcyw k-aà- n- m³ G.BÀ._m-ly-hpw B`y- -c-hpam-b Im-c-W- Ä \n-c- p- p. {]kv-xp-x-imcyw hn-i-z-am-bn bq- Wnäv 1.2. DÄ-s -Sp- n-bn-«p v. FÂ.hn. cm-a-kzm-an A À (]qà-æ X-an-gvþa-ebm-f hmzw) G.B-dn-s\-t m-se X-s ImÄsUz-en-sâ \n-ba-s Aw-Ko-I-cn- p- ]-Þn-X-\mWv FÂ.hn. cm-a-kzm-an A À. a-ebm-f `m-j-bp-ss DÂ-]- n-sb- -än-bp-å kn-²m- - -fnâ {i-t²bam-b H- m-wv ]qà-æ X-an-gvþa-ebm-f hmzw. ]qà-æ-{zm-hn-u-`m-j-bnâ \n- v I- -Uhpw sxep pw thà-]n-cn-ª-xn-\p-ti-jw ]qà-æ X-an-gvþa-e-bm-fw F- H-cp s]m-xp-`m-jm Im-eL-«w D- mbn-cp- p-sh- mwv Cu kn-²m- w Nq- n- m-wn- p- Xv. ]qà-æ X-an-gvþa-e-bmf-s C-cp-`m-j-Ifp-sSbpw ]qà-æ-l-«-am-bn hn-i-zo-i-cn- p- -h-cnâ {]-ap-j-à FÂ.hn.BÀ, Im-an kz-e-_nâ, F- kv.hn. j pjw F- n-h-cmwv. Xm-c-X-aym-[n-jvTn-Xam-b {Zm-hn-U-`m-jm-]T-\- nâ FÂ.hn.B-dnsâ tkh\w K-W-\o-b-am-Wv. 'Evolution of Malayalam Morphology' F- {K-Ù- n-em-wv A-t±lw {]-[m-\-ambpw a-e-bm-f- n-sâ DZv-`-h-s - p-dn- v A-`n-{]m-b-s -«n-cn- p- Xv. cq-]-\n-jv-]m-z-\- n-sâ-bpw (Morphology) [z-\n-im-cy- n-sâbpw (Phonetics) A-Sn-Øm-\- nâ A-t±-lw X-an-gns\bpw a-e-bm-f-s bpw Xm-c-X-ay-s -Sp- p p. Cu c- p Im-cy- nepw a-e-bm-f- n-\v C-X-c {Zmhn-U-`m-j-I-fn h- v G-ähpw Iq-Sp-X A-Sp- w X-angn-t\m-Sm-sW pw {]mno-\ a-²y-im-e-x-angpw ]-g-b a-e-bm-fhpw G-Xm-s mcp-t]m-se-bm-sw pw A-t±-lw k-aà- n- p p. a-e-bm-f- n-sâ cq-]-\n-jv-]m-z-\-]-cam-b k-hn-ti-j-x-i-fn-e-[n-ihpw {]mno-\ a-²yim-e X-angn-t\m-Sv G-ähpw A-Sp- p _-Ô-s -«n-cn- p p. B-h-I-bn ]e-xn-sâbpw \n-jv-]mz-\w [z-\n-im-cy- n-sâbpw N-cn-{X- n-sâbpw A-Sn-Øm-\- nâ {]m-no-\-a-²y-im-e-x-an-gnâ \n pw km-[n- m-hp- -XmWv. F- n - s\ A-t±-lw A-`n-{]m-b-s -Sp p. NEO IAS , , Page 5

6 a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bp-ss DÛ-hw X-an-gn \n- p-aã IÀ- m-siw, sx-ep- v ap-x-em-b-h-sb-t m-se kz-x-{ -am-bn-«m-wv F- p-å A-`n-{]m-b-s J-Þn- n-«v FÂ.hn.BÀ X-an-gn X-s H-cp {]-txy- IZ-i-tbm-Sm-Wv {]m-no-\-a-e-bm-f- n-\v k-am-\-`m-hw D-Å-sX- v hy-h-øm-]n- n-cn- p p. G.Un. 5þmw ix-iw h-sc-bpå kw-lw Ir-Xn-I-fn Im-Wp- `mj-sb {]m-no-\-x-an-gv F pw A-Xn-\ptijw 10þmw i-x-iw-h-sc-bp-å X-an-gv-Ir-Xn-I-fn-se `mj-sb {]m-no-\-a-²y-im-e-x-an-gv F pw FÂ.hn.BÀ X-cw-Xn-cn- p p. C-Xn {]m-no-\-a-²y-im-e-x-angn-t\m-sv k-zr-iam-b co-xn-bnâ a-ebmfw h-fà- v ]-cn-w-an- p-ibpw A-`n-hr-²n-{]m-]n- p-ibpw sn-bv-xp-sh- v A-t±-lw A-`n-{]m-bs -Sp p. ]qàæ-{zm-hn-u-`m-j I- -Sw sx-ep- v -]qà-æ- X-an-gvþa-e-bm-fw {]m-no-\-x-an-gv X-an-gv {]m-no-\-a-²y-im-e-x-angv a-e-bmfw tum.tkm-z-hà-½sb-t]m-ep-å ]-Þn-X- mà FÂ.hn.B-dn-sâ hm-z -sf tnm-zy-w sn-bv-xn- «p v. a-e-bm-fw X-an-gn \n- pw t\c-s X-s ]n-cnªp-t]m-bn-«p-å H-cp `m-j-bm-sw- nâ AXn X-an-gn-\p h- Xp-t]m-se ]-cn-wm-a- Ä kw-`-hn- p-sh- på-xv bp-àn-k-l-aã. {]mno-\ a²yim-e X-an-gn a-e-bm-f- n-\v km-cq-]- -fm-bn A-t±-lw {]-ZÀ-in- n- n-«p-å cq-]-hn-ti-j- Ä an- -hmdpw {]mno-\ X-an-gn CÃm- -hbpw ]nâ- me- v DZ-bw sn-bv-xn-«p-å-h-bp-am-wv. ]n. i- -c³ \-¼ymÀ FÂ.hn.B-dn-\p-ti-jw s]m-xp-]qà-æ-l-«-s - p-dn- v hy-àam-b H-cp hm-zw ]p-d-s -Sp-hn- p -Xv ]n.i- -c³-\-¼ym-cmwv. aq-e-{zm-hn-u`m-j Im-e-t`Zw, tz-i-t`zw, tbm-k-t`-zw ap-xem-b At\-Iw Im-c-W- -fmâ X-angv, IÀ- m-siw, Xpfp, sx-ep v, IpS-Iv F- n- -s\ 5 {]-[m-\-im-j-ifm-bn ]n-cn-bp-i-bm-wp- m-bxv. C-Xn X-angv (ap- -angv) c m-bn- n-cn-ª-xnâ \n- m-wv a-e-bm-fap- m-b-sx- m-wv A-t±-l- n-sâ A-`n-{]mbw sn- -an-gn-sâ hy-h-øn-x-im-e- n-\p ap³- ]pxs a-e-bm-fw H-cp {]-txy-i `m-jm-xz-s k-¼m-zn- n-cp p F pw aq-e-{zm-hn-u-ip-spw-_- nse H-cw-Khpw ap- -an-gn-sâ ]p-{xnbpw sn- -an-gn-sâ k-tlm-z-cnbpw B-bn-«m-Wv a-e-bm-f`m-j \n-e-\nâ- p- Xv F pw A-t±-lw hn-i-zo-i-cn- p p. aq-e-{zm-hn-u`m-j ap- -an-gv IÀ- ms-iw Xpfp IpS-Iv sx-ep v sim-sp- -an-gv sn- -angv a-e-bmfw NEO IAS , , Page 6

7 X-an-gn-sâ D-]-`m-j-bm-Wv a-e-bm-fw F- p hm-zn- p- -hà D- -bn- p- {][m-\ \ym-b- fpw A-h-bv- p-å a-dp-]-sn-i-fpw C-{]-Im-cw kw-{k-ln- mw: 1. a-e-bm-f- n-se Nn-e ]-g-b Ir-XnIsf X-angv iðw-sim- m-wv hy-h-l-cn- p h- n-cp- Xv. I- -È I-hn-I-fn H-cmfm-b cm-a- -Wn- À F-gpXn-b {_-Òm-Þ-]pcm-W -nâ C-Xm Rm³ X-an-gm-bn-s m- -dn-bn- p-t ³ F- v {]-kv-xm-hn- n-cn- p p. cm-a-ncn-x IÀ- mhv X-an-gv- -hn B-Wv F- {]-kvxmhw {]-kvxp-x Im-hy- nâ Im-Wp- p v. X-an-g-I- nâ ]qà-h-ime- v H-tc `m-j-bm-wv kw-km-cn- n-cp- Xv. C-X{tX X-angv. X-angv F- ]-Zw {ZmhnU `m-j-iä- v sam- - nepw A-Xn-sâ sx- ³ `m-j-iä- v {]-txy-i-ambpw D-]- tbm-kn- n-cp- -Xm-bn a-\-ên-em- mw. 2. Kr-ly-]-Z- fpw `m-j-bp-ss {]m-cw-`-ime- v D- m-bn-«p-å a-äv A-Sn-Øm-\-]Z- -fpw (tncn, Ducv, timsv, txmsv, txm«w, Ipfw) X-an-gnepw a-e-bm-f- nepw H- p-x-s -bmwv. `m-j-i-fpss ]-c-kv-]-c_-ôw Im-Wn- m-t\ Cu A-`n-{]m-bw k-lm-bn- p- p-åq. 3. ]-Xn-äp- v, Nn-e- -Xn-Imcw, sf- p-dp-\q-dv ap-xem-b kw-l-im-e-ir-xn-iä c-nn -Xv ti-cfob I-hn-I-fmWv. A- v \m-«nâ D-]-tbm-Kn- n-cp- `m-jm-cq-]-amwv Cu Ir-Xn-I-fn Im-Wp- Xv. Cu hm-zhpw ZpÀ-_-e-amWv. ti-c-fo-bà kw-kv-ir-x- nepw Cw- o-jnepw Ir-Xn-IÄ c- Nn- n-«p v. A-XnÂ-\n- v ti-c-f- n-se `m-j kw-kv-ir-xtam Cw otjm B-Ip- nã-tãm. 4. in-em-im-k-\- -fn-se `m-j X-an-gmWv. s]m-xp-p-\- Ä- p-th- n-bp-å A-dn-bn- p-iä A-hcp-sSX-s `m-j-bnâ F-gp-Xm\-tà \ymbw? `-cw-iq-s- n-sâ `m-j-bm-bn-cp- p A-sX- {tx a-dp-]sn. AÃm-sX P-\- -fp-ss `m-jbã. kà- mà D- -c-hp-iä Cw- o-jnâ h-cp- - X-p-sIm v ti-c-f-b-cp-ss `m-j-bm-wv Cw- o-jv F- p ]-d-bm-\m-hp-i-tam? C-Ã. 5. cm-a-n-cn-x- n-se `m-j a-e-bm-f- n-sâ B-Zn-cq-]w {]-Xn-^-en- n- p p. ]-t cm-a-n-cn-xw A -s km-[m-c-w `mj-sb {]-Xn-\n-[o-I-cn- p- nã F- m-wv ]Þn-X axw. C- -dª Im-c-W- -fmâ X-an-gn-sâ D-]-`m-j-bà a-e-bm-f-sa- v kn-²n- p p. III. an-{i-`m-jm-hm-zw `m-tjmâ-]- n-sb- -än-bp-å kn-²m- - -fnâ A-Sp -Xv an-{i-`m-jm-hm-z-am-w.v kw-kv- IrXw, X-an-gv F- o c- p `m-j-i-fp-ss tnà- -bnâ \n pw a-e-bm-f-ap- m-bn F- hm-z-am-wv an- {i-`m-jm-hm-zw. C-fw-Ip-fw {]mno-\ a-ebm-f `mj-sb N-cn-{X- nsâ ]-Ým- -e- nâ ]cn-tim-[n- m³ B-Zy-am-bn {ian- ]-Þn-X-\m-Wv C-fw-Ipfw. s{]m-^. C-fw-Ip-f- n-sâ A-`n-{]m-b- nâ, a-e-\m-«v X-an-gn-s\ ae-bm-f-am- nb-xv kw-kv-ir-x- n-sâbpw {]m-ir-x- n-sâbpw t{]-c-w-bmwv. N-cn-{X-]-c-am-bn ]-d- ªmÂ, B-cy- m-cp-ss B-K-a-\hpw B-[n-]-Xy-hp-am-Wv a-e-bm-f- n-sâ B-hnÀ-`m-h- n-\p ImcWw. Cu kn-²m- - n-sâ hn-i-zo-i-c-whpw Øm-]-\-hp-amWv ti-c-f-`m-j-bp-ss hn-im-k-]-cn- Wm-a Ä F- {KÙw. C-hn-sS `m-j F- mâ X-angv. ti-c-f- n-se km-am-\y`m-j F- À w. AXpw kwkv-ir-xhpw H-cp `m-j-sb- \n-e-bnâ Cãw-t]m-se C-S-I-eÀ- n {]-tbm-kn- p -Xv `mjm-an-{iw. kwkv-ir-x-hn-`-ày- - Ä A-Xn [m-cm-f-ap- v. kw-kv-ir-xoir-x `m-jm{]-tbm-k- Ä \n-d-sb-imwpw. \n-b-a-cm-ln-xy-am-wv `m-jm-an-{i- n-sâ \n-baw. Ir-{Xn-a-Xz-am-Wv A-Xn-sâ kz-`mhw F n -s\ `m-jm-an-{i-s C-fw-Ip-fw hy-à-am- p p. `m-jm-]-cam-b Cu {]-txy-i-xi-sf Øm-]n- m³ N-cn-{X-]-cam-b h-kv-xp-x-ifpw C-fw-Ip-fw ap-t m-«p-h-bv- p p. A-t±-l- n-sâ A- `n-{]m-b- nâ simã-hà-jm-cw-`- n-\p ap-¼v {_m-ò-wà ti-c-f nâ Ip-Sn-tb-dn- mà- n-cp p. A- p-ap-xâ A-hÀ- v e-`n- {]m-am-wy-hpw 11þmw i-x-i- n-\p ti-jw e-`n- cm-{ão-b {]m-_-eyhpw NEO IAS , , Page 7

8 B-Wv a-e-\m-«v X-an-gv H-cp {]-txy-i `m-j-bm-bn am-dm³ Im-c-W-am-bXv. a-wn-{]-hm-f- n-se- -t]mse `mjmþkw-kvir-x ]-Z- -fp-ss lr-zyamb tbm-kw `m-jm-an-{i- nâ \nà-_-ô-anã. B-cy- mà am-xr-`m-jbm-b kw-kv-ir-xhpw X-t±-io-b-cp-sS hm-sam-gnbm-b X-angpw C-S-IeÀ- n cq-]-s -Sp nb an-{i-`mj-sb `m-jm-an-{i-sa pw hn-ti-jn- n- p p. B-Zy-Im-e-im-k-\- Ä, a-wn-{]-hm-f-ir- XnIÄ, IqSn-bm-«w C-h-bn-seÃmw an-{i-`m-j-bp-ss Aw-i- Ä Im-Wm-hp- -Xm-sW- v C-fw-Ip-fw A- `n-{]m-b-s -Sp p. C-fw-Ip-f- n-sâ an-{i-`m-jm-kn-²m -s G-sd- p-sd A-\p-Iq-en- p- -h-cp-ap- v. ssi-cfn-bp-ss I-Y bnâ s{]m-^.f³.ir-jv-w-]n-å C-{]-Im-cw A-`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p. \-¼q-Xn-cn-amÀ tic-f- n-se X-an-gn-s\ X- -fp-ss B-hiyw {]-Xn -Zp-jn- n- -Xn-sâ ^-e-am-bn-«p m-b cq-]m- -c- -fm- Wv H-cp ]pxn-b `m-j-bv- v I-f-sam-cp- n-bxv. kz- w \m-«p-h-g - -tfm-sp-iqsn-b ti-c-f- -an-gv 700þm-am- n-\p ti-j-ap-å 500 hà-j- n\-iw B-cy-`m-j-I-fp-sS {]-_-e-k-½à-±w \n-an- w a-säm-cp `m-j-bmbn D-cp- n-cn-bp-ibpw D-cp- n-cn-ª-txm-ssm- w H-cp an-{i-`m-j-bm-bn- o-cp-ibpw sn-bv-xv a-e-bm-f-ambn. `m-jm im-kv-{x-kn-²m- - Ä- v hn-cp-²am-b A-`n-{]m-b-am-bn `m-jm-an-{i-hmz-s ]-Þn-X- mà I-W- m- p p. a-wn-{]hm-f a-e-bm-f- n-se kw-kvir-x _m-lpeyw I- p-{`-an- v {]m-am-wn- I- mcm-b {K-Ù-Im-c- mà t]mepw kw-kv-ir-x- nâ {Zm-hn-Uw I-eÀ- p m-b `m-j-bm-wv a-e-bmf-sa- v i- n- p-i-bp- m-bn-«p-s - v G.BÀ.cm-P-cm-P-hÀ-½ ti-c-f-]m-wn-\o-bw ]otn-i-bnâ tc- J-s -Sp- p p. c- p `m-j-i-fp-ss tnà- -bnâ aq- m-a-sxm-cp `m-j B-hnÀ-`-hn- -bn-sã- m-wv amivkv ap-åà Xp-S n-b `m-jm-im-kv-{x-ú- m-cp-ss A-`n-{]mbw. c- p `m-j-i-fp-ss k-¼à- waqew A-t\ym\yw ]-Z-k¼- v ssi-am-dp-ibpw c pw ]p-ãn-s Sp-I F- p-åxpw kà-æ-km-[m-c- W-amWv. ]-s, A-Xp-aq-ew c- p `m-j-i-fp-ssbpw hym-ic-ww C-S-I-eÀ- aq- m-a-sxm-cp `m-j D- m-hp-i F -Xv N-cn{Xtam `m-jm-im-kv{xtam Aw-Ko-I-cn- p-s m-cp kn-²m- aã. F- v C- mcy-s - p-dn- v tum.si.fw.tpmàöpw hn-aà-in- p p. a-wn-{]-hm-f-ir-xn-i-fpä-s -«km-ln-xohn-`m-k nâ AÃm-sX km-am-\yw-hy-h-lm-c- nâ an-{i`m-j \n-e-\n- n-cp- pã. IV. aq-e-{zm-hn-u-`m-jm-hm-zw aq-e-{zm-hn-u-sa- v t]cmb s]m-xphm-b `m-j-bnâ \n pw X-angv, sx-e v, I -Sw F- o {Zmhn-U-`m-j-IÄ thà-s]«p-t]m-bxp-t]m-se kz-x-{ -am-bn a-e-bm-fhpw D-cp- n-cn-ªp F- hm-zam-wv aq-e-{zm-hn-u-`m-jm-hmzw. X-angpw a-e-bm-fhpw X-½n k-tlm-z-c-_-ô-am-wv {]-kv-xp-x-hm-z- mà I-ev-]n- p- Xv. ]qà-æ-{zm-hnu-s H-cp hr- -am-bn I-cp-Xn-bm X-angv, sx-ep- v, IÀ- ms- Iw Xp-S n-b im-jiä-t]m-se Xm-bv- -Sn-bn \n- p t\-sc hn-i-kn- p-h- H-cp kz-x-{ -im-jbm-wv a-e-bmfw. Xm-bv- -Sn-bm-b ]qà-æ-{zm-hn-u-t m-sm-wv im-jm-`m-j-iä-s Ãmw t\-cn-«p-å _- Ôw. AXn-\m im-jm-hm-z-sa pw C-Xn-s\ hn-fn- mw. Kp- À«v a-e-bm-f-`mj-sb kw-_-ôn- v im-kv-{xo-bam-b K-thj-Ww BZyw \-S- nb-xv tum.kp- À- «m-wv. 1851 {]-kn-²o-i-cn- a-e-bm-f-`m-jm-hymi-c-w n-sâ B-Zy-`m-K- n-epw 1872  {]-kn-²s -Sp- n-b a-e-bm-fwþcw- o-jv \nl- p hn-sâ B-ap-J- n-ep-am-wv A-t±-lw `-m-tjm-xv-]- n-sb kw-_-ôn- p- X-sâ \n-co- -W- Ä A-h-X-cn- n- n-«p-åxv. a-e-bm-f-`m-jm-hym-i-c-w' nâ At±-lw C -s\ F-gp-Xp p: a-ebm-f `m-jm {Z-an-fw F- p-å X-an-gn-sâ H-cp im-j-bm-ip p. AXp sx-ep v, IÀ- m-siw, Xp-fp, Ip-S-Iv ap-xem-b im-j-i-sf- mä A-[n-Iw X-an-g-cp-sS kq-{x- - tfm-sv H- p-h-cn-i-bmâ, D-]-`m-j-b-t{X : F- nepw {_m-òwà Cu ti-cf-s A-S- n-hmwv, NEO IAS , , Page 8

9 A\m-Nm-c -sf \-S- m- n \m-«n-se iq-{z-cp-am-bn tnà- p t]m-b-xn-\mâ, kwkvir-x i-ð- fpw hm-n-i- fpw hf-sc \pg-ªp h v, `m-j-bp-ss aq-e-cq]-s ]-e-hn-[- nepw am-än-bn-cn- p p. C-hnsS {Z-anfw F ]Zw-sIm- v X-angv, sx-ep v, IÀ- m-siw, a-e-bm-fw F n-h hn-`-pn- -s -Sp- -Xn-\p ap-¼p- m-bn-cp- `m-jsb (aq-e-{zm-hn-u-`m-jsb) B-Wv D-t±-in- n-cn- p- sx v aq-e-{zmhn-u-`m-jm-hm-z- mà A-`n-{]m-b-s -Sp p. a-e-bm-fwþcw- o-jv \nl- p hn-sâ B-ap-J- nâ Kp- À-«v ]-d-bp -Xv C-{]-Im-c-am-Wv: a-ebm-f i-ð- -sfbpw X-an-gv i-ð- -sfbpw thà-xn-cn p-sim- v H-c-XnÀ- ntc-j h-c-bv p-i {]-bm-k-amwv. Cu c- p {]m-no-\-`m-j-ifpw {]-txy-i-`m-j-i-sf- - Xn-t\- mä {Zm-hn-U-tKm-{X- nâ-s -«H-tc-`m-j-bp-sS D-]-`m-j-I-sf- \n-e-bn-em-wv hn-`n- - - fmbxv. C-{]-Im-cw aq-e-{zm-hn-u-`m-jm-hmz-s ]n- m- p- A-`n-{]m-b-am-Wv Kp- À-«n Im-Wp- Xv. B-äqÀ-Ir-jv-W-]n-jm-c-Sn (kz-x-{ -Xm-hmZw) aq-e-{zm-hn-u-`m-j-i-fp-ss H-cp kz-x-{ -im-j-bm-wv a-e-bm-fw F- A-`n-{]m-bw {]-_-eam-b Hc-Sn-Øm-\- n-â B-Zy-am-b-n Ah-X-cn- n -Xv B-äqÀ-Ir-jv-W-]n-jm-c-Sn-bmWv. ti-c-f-`m-jm-n-cn- {Xw F- {K-Ù- nepw a-ebm-f `m-jbpw km-ln-xy-hpwþh-cp ]T\w F- {]-_-Ô- nepw kz-x-{ -Xm-hm-Zw' DÄ-s -Sp- n-bn-«p v. IÀ- m-siw, sx-ep v, X-an-gv ap-xem-b `m-j-i-sf-t m-se ]qà-æ-{zm-hn-u- nâ \n pw t\-cn-«p-zv-`-hn- -Xm-Wv a-e-bm-fw F- -Xm-Wv kz-x-{ -Xm-hm-Z- n-sâ A- -xk-. ]qà-æ-{zm-hn-u- n-sâ H-cp kz-x-{ -im-j-bm-wv X-an-sg- nâ AXp-t]m-seX-s Xn- I pw kz-x-{ amb a-säm-cp im-j-bm-wv a-e-bm-fw F- p kz-x-{ -Xm-hm-Zn-IÄ hn-iz-kn- p p. B-äq-cn-sâ A-`n-{]m-b-a-\p-k-cn- v {Zm-hn-U-`m-j-IÄ-s Ãmw Iq-Sn H-cp aq-e`m-j D- m-bncp p. A-Xn-s\ ap- --an-gv F- m-wv hn-fn- n-cp- Xv. C- v X-an-gv F- -dn-b-s -Sp- `mj aq-e-{zm-hn- U-`m-j-bp-sS H-cp im-j- am-{x-amwv. B im-j-bp-ss hn-ti-j-t]à sn- -an-gv F- m-ip p. {]mtzin-i {Zmhn-U-`m-j-I-sf-sbÃmw X-anÄ F- p hn-fn- n-cp- -Xn-\v sx-fnhmwv a-e-\m-«p-x-an-gv sx-ep- p-\m-«px-an-gv I-cn-\m-«p-X-an-gv F- o {]-tbm-k Ä. eo-em-xn-e-i- n-se X-an-Ä i-ð- n-\v a-ebm-f `m-j F m-wà w. Np-cp- - nâ B-Zn-Ime- v {Zm-hn-U-am-b-Xn-s\Ãmw ]-d-ªp-h- n-cp- hm- m-wv X-anÄ F pw B i-ðw sim- m-wv A -s {Zm-hn-U-P-\- Ä-s Ãmw-Iq-Sn-bp-Å `mjbm-b aq-e-{zm-hn-u-`mj-sb kq-nn- n- n-cp- -sx pw I-cp-Xmw. a-e-{zm-hn-u-`m-jbm-b ap- -an-gn-\v tz-i-t`-z-a-\p-k-cn v hy-xym-kw h- v ]-e im-j-i-fm-bn ]n-cnªp. `q-an-im-kv-{x-]-chpw km-aq-ln-ihpw kmw-kv-i-cn-i-hpam-b {]-txy-i-x-i-fp-ss ^-e-am-bn aq-e-{zm-hn-u`m-j kw-km-cn- -s -Sp- tz-i- -fnâ A-h kzx-{ -`m-j-i-fm-bn h-f-cp-hm³ Xp-S n. sx-ep- p-\m-«p X-an-gv sx-ep- mbn. I-cn-\m- «p X-an-gv I- -S-bm-bn Np-cp- n. A-{]-Im-cw X-s -bm-wv a-e-bm-fhpw D- m-b-sx- v B-äqÀ hm-zn- p p. aqe-{zm-hn-u-`m-j (ap- -angv) a-e-\m-«p-x-an-gv sn- -an-gv I-cn-\m-«p-X-an-gv sx-ep- p-\m-«px-angv a-e-bm-fw X-an-gv I -Sw sx-ep v NEO IAS , , Page 9

10 B-äq-cn-sâ hm-z-ap-j- -sf C-{]-Im-cw kw-{k-ln- mw: (1) {Zm-hn-U-aq-e-`m-jbm-b ap- -an-gv {Zm-hn-U-{]-tZ-i- -fn-seãmw km-am-t\y-\ {]-N-cn- ncp p. (2) aq-e-{zm-hn-u`m-j im-j-i-fm-bn ]n-cn-ª-t m-gp m-b ti-c-f- n-se {Zm-hn-U-imJ-sb aqe-{zm-hn-u-`m-j-bp-ss t]cm-b X-angv kw-ú-sim- p hy-h-l-cn- n-cp p. (3) a-e-bm-f- n-se ]-Zm- A Im-cw X-an-gnse sf Im-c-s - mä {]m-no-\-`m-jm-kz-`mhw Iq-Sp-X hn-izm-ky-am-bn \n-e-\nà- p p. C-Xn-\p-Zm-l-c-Wm-bn sxmâ- m- n-b- nsebpw \- q-en-sebpw kq-{x- Ä B-äqÀ Nq- n- m-wn- p p. (4) ]p-cp-j-{]-xy-b- Ä tnà- -hbpw tn-cm- -h-bpam-b {In-b-IÄ ]qà-æþ{zm-hn-u- n-ep- m-bn-cp- -h-bnâ, ]p-cp-j-{]-xy-bw tnà- -h X-an-gpw, tn-cm- -h a-e-bm-fhpw \n-e-\nà- p p. (5) X-an-gm-bn-s m- -dn-bn- p-t ³ F- p Xp-S n-b {]m-no-\{]-tbm-k- -fn-se X-an-gn\v `mj F- mwv, sn- -angv F- à AÀ w. (6) Kr-ly-]-Z- -fn-se km-zriyw `m-tjm-xv-]- n-hm-z- n-\p sx-fnhã. (7) {]m-no-\-ir-xn-i-fn-se X-an-gv A-Xn-{]-k-c- n-\v A-h-bp-sS DÂ-]- n-tz-i- n-se `m-jm-khn-ti-j-x-i-fm-wv Im-cWw. A-h-bn A-[n-I-sa- - n-sâbpw c-n-bn-xm- Ä Z n-w ti-c-fo-b-cm-bn-cp p. A-h-cp-sS am-xr`m-j X-an-gm-bn-cp p. Z- n-w-tic-fw X-an-g-cp-sS B{I-a-W- n\pw A-[o-i-Xz- n\pw \n-c- -cw hn-t[-b-am-bn-cp- p. B-äq-cn-sâ bp-àn-i-tfm-sv hn-tbm-pn- p- ]-Þn-X- m-cp v. F- nepw A-t±-l- n-sâ \n-ka\-s tum.si.fw.tpmàöv, tum.tkm-z-hà-½, tne-\m-«v A-Nyp-Xta-t\m³ F- n-hà A-\p-Iqen- p p. D-ÅqÀ F-kv ]-c-ta-iz-c- À a-e-bm-fw aq-e-{zm-hn-u-`m-j-bp-ss kz-x-{ -im-j-bm-wv F- hm-zw D-ÅqÀ ti-c-f-km-ln-xy- Ncn-{X- n  DÄ-s -Sp- n-bn-«p v. ]-g- -an-gv F- v D-ÅqÀ \m-a-ic-ww snbv-x aq-e-{zm-hn-u`m-j Im-em- -c- nâ D- -c-{zm-hn-u-sa pw Z- n-w-{zm-hn-u-sa pw c- p im-j-i-fm-bn ]n-cn-sª- v DÅqÀ ]-d-bp p. C-h-bn D- -c-im-j-bnâ-s]-«`m-j-i-fm-wv IÀ- m-s-ihpw sx-ep- pw. D- -c- {Zm-hn-Uw I- -S-sa pw sx-ep-s pw c- m-bn ]n-cn-ª-t mä tncþtnm-fþ]m-þy cm-pm- - mcp-ss `-c-w- n³ Io-gn Z- n-w-{zm-hn-u`m-j Iq-Sp-X hn-i-kn- p-i-bmwp- m-bxv. _n.kn. aq mw \q-äm-t m-ss Z n-w {Zm-hn-U-im-J-bn km-lnxyw B-hnÀ-`-hn p. A-t mä A-Xn-\p-th- n hymi-c-w-im-kv-{x-\n-_-²am-b sn- -an-gv F- Ir-{Xn-a-{K-Ù`m-j ]-Þn-X- mà- v hy-h- Øm]-\w sn-t - n-h p. A-Xn-\p ap-¼v ]-Ýn-a-L-«- n-\p In-g pw ]-Sn-ªm-dp-ap-Å {]-tz-i- - fnâ H-tc `mj (Z- -nw-{zm-hnuw) X-s -bm-bn-cp- p kw-`m-j-w- n-\p D-]-tbm-Kn- p h- -sx- nepw A-Xn-\v c- p Ø-e- -fnepw kz-ev-]w hy-xym-k- -fp- m-bn-cp p. tic-f- n-se sim-sp- an-gv tnm-fm-zn tzi- -fn-se sim-sp- -an-gnâ \n- p `n- -am-bn-cp- p. tnm-fm-zn-tz-i- fn-se sim-sp- -an-gv {Ita-W sn- -an-gv-\m-«nâ sn- -an-gn-sâ A-Xn-{]k-cw _m-[n- hy-h-lm-c-`m-j-bnâ e-bn pt]m-bn. F- mâ tic-fw h-f-sc- m-e-t - v ]-g-b Z- -n-w-{zm-hnu-s Nn-e hy-àn-xz- -tfm-sp Iq-Sn ]p-eà- n-s m- p t]m p. B `m-j A\- -c Im-e- -fnâ sn- -an-gv-\m-«n-se hy-h-lm-c-`mj-bnâ \n- v A[n-I-a-[n-Iw AI- v H-cp kz-x-{ -`m-j-bm-bn ]-cn-w-an- p F- p-am-wv D-Åq-cn-sâ hmzw. C- v Xan-gv-\m-«n-se hy-h-lm-c-`m-jbm-b Cu X-angv kz-x-{ -am-bn cq-]-s -Sp- -Xn-\v ap³-]v NEO IAS , , Page 10

11 X-s aq-e-{zm-hn-u- nâ \n pw a-e-bm-fw thà-]n-c-nªn-cp- p F- v ti-c-f-km-ln-xy-n-cn-{x- nâ D-ÅqÀ Øm-]n- p- p v. C-Xn-s\ Xm-sg sim-sp- n-cn- p- a-e-bm-f- n-sâ DÂ-]- ntc- J h-gn sh-fn-hm- mw. aqe-{zm-hn-u-`mj D c{zmhnu`mj Z nw{zmhnu`mj sx-ep v I S Xangv ae-bmfw a-e-bm-fw aq-e-{zm-hn-u- n-sâ kz-x-{ -im-j-bm-wv F- hm-z- n-\v D-Åq-À \-S n-b ]T-\- -fpss sh-fn- - nâ cq-]-s -«hm-z- Ä C-\n- -d-bp- -h-bmwv; (1) B-Xn-\n-â A-Im-cw sf-im-c-am-bv Xn-cn- Xp F- p sxm-ev-im- n-bw F-gp- -Xn-Im-cw 399þmw kq-{x- nâ Im-Wp p. B-Zy-Ime- p i-ð- -fp-ss H-Sp-hn \n- n-cp- A Im-cw ]n- osv X-an-gn sf Im-c-am-bn am-dn F- m-wv kq-{xmà w. a-e-bm-fw þ a-e, X-e X-an-gv þ a-sse, Xsse C-{]-Im-cw a-e-bmfw Cu hn-j-b- nâ ]qà-æ-cq]-s \n-e-\nà- p p. (2) B, Cu F- o Np-s«-gp- p-iä X-an-gn I-hn-X-bn am-{x-ta h-cq F- m-wv sxm-ev-im- n-bcp-ss A-`n-{]mbw. a-e-bm-f- nâ A-h-bv- v hy-h-lm-c-`m-j-bnepw {]-th-i-\-ap v. C-Xv a-ebm-f- n-sâ {]-mà-\-x-bv- v sx-fn-hm-bn D-ÅqÀ ]-d-bp p. (3) ]qà-æ-ime- v X-an-gn {In-bm-]Z- -tfm-sp enw-kh-n-\ {]-Xy-b- Ä tnà p-i ]-Xn-hnÃmbn-cp p. sn- -an-gnâ C-Xv ]n- o-sv h- p-tnà- -XmWv. a-e-bm-fw þ A-h³ h p, A-hÀ t]mbn X-an-gv þ A-h³ h- m³, A-hÀ t]m-bmà C-{]-Im-cw a-e-bm-fw enw-k-h-n-\-{]-xy-b- n-sâ Im-cy- nepw aq-e-{zm-hn-u-s -bm-wv ]n- p- S-cp- Xv. (4) kw-l-ime v D p F-s m-cp hà- -am-\im-e {]-Xy-bw D- m-bn-cp- p F pw B {]- Xybw ]-cwà, tim-hqà-in-gmà, \- o-cà ap-xem-b ]-g-b I-hn-IÄ {]-tbm-kn- n-«p-s pw A-Xp a-e-bm-f- nâ D p F- cq-]- nâ C pw \n-e-\n- p t]m-cp- p-s pw ]pd\m-\qän³ ]-g-ssa F- {K-Ù- nâ Im-Wp- -Xm-bn D-ÅqÀ ]-d-bp p. I- -S- nâ C-Xv D p hmbpw sx-ep- nâ DXp D-XvNp F- o cq-]- Ä kzo-i-cn pw Im-Wp- -Xm-bn DÅqÀ ]-d-bp p. (5) Bbv-X F-gp- p sn- -an-gnâ {]-txy-i-am-bn kw-kv-ir-x- n-se hn-kà -s A-\p-I-cn- p Iq-Sn-t À- Xpw ]-g- -an-gnâ CÃm- Xpw BWv. a-e-bm-f- nâ Bbv-X F-gp- v ]-Zy- nâ-t]mepw ] pw C pw CÃ. NEO IAS , , Page 11

12 (6) C F- `q-x-im-e-{]-xy-b- n\p b Im-cmK-aw h- C-b F- cq-]-am-wv ]- v X-an-gn D- m-bn-cp- Xv. \ Im-cmK-aw h C\ F- cq-]-am-wv C -s X-an-gn {]m-tb-w {]tbm-kn- p-im-wp- Xv. F- mâ C- m-cy- nâ a-e-bm-fw C pw ]n- p-s-cp -Xv ]-g-b cq- ]-am-wv. a-e-bm-fw þ ]-g-in-b, A-S n-b X-an-gv þ ]-g-in-\, A-S n-\ (7) h-cp-hm³ t]m-ip-hm³ ap-xe-mb ]-Z- -fn-ep-å B³ F- ]n³-hn-\-sb- {]-Xy-bw ]-g- -an-gnâ D- m-bn-cp- Xpw C -s X-an-gn {K-Ù-`m-j-bn am{xw A-]qÀ-Æ-am-bn-Im-Wp- -Xp-amWv. F- mâ a-e-bm-f- nâ C-Xv kà-æ-km-[m-c-w-am-bn {]-tbm-kn- p p. (8) a-e-bm-f- nâ {]-tbm-kn- p- axn F- ]-Zw ]-c-w-cp-ssbpw aäpw kw-l-ir-xn-i-fnâ ImWp- p-s - nepw ]nâ- me- v B `m-j-bnâ ep-]v-x-am-bn-t mbn. F- mâ A-Xp a-ebm-f- nâ C pw \n-e-hn-en-cn- p p. sxãv ap-xem-b ]-Z- fpw C- q-«- nâ DÄ-s -«- XmWv. (9) \n-sâ F- AÀ- - nâ \n³ F- p am-{x-ta ap³-ime- p X-an-gn {]-tbm-k-ap- m-bncp- påq. D³ F- cq-]w ]n- o-sv h- -XmWv. a-e-bm-f- nâ \n³ F- ]-Zw am-{x-am-wv C pw {]-tbm-kn- p- Xv. (10) AXp-t]m-se ]qà-æ-`m-j-bnse B-bn, B-hpw F- o {]-tbm-k- Ä X-an-gn B-In, BIpw F- n- -s\-bm-wv D-]-tbm-Kn- p- Xv. F- mâ C- m-cy- nepw a-e-bm-fw aq-e-`mj-sb-x-s -bm-wv ]n- p-s-cp- Xv. (11) ti-c-f-]m-wn-\n-bp-ss B-dp-\-b- -fnâ DÄ-s -Sp- A-\p-\m-kn-Im-Xn-{]-k-chpw X-hÀ-t m-]- aà-±hpw Aw-Ko-I-cn- m³ _p-²n-ap-«m-sw pw sn- -an-gn-sâ B-hnÀ-`m-h- n\pw ap³- ]pxs Cu t`-z- Ä Z- n-w-{zm-hn-u-`m-j-bnâ h- p tnà- n-cp- p F pw A-\p- \mkni {]-[m-\-am-bn-cp B `m-j-bn-se ]qà-æ cq-]- -sf-bm-wv a-e-bm-fw {]-ZÀ-in- n- p- -sx- pw I-\I-k-ss`- n-å A-`n-{]m-b-s -Sp- p v. R p, Rm, Rm-bn-dp ap-xem-b ]- Z- Ä C pw X-an-gn \-S- p v. A-Xn-\m sf p, A p, Ipâp, Ip p, \-c¼p, Rc- ¼p F- o ]-Z-Zz-b- -fnâ sf p, Ipâp, \c-¼p C-h-bm-Wv {]m-no-\- -sf- p J-Þn- p ]- d-bm-hp- XÃ. F- v D-ÅqÀ A-`n-{]m-b-s -Sp p. (12) d-d F- hà- - n-sâ ]-g-b D- mc-ww C pw i-cn-bm-bn \n-e-\n-dp- n-t m-cp -Xp a-ebm-f-am-ip p. X-an-gn AXp d-dv d F- p am-dn-t m-bn-cn- p p. (13) \nem, a-ssg, sh-bnâ, C-cpÄ F- o ]Z- -tfmsv A- p F- C-S\n-e tn-cp-sa- p sxmev-im- n-b- nâ hn-[n-bp-s - nepw B hn-[n A-\p-k-cn- p-å {]-tbm-k- Ä C pw \-S- m- p -Xv a-e-bm-f- nâ-am-{x-amwv. (14) X-an-gÀ- v C pw ti-«mä ]-e-t mgpw \n-l- p-hn-sâ k-lm-bw Iq-Sm-sX a-\-ên-em-im- hbpw F- mâ ti-c-fo-bà- p \n-txym-]-tbm-k- n-en-cn- p- -hbpw X- n-an- w A-\mbmtk-\ {K-ln- m-hp- -h-bpam-b A-t\-Iw {]m-no-\-]-z- Ä ]-g-b sn- -an-gv-ir-xn-i-fnâ Im-Wp- p v. D-Zm-l-c-W- n\v, Xp- - mc³ (Xp- Â- m-c³), ]osn-ssi (]o-sn-i), A- msn (A- m-sn), s]mxn (`m-þw), ]ämbw (]- m-bw), CuSp (]-W-bw), A-S-bv-, aq-cn, Nn-dp ³ (sn-dp ³) I-fcn, txmwn, Ip- mbw, NnXÂ, ]mbâ. tum.si.tkm-z-hའX-an-gn \n- pw a-e-bm-f-ap- m-bn F- hmz-s tum.tkm-z-hà-½ Aw-Ko-I-cn- p- nã. a- e-bm-fw {Zm-hn-U-tKm-{X- nâ \n pw ]n-cnªv a-e-\m-«nâ {]-txy-i- fm-b ]-cn-xx-øn-xn-i-fnâ NEO IAS , , Page 12

13 hfà- n-«p-å-xm-sw- B-äq-cn-sâ A-`n-{]mb-s tkm-z-hà-½ Aw-Ko-I-cn- p p. tkm-z-hà-½-bpss ti-c-f-`m-jm-hn-úm-\o-bw F- Ir-Xn-bn `m-tjmâ-]- n-sb- p-dn- p-å A-`n-{]m-bw DÄs -Sp- n-bn-«p v. H-cp Po-hÂ-`m-j-bp-sS ]qà-æ-cq-]w \nà- -bn- p- -Xn-\v {K-Ù-`m-j-tb- mä hyh-lm-c-`m-j-bm-wv \mw B-[m-c-am-t - -sx v tkm-z-hà-½ ]-d-bp p. F- mâ hn-zym-`ym-k-`m-jbp-ss t`zw- sim- v km-ln-xy-{k-ù- -fnepw cm-py-`-c-wkw-_-ôam-b Øn-Xn-hn-ti-j- Ä- v hnt[-b-am-bn {]Nm-cm-[n-Iy-ap-Å `m-j-bnâ hn\y-kv-x- -fm-bn-«p-å in-em-im-k-\- -fnepw {K-Ù-h-cn- I-fnepw aäpw b-ymà- am-b tz-i-`m-j-bnâ Im-Wm- ]-e hy-xn-bm-\- fpw kw-`m-hy- -fm-ibmâ Ah-sb B-kv-]-Z-am- n `m-j-bp-ss ]qà-æ-cq-]w hn-[n-\nà -bw sn- p -Xv an- -hm-dpw A- km-[y-am-sw- v tkm-z-hà-½ A-`n-{]m-b-s -Sp p. A-Xn-{]m-No-\am-b Im-e- nâ-t]mepw ti-c-f- n-se `m-j a-e-bm-f-am-bn-cp- p F- Ãm-sX Xantgm X-an-gn-sâ H-cp D-]-im-Jtbm B-bn-cp- p-sh- v hn-nm-cn- p -Xv A-kw-K-X-amWv F- n -s\ A-t±-lw {]-kv-xm-hn- p p. X-angpw a-e-bm-fhpw F- ioà-j- nâ A-t±-lw C -s\ F-gpXn: a-e-bm-fw a-äp {Zmhn-U `m-j-i-sf- mä X- angn-t\m-sp IqSp-X NmÀ- {]-ZÀ-in- n- p- -Xn-\p Imc-Ww a-e-bm-f- n\pw X-an-gn\pw k-am-\am-b H-cp ]qà-æ-z-i-bp- m-bn-cp- p F- -Xn-sâ ^-e-a-t{x. ]nâ- me- p c- p `m-j-i-fn-em-bn ]n-cn- ª-Xn-\p-ti-jw hà- -hn-im-c-hn-j-b-i-am-bn X-an-gnepw a-e-bm-f- nepw Nn-e hn-`- -kz-`m-h- Ä {]-XnjvT t\-sn-bn-«p-s - på-xp hn-kv-a-cn- m-hp- XÃ. hà -hn-im-c-hn-j-b-i-am-bn X-an-gn\pw a-e-bm-f- n\pw X-½n-ep-Å hy-xym-k- -Ä 1. ap³-hn-\-sb- - -fp-tsbpw A¼v, ImSv, ]m-«v Xp-S n-b \m-a-]-z- -fp-ts-bpw, sim- v, Hm-Sv XpS n-b K-Xn-I-fp-tSbpw aäpw H-Sp-hn D- -cn- -s -Sp- ti-{µo-ir-x-kz-c- n-\v a-e-bm-f- nâ X-an-gn D-Å-Xn-s\ A-t]- n- v Ip-d- p-iq-sn Xp-d- p-å H-cp \n-e D v. 2. X-an-gn ]-Zm-h-km-\- nâ D-Å sf- Im-c- n-\v F-Xn-cm-bn a-e-bm-f- nâ A- Im-c-am-Wp ImWp- -Xv. 3. X-an-gn A-\p-\m-kn-Iam-b hy-rv-p-\-s - p-sà- v ]n m-te h-cp- I- Im-chpw N -Imchpw X Im-chpw a-e-bm-f- nâ A-\p-\m-kn-Iam-b cq-]- nâ A-h-Øm-\w sn- p- -Xn-\v ]- e D-Zm-l-c-W- fpw D vv. a-cw-iä=a-c Ä; am- =am- ; I- n = I-ªn 4. X-an-gnepw IÀ- m-s-i- nepw hy-h-lm-c-`m-j-bnâ g Im-c- n-sâ Øm-\w Iq-Sn f- Im-cw A-]- l-cn- p-i-gn-ªn-«p v. a-e-bm-f- n-emi-s«{]m-no-\am-b g -Im-cw A-tX-co-Xn-bn -s h-csam-gn-bnâ am-{x-aã hm-sam-gn-bnepw ]p-eà- p-t]m-cp- p. 5. X-an-gn ]-Sp-I, I-«p-I, F- o [m-xp- Ä tnà- p-å cq-]- Ä- v F-Xn-cm-bn a-e-bm-f- nâs]sp-i, si«p, F- n -s\ A- Im-c- n-\v F -Im-cw h- n-«p-å cq-]- fm-wv km-[m-c-w-ambn \-S- n-en-cn- p- Xv. D-Zm:þ A-I-s «p, ]p-d-s «p, si«n. 6. X-an-gn {]-Xn-{Km-ln-Im-{]-Xy-bm- -c- -fm-bn A-h-s\bv, A-h-sfbv, a-c-s bv, F- n s\ sf- Im-cw tnà- v F-gp-X-s -«p t]m-cp- cq-]- Ä- v a-e-bm-f- nâ A-hs\, A-hsf, Fs, ac-s F- n -s\ F- Im-cm- -c-am-bp-å H-cp co-xn-bm-wv FÀ-s -«n-cn- p- Xv. h-kv- Xp-ØnXn-t\m- n-bmâ X-an-gn {]-Xn-{Km-ln-Xm-{]-Xybw Fbv F- -Xm-sW- v hn-i-zo-`-hn- pw. 7. ]p-cp-j-{]-xy-bm- - fm-b {In-bm-cq-]- Ä hy-h-lm-c-`m-j-bnâ \-ã-s -«n-«p-å H-cp Zi-sbbmWv a-e-bm-fw {]-ZÀ-in- n- p- -Xv. 8. tiä- p, hcp, sim-sp- p F- n -s\ \n-tbm-p-i-{]-im-c- nepw I-S-bv-  \-\- m-te X-ebv -cw s]m-sn- p, sim-sp- m-te In-«p IÅ-t\ IÅ-sâ A-S-h-dn-bq, F- n- s\ A-h- NEO IAS , , Page 13

14 [m-c-wmà- am-b G F- \n-]m-xw tnà- p-å hm n-t\m-sv A-\z-bn- p- Ir-Xn-bnepw a-ebm-f- nâ Im-Wp Du X-an-gn C-sÃ- p Im-Wmw. 9. \n-tbm-p-i-{]-im-c- n-sâ a-[y-a-_-lp-h-n-\- nâ h-cp-hn³, h-cn³, D- p-hn³, D- n³ F- n -s\ C³ tnà- p-å cq-]w a-e-bm-f- n-eãm-sx X-an-gn Im-Wm-hp- -XÃ. 10. A-\p-Úm-b-I-{]-Im-c- nâ sn- -emw, h-c-emw, C-cp- emw F- n -s\ X-an-gn-ep-Å cq-]- Ä- v F-Xn-cm-bn sn- mw, h-cmw, C-cn- mw F- n s\ 'Bw' tnà- cq-]- -fm-wv km-[m-c- W-hy-h-lm-c- nâ a-e-bm-fw {]-ZÀ-in- n- p- -Xv. {Zm-hn-`m-j-I-fn a-e-bm-fhpw X-angpw X-½n Iq-Sp-X A-Sp- w {]-I-Sn- n- p-t¼mgpw hà- -hn-j-b-i-c-am-bn X-an-gn\pw a-e-bm-f- n\pw X-½n G-sd hy-xym-k- -fp v. X-an-gn \n- m-wv a-e-bm-fw D- m-b-sx- v ]-d-bp-hm³ th- n-s-t m-fw e- y-anã. F-{XX-s {]m-no-\am-b a-e-bm-f-tc-j-bnepw a-e-bm-f- n-\v X-an-gv ap-xem-b a-äp {Zm-hn-U-`mj-I-fn \n pw {]-txy-iam-b H-cp hy-ànxzw sx-fn-ªp-im-wp-ix-s sn- p- p. hy-h-lm-c-`mj-bp-ss {]m-no-\-z-ii-sf an- -hmdpw ]-cn-c- n p-t]m-cp ssi-eniä, ]-g-s mãpiä, I-Sw-I-Y- IÄ ap-x-em-b-h a-e-\m-«p-`m-j-i-fp-ss {]-txy-i-xi-sf D-Zm-l-cn- p-hm³ a-tä-xn-s\- mfpw Iq-Sp- X {]-K-ev-`- -fm-wv F- -t±-lw Nq- n- m-«p p. F- n -s\ a-e-bm-f- n-sâ {]m-no-\x-sb hyà-am- p- Xpw aq-e-{zm-hn-u-`m-jm-hmz-s ]n- m- p- Xpw a-äp-p-\y-hm-z -sf Aw-Ko-I-cn- m- -Xpamb \n-e-]m-sm-wv `m-tjm-â-]- n-bp-am-bn _-Ô-s -«v tkm-z-hà-½ ap-t m«p-h-bv- p- Xv. kn.f-â. Bâ-Wn `m-jm-]t-\ Ä F- hym-i-c-w-ir-xn-bnâ s{]m-^.kn.fâ.bâ-wn ti-c-f-`m-j-bp-ss DÛh-s kw-_-ôn- v C-{]-Im-cw tc-j-s -Sp- p- p. aq-e-{zm-hn-u- nâ \n- pw sx-ep- p I- - S- Ä thà-]n-cn-ªp-t]m-b-xn-\p-ti-jw X-an-gv a-e-bm-f- -fp-ss H-cp ]qàæ-z-i D- m-bn-cp p. C- Xns\ ]-g- -an-gv A-sÃ- nâ t{]m-t«m X-an-gv F- p hn-fn- mw. Cu ]-g- -an-gnâ \n- m-wv a-e-bmfhpw C- -s X-angpw D- m-bxv. X-an-gv im-j-bnâ km-ln-xy`m-j hn-i-kn- n- p- -Xn-\v ap-¼på Im-e-amWv Cu ]-g- -an-gv L«w. F.Un. 3þmw \q-äm-t m-sp-iq-sn X-an-gn km-ln-xy`m-j cq-]w {]m- ]n- p-i-gnªp. B-bn-\mÂ, {In-kv-Xz-Ð B-cw-`-L-«-am-bn-cn -Ww ]-g- -an-gv Imew. Cu Im-ew ap- X ae-\m-«p X-an-gv A-Xn-sâ h-gn pw tnm-fþ]m-þn- -an-gp-iä A-Xn-sâ h-gn pw hn-im-kw B-cw-`n- n-cn- Ww.. {In-kv-Xz-Ðm-cw-`-Im-e-L-«-t m-sp-iq-sn ]-g- -an-gnâ \n- p kw-`m-j-w-x-e- nâ a-e-\m-sp-xan-gv D-cp- n-cn-ªp-sh pw kz- w {]-txy-i-x-i-sfãmw tz-iy-t`-z-a-\p-k-cn- v A-Xn Iq-Snbpw Ipdªpw {Ita-W hn-i-kn- p-sh pw D-Å kn-²m- -am-wv a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bp-ss DÂ-]- n-sb kw_-ôn- v im-kv-{x-k-½-x-am-ip p F- n -s\ `m-tjmâ`-hw hy-à-am- p- kn.fâ.bâ- Wn, `mj-bp-ss kw-{i-a-w Im-eL-«w hy-à-am- p- p. kw-`m-j-w-x-e- nâ ]-g- -an-gnâ \n- pw a-e-bm-fw thà-xn-cn-ªv hn-i-kn- n-cn- m-sa- n-epw G-sd- m-e-t - v km-ln-xy`m-j sn- antgm kw-kv-ir-xtam B-bn-cp p. X-an-gv-\m-Sp-am-bp-Å _-Ôw X-an-gn-sâ {]m-am-wy- n\pw B-cy- m-cp-ambp-å _Ôw kw-kv-ir-x- n-sâ DÂ- À-j n\pw Im-c-W-ambn. simã-hà-jm-cw-`-t m-ss tnm-f-cm-py-t m-sp-å _-Ôw in-yn-e-am-bn. A-Xn-sâ ^-e-am-bn cm-p-`m-jbm-b sn- -an-gn-te- p hy-h-lm-c`mj \p-g-ªp-i-b-dp-hm³ Xp-S- p-ibpw hy-h-lm-c`m-j {Ita-W sn- -an-gn-s\ A-Sn-as -Sp- p-ibpw sn-bv-xp. ]n- o-sv kw-kv-ir- n-sâ B-{I-a-W- n-\v hn-t[-bam-b `m-j kw-kv-ir-xs bpw txmâ-]n p-sim- v hy-ànxzw t\-sp-i-bm-wp- m-b-sx- v s{]m-^.kn.fâ.bâ-wn A- `n-{]m-b-s -Sp p. F.Un. 9þmw \q-äm- p-h-sc-bp-å Ime-s ]-c-x-{ -L-«sa- pw 9 ap-xâ 17 h- NEO IAS , , Page 14

15 sc-bp-å \qäm- pi-sf kw-{i-a-w-l-«-sa- pw 17\p ti-jw kz-x-{ -L-«-sa pw C-t±-lw Xn-cn- p p. C-Xm-Wv kn.fâ. B-â-Wn-bp-sS `m-jm-kw-{i-a-w-hmzw. tum.si.fw. tpmà-öv {Zm-hn-U-tKm-{X- nâ \n pw ]n-cn-ªv ti-c-f- n-se {]-txy-i ]-cn-xx-øn-xn-i-fnâ cq]wsim- p h-fà- -Xpw, X-angv, sx-ep- v, I -Sw F- o `m-j-i-sf-t m-se hy-àn-xzhpw A-Xn Ip-dbm- {]m-no-\-xbpw A-h-Im-i-s -Sm-hp- -Xpam-b H-cp `m-j-bm-wv a-e-bm-fw F- v `m-tjmâ-]- n-sb- p-dn- v km-ln-xy-n-cn{xw {]-Øm-\- -fn-eq-ss F- Ir-Xn-bn a-ebm-f `m-j-bp-ss hyàn-xzhpw {]m-no-\-x-bpw F- A-²ym-b- nâ tum.si.fw. tpmà-öv A-`n-{]m-b-s -Sp p. CXn-\m-bn C-t±-lw \n-c- p- bp-àn-ifpw sx-fn-hp-ifpw C-{]-Im-cw kw-{k-ln- mw: 1. `m-j-bp-ss P- -tlxp:- H-cp `m-j aq-e-ip-spw-_- nâ \n- p thà-s]-«p hf-sc I-gn-ª-ti-j-ta a-säm- m-bn A-Xp ]-cn-hà -\w sn- p- påq. A-Xph-sc kz- am-b A-ØnXzw `m-j-bv- p- mbn-cn- nã. aq-e`m-j BZyw `m-jm-t`-z- -fmbpw ]n- o-sv hn-`n- -`m-j-i-fmbpw Xo-cp -Xv G-dn-b- Iqdpw `q-an-im-kv-{x-]-cam-b Im-c-W- -fmemwv. k-ly-]à-æ-xhpw A-d-_n- -Sepw ti-c-f- nâ IpSn-tb-dn- mà P-\ -sf a-äp-å-h-cnâ \n- pw Ipd- v A-I-än-\nÀ n. \n-c- -cam-b k-¼à- - n-\v X-S-k-ap- m-ip-t¼mä `m-j-bnâ {]-txy-i-x-iä s]m-«n- n-fpà- v `m-jm-t`-z- -fm-bn ]-cn- W-an- p p. X-an-gv F- \n-e-bnâ hym-i-c-w-kz-cq-]w i-cn pw D-d -Xv {In-kv-Xp-hÀ-jm-cw-`- n-\- Sp- m-sw- m-wv ]-Þn-Xm-`n-{]mbw. A-Xn-\v A-t\-Iw i-x-hà-j- Ä ap-¼v a-e-\m-«nâ a-\p-jyhm-k-ap- m-bn-cp- -Xn-\v G-sd sx-fn-hp v. A-Xn-\m a-e-\m-«p-hm-knbm-b {Zm-hnU-sâ ]qà-æ-{zmhn-u-`m-j-bm-wv a-e-bm-fw F- hy-h-lm-c-`m-j-bm-bn ]-cn-w-an- -sx- p K-Wn- p-i-bm-wv `m-jm-ka-kn-²m- - n-\p tbm-pn- -sx- v A-t±-lw hm-zn- p p. 2. eo-em-xn-e-iw:- a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bp-ss hy-àn-xz-s kv]ã-am- p- ]-e {]-kv-xm-h-\-ifpw eo-em- Xn-e-I- n-ep v. X-an-gva-Wn kw-kv-ir-x-]-hn-gw timà- n-tâ³ hr- am-\ sn- q-t  F- - Xn X-an-gv F- Xp-sIm- v ti-c-f-`m-j-sb-bm-wv kq-nn- n- p- Xv. Iq-SmsX ti-c-fo-b-sc-bpw {Zmhn-U-sc- p ]-d-bm-sa- p-åxp-sim- v A-h-cp-sS `m-j-bv- v {Zm-hn-U-]-Z- n-sâ A-]-{`w-iam-b X- an-gv F p t]-cv ]-d-bp p F- v k-aà- n- p-ibpw sn- p p. {]-kv-xp-x-k-µà-`- nâ ti-c-f-`mj-bpss hy-ànxzw Im-Wn- m³ eo-em-xn-e-i-im-c³ 14 D-Zm-l-c-W- Ä Nq- n- m-wn- p- p v. tic-f-]m-wn-\n 6 \-b- -fn-em-bn Nq- n- m-wn- an- hy-xym-k- -fpw 14þmw \q-äm- nâ -s eo-em-xn-e-i-im-c³ kq-nn- n- -Xn \n pw A- p a-e-bm-f- n-sâ hym-ic-ww A-{X-bv- v D-d-s - p a-\-ên-em- mw. X-angv F- {]-tbm-kw km-am-\y-hm-nn-bm-bn-«m-wv A-t±-lw {]-tbm-kn- p- Xv. eo-em-xn-e-i-im-e- n-\p hf-sc ap-¼px-s kw-kv-ir-x-t m-sv tn-c- tbmky-x e-`n- - - h- w ti-c-f`m-j h-fà- n-cp- p-sh pw C-Xn \n pw {K-ln- mw. 3. ti-c-f- n-se X-an-gÀ:þ ti-c-f- nâ \m-\m-`m-k- -fn-em-bn ho-«nâ X-angpw sh-fn-bnâ a-e-bmfhpw kw-km-cn- p- -h-cp- v. 8þmw i-x-i- n-\pw 10þmw i-x-i- n\pw CSbv v `«À k-aq-lw tic-f- nâ {]-th-in- n-cp- -Xm-bn Fw. {io-\nhmk B- - mà A-`n-{]m-b-s -Sp p. Iq-Sm-sX hn.\m-k-a- F-gp-Xn-b Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-IqÀ tì-äv am-\p-h-enâ A-hn-sS-bp-Å A-t\-Iw Pm-Xn-I-sf- pdn- v ]cm-aà-in- p-t¼mä, X-an-gv-\m-«n \n- p h- X-«m³, X ³, I-½mf³, I- m³, IÂ- - ³ F n-h-sc- p-dn- p ]-d-bp p. C-h-cp-sS-sbÃmw ]qà-æn-i- mà Ip-Sn-tb-dn- mà- Ime- v tic-f- nse `m-jbpw A-h-cp-sS `m-jbpw H- p-xs (X-angv) B-bn-cp-s - nâ, c- p X-c- n-ep-å NEO IAS , , Page 15

16 ]cn-wm-a- Ä kw-`-hn- p-hm³ \n-hr- n-bnã. A-Xn-\m 10 i-x-i- n-\p-ap-¼på tnm-f-`m-jbpw tic-f-`m-jbpw c- m-bn-cp- p F- \n-k-a-\- nâ \mw F- p p. 4. ]-g-s mãp-ifpw ssi-en-ifpw:þ a-e-bm-f- nepw X-an-gnepw D-Å G-Xm\pw ]-g-s mãpi-sf Xm-c-Xayw sn-bv-x-xnâ \n pw a-\-ên-em- p- h-kv-xp-x-iä C-hbm-Wv. H-tc B-i-bhpw H-tc Bhn-jv-Im-c-k-{¼-Zm-b-hp-ap-Å ]-g-s mãp-iä X-an-gnepw a-e-bm-f- nepw [m-cm-f-ap v. `m-j-bnâ am-{x-ta Ip-d- p-hy-xym-k-apåq. H-tc B-i-bhpw hn-`n- am-b B-hn-jv-Im-c-k-{¼-Zm-b-hp-ap-Å ]-gs mãp-ifpw D v. B-i-bhpw B-hn-jv-Im-c-k-{¼-Zm-bhpw hy-xy-kv-x-am-bn-«p-å hn-`m-k-hp-ap v. Cu h-ip- p-i-fn-seãmw [m-cm-f-am-bn ]-g-s mãp-iä D-Å-Xn-\m c- p `m-j-iä pw ]-g-b Imew-apX-te kz-x-{ -am-b h-fà- -bp- m-bn-cp- p-sh- v hy-à-am-ip p. hym-i-c-w-]-cam-b Im-cy- -fnâ a-e-bm-fw ]-g-s mãpiä, X-angn-t\m-Sv H-cp X-c- nepw Iq-Sp-X km-ao-]y-ap-å-h-bmbpw Im-Wp- nã. C -s hm-iy-ls-\-tbm-sv FÃm-hn-[- nepw s]m-cp- -ap-å H-cp co-xn ]-g-s mãp- I-fn Im-Wp- p-sh -Xv a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bp-ss {]m-no-\x-sb sx-fn-bn- p- {]-[m-\-s -«L-S-IamWv. 5. im-k-\- Ä:þ ]-Xn-aq- mw-ix-iw h-sc ti-c-f- nâ D- m-bn-«p-å im-k-\- -fnâ G-Xm\pw ae-bm-fw im-k-\- -fp v. Xn-cp-h-\- -]p-cw ayq-kn-bw t¹äv, a-e-bm-fw en-]n-bn-ep-å B-äqÀ imk\w, Nm- - qà imk-\w C-h D-Zm-l-c-W-amWv. X-an-gn-sâbpw kw-kv-ir-x- n-sâbpw kzm- [o-\i-àn A-ev-]-sam-s `m-j-bnâ Im-Wp- p- v. 6. kà-æ-\m-a-nn-ó- -fp-ss A-`mhw:- A-h³ h- m³, A-hÄ h- mä, \o- Ä h- oà F n s\ X-an-gn Hmtcm kà-æ-\m-a- n\pw tn-cp- Hmtcm {I-nbm-cq-]-ap v. a-e-bm-fw H-gn- på a-säãm {Zm-hn-U-`m-j-I-fn-sebpw Øn-Xn C-Xp-X-s -bmwv. a-e-bm-f- nâ {In-b G-I cq-]- am-bn \nev- p p. kà-æ-\mann-l-\- -fpss Cu A-`m-h-s -bm-wv ti-c-f-]m-wn-\n a-e-bm-f- nse ]pcp-j-t`-z-\n-cmkw F- p hy-h-l-cn- p- Xv. aq-e-ip-spw-_- nâ ]p-cp-j-{]-xy-b- Ä tnà- p- k-{¼-zm-bw km-am-\y-am-bn \n-c- p- -Xn-\p-ap¼v, a-e-bm-fw A-hn-sS \n pw ]n-cn-ªp. ]-Zy-km-ln-Xy- nâ A- n- m-bn-im-wp- {]-tbm-k- Ä X-an-gv km-ln-xy- nâ \n pw e-`n- H- cp Ir-{Xn-a-X-bmWv. A-Xn-\m ]p-cp-j-t`-z-\n-cm-k-sa- p ]-d-b-s -Sp- hy-i-c-w-hy-h-ø Hcp \ncm-k aã `mj-bp-ss {]m-no-\x-sb sx-fn-bn- p- Hcp A-`mhw am-{x-amwv. 7. `m-j-bn-se kw-kvir-x {]-`m-hw:þ {Zm-hn-U-`m-j-I-fn kw-kv-ir-x-{]-`m-hw G-ähpw Iq-Sp-X Im-Wp- `m-j-bm-wv a-e-bmfw. C-Xn-\p-Im-c-W- Ä ]-e-xmwv. H- v a-e-bm-f- n-sâ kzo-im-cy k ²-X. c- m-a-xm-bn a-äp -{Zm-hn-U-`mj-I-tfm-fw k-¼p-ã-aãm-xn-cp- A-h-Ø-bn kw-kv- IrXs kzmk-xw sn- m³ Iq-Sp-X XmÂ-]-cyw `m-j {]-ZÀ-in- n- n-cn- mw. F.Un. 5þmw i-x-i- n-\- p-d-am-wv {Zm-hn-U-`m-j-I-fn kw-kv-ir-x- n-sâ kzm-[o-\i-àn K-Wy-am-bn- m-wp- Xv. a- e-bmfw Cu Im-e-L-«- n-\p-ti-j-am-wv X-an-gn \n- v H-cp-]-im-J-bm-bn- n-cn-ª-sx- nâ X-an-gns\-t m-se a-e-bm-fhpw kw-kv-ir-s hà-ön- p-i-gn-bp-am-bn-cp- p. F- mâ H-cp km-ln-xy`m-j F \n-e-bnâ hen-b h-fà- -{]m-]n- p- -Xn-\p-ap-t¼ a-e-bm-fw kw-kv-ir-x-hp-am-bn k-t½-fn- psh- p hnnm-cn-t - n-bn-cn- p p. A-Xmb-Xv ]qà-æ-{zm-hn-u`m-j X-angv, I -Sw F- n -s\ cq- ]w-{]m-]n p hn-i-kn- -Xn-\p-ap-¼v a-e-bm-fw thà-]n-cn-ªp-sh- -Xn-\v kw-kv-ir-x-{]-`m-hhpw H-cp Nq- p-]-e-i-bmwv. 8. hà- -hn-j-b-iam-b ]-cnk-w\:þ a-e-bm-fhpw X-angpw X-½n hà- -hn-j-b-i-am-bn ]-e hyxym-k- -fp-ap v. an- hy-xym-k- -fnepw a-e-bm-f- n-sâ \n-e-bm-wv {]m-no-\-sa- p sx-fn-bn- m³ Ign-bpw. a-sse, Xsse F- p X-an-gn sf-im-cw tnà- p- n-s v, a-e-bm-fw a-e, X-e F- n -s\ A-Im-cm- -am-bn \nà- p p. ]qà-æ-cq-]w A-Im-c-sa- p sx-fn-bn- m³ I-gn-bpw. NEO IAS , , Page 16

17 hà- -am-\-im-e-nn-ów Ip-dn- p- D p ]-g-b X-an-gn-epw, A-ev-]w cq-]-t`-z-t m-sp-iqsn (D p) C- -s a-e-bm-f- nepw D v. D vp F- v ]-g-b I- -S- nepw D-Xvp F- p ]g-b sx-ep- nepw Im-Wp Xv Cu {]-Xy-bw X-s -bm-wv C pw ]qà-æ-cq-]w kw-c- n- p-hcp Xv a-e-bm-fw am-{x-amwv. sxmâ- m- n-b- n-se Nn-e hym-i-c-w-hy-h-ø-x-iä a-e-bm-f- nâ Im-Wm³ I-gn-bpw. A v F- C-S-\n-e-tNÀ p-sim v sh-bn-e v a-g-b v F- n- -s\-bp-å {]-tbm- Kw a-e-bm-f- nâ kà-æ-km-[m-c-w-amwv. C -s X-an-gn CÃ. ]qà-æ-cq-]- -fnâ ]- expw C pw a-e-bm-f-am-wv kw-c- n- p-h-cp- -Xv F- -Xn-\p a-säm-cp sx-fn-hm-bn C-Xn-s\ KWn mw. Ip-fn- m³, t]m-im³ F- n- -s\-bp-å {]-tbm-k- -fnse B³ {]-Xy-bw a-e-bm-f- nâ D-]-tbm-Kn- p-h-cp- p v. C-Xp X-an-gn hf-sc ZpÀÃ-`-am-bn km-ln-xy-`m-j-bnâ Im-Wp-sa- Ãm-sX kw-`m-j-w-`m-j-bnâ CÃ. X-an-gn \-in p-t]m-b Cu {]-Xy-bw a-e-bm-fw C pw ]p-eà- n-h-cp p. ä F- hà- - n-sâ ]-g-b D- mc-ww ip-²am-b \n-e-bnâ C pw \n-e-\nà n-t]m-cp -Xv a-e-bm-f-am-ip p. C-c-«n- p-t¼mä < Im-chpw d Im-chpw tnà- m-wv X-an-gn C- p-å {]-tbmkw. CXp-t]mse g Im-c \ Im-c- Ä pw ip-²-am-b D- m-c-w-hy-h-ø a-e-bm-f- nâ- -s -bm-wv Im-Wp- Xv. 9. Nn-e {]m-no-\-]-z- Ä:þ ti-c-f- nâ \n-txym-]-tbm-k- n-en-cn- p- -h-bpw, X-an-gÀ- p km-[mc-w-k-xn-bnâ a-\-ên-em-im- -h-bpw, F- mâ {]m-no-\-x-an-gv-km-ln-xy- nâ {]-tbm-kn- n-«p-å-hbpam-b Nn-e ]-Z- -fpap v. ImWw, ]o-sn-i, hnfn, ]p-gp-, H-cp-]mSv, t\-cnxp, ]\n, ]Ån, ]p-ecn, Nm-thdv, \o-«v F n-h D-Zm-l-cWw. 10. kz-x-{ -kw-kv-im-cw:þ A-t\-Iw \q-äm- p-iä kz-x-{ -am-bn I-gn-ªp-IqSn-b H-cp k-ap-zm-bamwv ti-c-fo-bà F- -Xn-\p [m-cm-fw sx-fn-hp-i-fp- v. a-e-bm-fn-bp-ss h-kv-{x-[m-c-whpw Zm-b-{Iahpw B-Nm-c- fpw I-em-{]-I-S-\- fpw ]-b-äp-ap-d-ifpw Nn-In-Õm-co-Xn-Ifpw a-äp ]-e Im-cy- fpw hy-àn-xzap-å H-cp kw-kv-im-c- n-sâ Nn-e {]-Xn-^-e-\- Ä am-{x-amwv. A -s\ kz-x-{ -ambn, h-fà- p-h- H-cp P-\-X-bv- v kz- am-b H-cp `m-j-bn-ãm-xn-cn- p-i-bnã. Cu P-\-X ap- txm A-Xne-[n-Itam i-x-hà-j- -fn-em-bn {Ita-W h-fà- n-s m- p-h- H-cp hy-h-lm-c-`m-j-bm-wv a-ebmfw. F-^v.U-»yp.FÃn-kv {Zm-hn-U-tKm-{X-]T-\- n\pw a-ebm-f ]T-\- n\pw \ÂIn-b kw-`m-h-\iä 1. G-Xm- v 23 simã-t m-fw C- ybn-ep- m-bn-cp- F-^v.U-»yp.FÃn-kv a-{zm-kv sk-âv tpmà-pv ti-mtf-pnâ {]n³-kn- -fm-bn-cn-s hn-tz-in-ifm-b kn-hnâ kà-æo-kv D-tZym- KØsc {]m-tzini `m-jbm-b X-an-gv im-kv-{xo-b-am-bn ]Tn- n p-i F- D- -c-hm-zn- -am- Wv D- m-bn-cp- Xv. hnzymà- n-i-sf im-kv-{xo-b-am-bn X-an-gv ]Tn- n- p- -Xn-\m-bn FÃm Z- n-tw- y³ `m-j-i-sfbpw FÃn-kv ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am n. H- w kw-kv-ir-xhpw A-t±-lw ]T-\-hn-t[b-am n. Z- n-tw- y³ `mj-i-tfm-ssm- w X-s kw-kv-ir-x-`m-j-bnepw Xn-I- ª ]mþnxyw FÃn-kn-\p- m-bn-cp p. 2. X-angv, sx-ep v, I- Sw, a-e-bm-fw F- o {]ap-j {Zmhn-U `m-j-i-sf-sbãmw B-g- nâ ]Tn `m-jm-im-kv-{x-hn-z-kv-[-\m-bn-cp- p {^m³-kn-kv ssh-äv FÃn-kv. \ho-\ `m-jm-im-kv-{xho- -W- nâ \n p-sim- v Z- n-tw- y³ `m-ji-sf B-Zy-am-bn ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am n-b ]-Þn-X-\mWv. NEO IAS , , Page 17

18 3. {Zm-hn-U-`m-jI-sf Ip-dn- v ]Tn- B-Zy-s Xm-c-X-aym-ß-I hymi-c-w ]-Þn-X-\m-Wv FÃnkv. C- m-c-w- mâ Xm-c-X-aym-ß-I {Zm-hn-U-`m-jm-im-kv-{X- n-sâ ]n-xm-hv F- -t±lw Adn-b-s -Sp p. 4. a-ebm-f `m-j kw-kv-ir- nâ \n pw D-Û-hn- p F- hn-izm-k-am-wv FÃn-kn-sâ ]T-\- Ä p ap-¼p-h-scbpw s]m-xp-sh D- m-bn-cp- Xv. F- mâ a-e-bm-f-s bpw kw-kv-ir-xs bpw B-g- nâ ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am n-b FÃn-kv a-e-bm-fw kw-kv-ir-x-p-\y-am-sw- ap³- [m-c-w Xn-cp n. 5. X-angv, sx-ep v, I- Sw, a-e-bm-fw F o `m-j-iä kw-kv-ir-x-`m-j-bnâ \n- v D-Û-hn- -Xsà pw F- m-â kw-kv-ir-x-`m-j-bp-am-bp-å Zr-V_-Ô- n-sâ ^-e-ambn Cu `m-j-i-fnâ Nne-Xn-\v ]nâ- m-e v Nn-e am-ä- Ä h- n-«p-s pw FÃn-kv I-s n. 6. temi- v a-säm-cp `m-j-tbmspw CÃm- B-ß_-Ôw a-e-bm-f- n-\v X-angn-t\m-Sv D-s - v FÃnkv I-s n. a-e-bm-f- n-sâ B-g-ap-Å th-cp-iä X-an-gn I-s - m-sa pw F- Ãnkv {]-Jym-]n p. C- -c- nâ a-e-bm-fhpw X-angpw X-½n Zr-Vam-b _-Ô-am-Wv D-ÅsX- v FÃnkv Dd- n- p ]-d-ªp. 7. {ZmhnU `m-ji-sf A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n-bp-å c- v {]-[m-\-s -«{]-_-Ô- -fm-wv FÃn-kn-sâ kw`m-h-\-bm-bn e-`n- n-«p-å-xv. 1815þ A-t±-lw sx-ep- p `mj-sb X-an-gvþI- -S `m-j-i-fpambn Xm-c-X-ay ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am- n F-gpXn-b {]-_-Ô-am-Wv H- m-a-t Xv. A Dissertation on the Malayalam Language F- {]-_-Ô-am-Wv A-t±-l- n-sâ c- ma-s kw-`mh-\. 8. Z- n-tw- y³ `m-j-iä H-cp {]-txyi tkm-{x- nâ-s]-«-h-bm-sw v B-Zy-am-bn I-s - nbxv FÃ-nkm-bn-cp p. Cu tkm-{x- n-\v {Zm-hn-U-tKm{Xw F v \m-a-ic-ww sn-bv-xxpw FÃn-kmWv. 9. A Dissertation on the Malayalam Language F- {K-Ù- nâ a-ebm-f `m-j X-an-gvP-\y-am- Wv At±-lw hm-zn- p p. a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bp-ss D-Ûh-s kw-_-ôn- v B-Zy-am-bn \-S n-b imkv-{xo-b ]T-\-am-Wv {]-kvxp-x {]-_Ôw. 10. i-cnbm-b X-angv, sim-sp- -angv, a-e-\m-«p-x-an-gv F- n -s\ X-an-gn-sâ aq- v D-]-`m-j-I-fn-se ]Z sf Xm-c-X-ay-hn-t[-b-am- p-i-bm-wv FÃn-kv sn-bv-xxv. C-{]-Im-cw Xm-cX-ay ]T-\- n- \v hnt[-b-am n-b FÃn-kv sim-sp- -an-gn-sâ ]-e cq-] L-S-I- -sfbpw a-e-\m-«p-x-an-gnâ I- s - p-ibpw sn-bvxp. ap³imehàj tnmzy Ä 1. aq-e-{zm-hn-u- nâ \n- v t\-cn-«p ]n-cn-ªp h- -Xm-Wv a-ebm-f `m-j F- v Nn-e ]-Þn-X- mà A-`n-{]m-b-s -«n-«p- v. A-h-cp-sS hm-z- -fp-ss kzo-imcy-x ]cn-tim-[n- pi. (2016-C) 2. ae-bm-f-`m-j-bpss DXv]- nsb Ipdn- på DÅq-cnsâ A`n-{]mbw F v? NÀ -sn pi. (2015-C) 3. `mtjm-xv] n NÀ -bnâ kwkvirxp\y-hm-z- mà D -bn- p {][m\ hmz-ap-j- Ä Fs Ãmw? (2015) 4. aqe-{zm-hn-u-`m-j-bpss kzx-{ -im-j-bmwv ae-bmfw F v hmzn- p ]Þn-X- mà Bscms? Ah-cpsS hmzw kw{k-ln- p-i. (2014) 5. `mtjm-û-hs Ipdn- på tkmz-hà½bpss A`n-{]mbw hne-bn-cp- p-i. (2013) 6. F^v.-U-»yp.FÃnkv {Zmhn-U-tKm-{X-]-T-\- n\pw ae-bmf ]T-\- n\pw \ÂInb kw`m-h\ hne-bn-cp- p-i. (2012-C) 7. ae-bm-f- n-t\msv HuXv]- n-i-ambn Xan-gn\v _Ôw I n- m-\n-sã pw AXv aqe-{zm-hn-u- nâ \n v t\cn«v ]ncnªv h -Xm-sW\ pw Nne ]Þn-X- mà hmzn- n-«p- v. Ah-cpsS hmz- -fpss kzoim-cyx ]cn-tim-[n- p-i. (2010) NEO IAS , , Page 18

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