sf.]n.kn ^m-an-en tim -{^ -kv a-s-ßn-h-c-hn-s -bpw ]p-xp- -Øn-s -bpw kw-k-aw ]n.-kn ^m-an-en tim -{^ kn-s

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1 20 hmeyw. \hw_ 24 e w. 22 MEMBER: NEWS PAPERS ASSOCIATION OF INDIA tim bw: am txmωm«olmbpss ss]xriw Dd- n- p-ibpw AtX-k-abw {_m W ss]-xr- Iw Dd- n- p-ibpw sntø- Xv k`-bpss ]pxp- -Øn\v AXy- m-t]- n-x-am-sw v Hm ØtUmIvkv skan-\mcn {]n kn- ^m. tum. H.-tXm-a-kv. am txm-am-«o-lm-bpss ss]- Xr-I-tØ- mƒ A[nIw XßfpsS ]q Δn-I {_m -W B- -sim- p- m- `c-w-l-s-\m, ÿm]-\-ßsf _n.-sp.-]n. ssi n-sn-bn-em- p- p F.-sI.-t{]-a-N-{μ. Fw.]n `c-w-sa- p- ]-d- m AXt? hne ` 4.00 sf.]n.kn ^m-an-en tim -{^ -kv a-s-ßn-h-c-hn-s -bpw ]p-xp- -Øn-s -bpw kw-k-aw \n-_p sh- -h- m-\w ao-un-b tim -Un-t\- H -em-t m: 2019 Pq-sse 25 ap- X 28 h-sc ^v-tem-dn-u-bn-se H -em-t m-bn \-S- p- ]- Xn-t\gm-a-Xv t\m -Øv A-ta-cn- sf.]n.kn Ip-Spw-_ kw- K-a-Øn-s c-pn-kv-t{s-j Int m-^v sf.]n.kn H -em-t m ssz-h-k-`-bn sh- v \-S- p. tem- I -ho-\ ]m-ã tpm -Pv txm-a-kv A- y- -X h-ln- p. tz-io-b `m-c-hm-ln-i-fm-b ]m-ã B -d-wn tdm- n (snb -am ), kn.fw. G-{_-lmw (sk-{i- -dn), tpm -k G- {_-lmw ({S-j-dm ), ^n -en h -Ko-kv (bq-øv tim -Un-t\- ), tem- te-uo-kv tim - Un-t\- kn-ã A- p txma-kv, {]-b tim -Un-t\- ]m- à am-xyq tpm-k-^v F- nh tim -{^ -kn-s C-Xph-sc-bp- {]-h -Ø-\ ]- -Xn- Iƒ hn-i-zn-i-cn- p. tim -{^- -kn-s sh-_v ssk- v D-Zv-Lm- S-\-hpw In-t m-^v c-pn-kv-t{sj-\pw H -em-t m sf.-]n.kn tim -{^ -kv k-πn-sa v sf.]n.kn thm-bn-kv do-pn-b {]-kn-u v d-h.tum.tpm-bn G-{_-lmw {]-Im-i-\w sn-øp- p k-`-bp-ss ko-\n-b ip-{iq-j-i ]m-ã tp- -_v am-xyp \n -Δln- p. "sf.]n.kn thm-bn-kv" F- t]-cn ]p-d-øn-d- n-b tim - {^ -kv k-πn-sa v do-pn-b {]- kn-u v d-h.tum.tpm-bn G-{_- lmw {]-Im-i-\w sn-bv-xp. "C-Xv a-s-ßn-h-c-hn-s -bpw ]p-xp- -Øns -bpw Im-ew "F- p- sf.- ]n.-kn ^m-an-en tim -{^ kn-s Nn- m-hn-j-bw A-Ussz-k-dn t_m -Uv Aw-Kw ]m- à tdm-bn hm-i-øm-\w k- tω-f-\-øn A-h-X-cn- n- p. tem- I -ho-\ sd-pn h -Ko-kv kzm-k-x-hpw tem- - sk-{i- -dn A-e-Iv-km- tpm -Pv \-μn-bpw ]-d- p. (ti-jw t]-pv 10) ka-im-eni ]{XnI txmam- o-lm-bpss ss]xriw Dd- n- p-ibpw {_m Wss]XrIw Dt]- n- p-ibpw thww tum.-h.-txm-akv bn- -cp p F sx mb Ncn{Xw Xncp-tØ- -Xp-X-s -bm-wv. H- m-axv {_m W ]mc-ºcyw sx-fn-bn- p- -Xn-\p bm-sxmcp Ncn-{X-sØ-fn-hp-I-fp-an-. c- m-axv thz-im-kv{x-]-c-ambn AØcw Hcp ]mc-º-cy-øn\v b- Ym Bflo-b-X-bn Hcp ÿm\-hp-an-. {InkvXp-hn b- lq-z\pw bh-\\pw F n-. ]cnto-z-\- m-c\pw A{K-N Ωn-bpsa- p-an-. kv{xobpw ]pcp-j-\psa- p-an-. {InkvXp-hn ]p-xnb krjvsn-bm-ip- -X-s{X-Im-cyw. ]mc-º-cy-øn Du w sim- p- -Xn Bflo-b-X-bn-. {InkvXp-hn ]pxp -s -Sp- -Xm- Wv {][m-\-am-bn- p- -Xv. aq maxv kpdn-bm\n {InkvXym-\n-IfpsS Al- -bpss ASn-ÿm\w `mc-x-ønse PmXn-hy-h-ÿ- Published from Thiruvalla on s]s -t m-kvx amdm\mym tkmkv] N v P\-d I h j Xncp-h-\- -]pcw: s]- s -t m-kv-x am-dm \m- Ym tkm-kv-] N - n-s (]n.-fw.-pn.-n - v) 14- m-a-xv P-\-d I -h -j Un-kw h-sc k-`-bpss sl-uv Izm -t -gv-kv _n -Un-ßn-se I - tω {]-b lm-fn \-S- pw \v ssh-in- v P-\- d {]-kn-u v ]m-ã si.-si.-tpm-k-^v D-Zv-Lm-S-\w snøpw. s]m-xp-tbm-k-ß-fn ]m- à -am-cm-b A-\o-jv G-e- m-d, A- Pn B -Wn dm- n, Pn.-sP.-A-e-Ivkm- (]n.-fw.-pn.-ti-c-f-tã- v {]-kn-u v), A-Pn sf-k-iv A- Sq F- n-h {]-kw-kn- pw. ]-I tbm-k-ß-fn ]m-ã - am-cm-b tpm-kv ^n-en- v (_-ldn ), jn-_p sf- v (Xn-cp-h-\- - ]p-cw), P-bnw-kv D-Ω (sn-t m- ), si.-ssh.-_m-_p (U -ln), tdm-bn D-Ω (B-e- p-g), tpm tpm -Pv (sh- n-bm ), s] -kn-kv tpm U -ln, Fw.-kv-I-dn-b (sh- -Wn), F- n-h-cpw, 28 sh- n-bm-gv-n k-am-]- \ tbm-k-øn ]n.-fw.- Pn.-kn.-tI-c-fm tã- v sk- {I- -dn ]m-ã B.-kn.- Ip- p-tam k- o -Ø- \ ip-{iq-j-bpw, ]n.-fw.- Pn.-kn.P-\-d sk-{i- -dn ]mã si.si ]m-ã tp- -_v t\-i-atpmk^v Wn k-am-]-\ k-tμ-iw \ -Ip-I-bpw sn-øpw. ]m- à si.-si.-tpm-k-^v Xn-cp-h- Øm-g ip-{iq-j \n -Δ-ln- pw \v k -tu-kv-iq-fn-s -bpw, hna -kv s^-tem-jn- n-s Iq- m-bva-bpw k-tlm-z-c- m-cp-ss tbm-khpw, 27- -\v ]n.-fw.-pn.-bq-øv-kns -bpw ao- nw-kp-iƒ \-S- pw Xo-b-Xn-I-fn Im-Øn-cp- v tbm-k-ß-fp- m-bn-cn- pw. ]n.-fw.- Pn.-kn.ayq-kn-Iv Sow Km-\-ip-{iq-j- v t\-xr-xzw \ -Ipw. ]m-ã si.-si.-tpm-k-^v P-\-d I ho-\-dm-bn 14 Aw-K F-Iv-kn-Iyq- ohv I-Ω- n-bp-ss Np-a-X-e-bn-em-bn-cn- pw I -h -j \-S- p- -Xv. Chm- -en- k` P\-d I sh j P\p-hcn 20 \v XpS w a msn: sk v txmakv Chm- -en- N v Hm^v C ym P\-d I sh j P\p-hcn hsc a msn k`m Bÿm- \Øp \S- pw. tpm kmap-h sp\n {InÃ-^, dh. tp _v txma-kv F n-hcpw k`-bnse _nj- p-amcpw {]kw-kn- pw. bn htc-wy-h -tømsv GIo- `-hn- m {ian- -Xn \n p- mb-xm-wv. Al- bpw {_m W Ipeo-\-Xbpw XΩn At`-Zy-_- -ap- v. k`-bnse F m `n - X-I-fp-sSbpw ]n n thz-imkv{x-]-chpw Ncn-{X-]-c-hp-amb Imc-W-߃ IqSmsX Al- sb alm-]m-]-øns ASn-thcp-I-fp- v. (ti-jw t]-pv 10) Bbncw `mj-i-fn hn n-^ns ss nƒ H emt m: ss nƒ ]cn-`mjm cwksø A m-cmjv{s {]- ÿm-\-amb hn n^v Atkm-k-ntb vkv Bbn-cm-aXv `mj-bn-ep- ss nƒ ]cn-`m-jbpw ]q - Øn-bm- n. timwtkm-bnepw sx- - kpum-\nepw {]Nm-c-Ønen-cn- p a[y kpum\n `mjb-mb "sientim'bnemwv k-ºq- Æ ss n-fns Bbn-cm-aXv X na ]q Øn-bm- n-b-xv. hn n^v Atkm-kn-tb vkv 2001 emwv Xß-fpsS 500 axv X na ]q Øo-I-cn- -Xv. BZysØ 500 `mj-i-fn ss_- _nƒ ]cn-`mj ]q Øo-I-cn- phm 50 h j-sa-sp-øn-cp- p. tijw hfsc thk-øn-em-bncp p ]cn-`mjm {]h Ø-\- ߃ GtIm-]n- -Xv. XpS v 17 h jw sim v ASpØ 500 X n-a-ifpw ]q Øn-bm- p-ibm-bn-cp- p. hfsc XymK-a-\p-`hn- mwv kpum-\nse sientim `mj-bn ]q Æ ss nƒ ]cn-`mj ]q Øo-I-cn- p-hm hn n^v Atkm-kn-tb vkv {]h Ø-I m-b-xv. B`y- c Ie-l-ßfpw Xo{h-hmZn B{Ia-W-ßfpw hwiob el-f-ifpw P\-Po-hnXw Xmdp-am-dm- n-bn-cn- p kpum-\nse ss nƒ ]cn-`mj X߃ snbvx-xn G hpw henb sh p-hnfn \nd- -Xmbncp p-sb v dq^vkv {In-kv-Xy _p- v sk-t -gv-kv A-tkm-kn-tb-j-s k-l-i-c-w-øn {In-kv-Xy ao-un-bm-bp-ss-bpw {In-kv-Xy F-Iv-kv-t]m kw-l-s-\-bp-ss-bpw B-`n-ap-Jy-Øn apw-ss_-bn \-S- thƒ-uv {In-kv- sl kvam ]d-bp- p. Xy F-Iv-kv-t]m sn-b -am tum. kn.-hn. h-s-h-\ D-Zv-Lm-S-\w sn-øp- p. (ti-jw t]-pv 10)

2 2 ka-im-eni ]{XnI snb am tpm h Kokv amt\-pnwkv FUn- ^n n cmpp lqã No^v FUn- A Ip v Ce- q Hmh kokv FUn- DΩ F_-t\-k Hmh kokv Ub-d-Œ tum. Fw.-F-kv.kmap-h dkn-u v FUn-t gvkv Ipcym-t mkv txm -Øn Pm kn F. h Kokv Atkm-kn-tb v FUn-t gvkv jn_p ap -wim- n h Kokv amxyp Nm eokv amxyp sdpn aqtesw amxyqkv ]n. tpm tpmkv sf -c- Sn sd n tp _v tpm Pv s_ n sim p-h-s-t k_v FUn-t gvkv sp n h Kokv spbv -txm-akv amen-bn s]m Ω kmw kvs]jy dnt m t gvkv osbkv I -amw-aq- n sdpn h Kokv shæn- pfw ^n n s_ -an h Kokv PÃkv N{μ-t_mkv kmw amxyp \yqtbm v bp.si. P\-d tim -Hm Un-t\- PnPn _tdmu bp.-f.-c. P\. tim -Hm Un-t\- tpm aømbn AXn-cp- tpm. tim -Hm Un-t\- spbnwkv taa\ tim -Hm Un-t\-t gvkv a p ]osn-tb- s_ n ]m - H etlma cmp G{_lmw tam kn hf- -h w Umf v tpmbn kmw tp _v Im\U hm jni hcn-kwjy C y-bn : 150 cq] bp.-f-kv.-f. & Im\U : $ 50 Cw v : 20 ]u v Kƒ^v cmpy-߃ : 2000 cq] hcn-kwjy Ab-bvt hnemkw acp- πmt m w timwπivkv Xncp-h- - 1, tic-f. t^m : FUn-t m-dn-b PmY \bn-t - Xv shfn- -Øn-te- mwv Zpcm-Nm-c-ß-fnepw ASn-a-Xz-Ønepw Ign P\-ßsf {]Imi-Øn-te pw kzmx-{ y-øn-te pw \bn \thm- m-\ -\m-b-i- m-cm-bn-cp p \ΩpsS amxr-im-]p-cp-j- m. Ah-cpsS [oc-amb t]mcm- -ß-fnepw Pohn-X-aq-ey-ß-fnepw Du w sim n-cp kmwkv m-cni tic-f-øn\v s]s v P\n-X-I-am w kw`-hn- -Xpt]mse txm p- p. Zpc-mNm-c-߃s -Xnsc ]S-s]m-cp-Xn-b-h s]s v kaqlw Xa-kvI-cn p If- p. {]Im-i-tKm-]p-c-ß-sft mse \ne-sim alm-flm- -sf- n Bcpw H pw ]d-bm CjvS-s -Sp- n-. s]s v kqcy Ccp-fp- -Xp-t]m-se. \thm- m-\ tic-f-ønemsi Ccp p ]c- p- p. c p aq p \q m- p-iƒ sim v D m- S\w snbvx Ccp- ns i n-iƒ Xncn p hcp- p. Zpcm-Nm-c-ßfpw A hnizm-k-ßfpw ax-øns `mk-am- p- p. Dt]- n p If ]expw amd-ø-wn v ax-øns h m- ƒ \røw Nhn- p- p. ChnsS axhpw cmjv{sobhpw Ccp-fns ad-hn H m- Wv; c. ax-\n-c-t] kaq-lsø krjvsn- m ap n \n h-cpss Xe-ap-dsb Bscm-s tbm ax-i- n-i-fpss h m- fm n am n-sb-sp-øp. ticf kaq-l-øns i n \thm- m\ aqey-ß-fm-wv. A n-]-co- -Isf AXn-Po-hn- mwv Cu apt w km[n-s -Sp-Ø-Xv. \h-ti-cfw IS-s - n-cn- p- Xv hnzym-`ymk ÿm]-\-ß-tfm-sm-wv. AXn-s\ mw Imc-W-am-bXv hmbn- m ]Tn- n anj-\-dn-am-cm-sw v Cu.-Fw.-F v km y-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p- v. tic-f-p-\-x-bpss kwkvimcw ax-hn-izm-k-ß-fp-ambn _ - s - -Xm-Wv. sslμh ap ow ss{ikvxh kwkvim-c-߃. _p ssp\-a-x-kw-kvim-c-߃. lnμp-a-x-kw-kvim-c-øn ebn- n- msx-bm-sb p ]d-bmw. PqX-kwkvImcw kpdn-bm\n {InkvXym- \n-i-fpss ax-po-hn-x-øn Aen p tn p. {InkvXym-\nXzw \q m- p- Iƒ ]n n- -t mƒ ChnsS shdpw ] n ax-ambn amdn. ss{ikvxh X\na GXm v \jvss - p. CX-c-aX kaq-l-ß-fnse an Zpcm-Nm-c-ßfpw ssien-ifpw ss{ikvxh kaq-l-øn-epw {]I-S-am-bn. kpdn-bm-\n-bnse Bcm-[\m-{Iaw am{xw D m-bncp- p. ]ptcm-ln-x- m v ss nƒ ]T-\-Øn\pw sszhimkv{x hn m-\-k-ºm-z-\- Øn\pw a p am -ß-fn- m-bn-cp- p. Ah-cpsS Bflob A]-Nb-߃ v Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc AXm-bn-cp p Imc-Ww. CXc kaq-l-ß- -fn \n pw henb hy-xym-kw C m-ø kaq-lambn ss{i-kv-x-h am-dn- -gn- n-cp- p. Xt±-in-b-cm-b \ho- I-cW I -Øm- ƒ hn-tz-i-an-j- W-dn-am- -s m- w \S-Ønb \ho-i-c-w-{i-a-ß-fmwv ss{ikvx-hsc hn-\m-[n-jvtn-xamb hnizm-k-ß-fn-te v as n sim p t]mb-xv. tbip-{in-kvxp-hn-ep hnizm-k-øn\v B[m-c-am-bXv sszh-h-n-\-am-wv. ss nƒ ]cn- `m-j-iƒ, kphn-tij {]kw-k߃, I sh j-\p-iƒ XpSßn-bh ss{ikvx-h-cpss hnizmksø IqSp-X Bflo-b-h -cn- p. {InkvXp-tI-{μo-Ir-X-amb PohnX ssien v Cu apt w klm-b-i-c-am-bn. Icn-kvam- niv {]ÿm-\hpw Hmim\m ss_- -_n-fpw ItØm-en m kaq-l-øn hcp-ønb am w hep-xm-wv. ss_-_nƒ hymjym\ IrXn-Iƒ F nkvtim- k`-i-fnse Aflm-b v IqSp-X Bflob shfn w \ In. ItØm-en m F n-kvt m- \ho-i-cw I-cn-kvam- niv k`m hn`m-k-ß-fn-se mw Xs sszh-h-n-\-tøm-sp kvt\lw {]I-S-am-Wv. k`-iƒ -Xo-X-ambn tbip-{in-kvxp-hn-ep Iq m-bva- Iƒ v C v {]m[m\yw Iev]n- p- -h-cmwv hnizm-k-k-aq-lw. ss n-fn-en mø BNm-c-ß-sfbpw ]Tn- n- -ep-i-sfbpw A\p-k-cn- m alm-`q-cn-]- hpw Xøm-dm-Ip- n-. BflobX ] n- p- n ]Tn- n- p- -sx mw hniz-kn- n-cp Imew Ign- p. hn m\ hnkvt^m-s-\-øns \ -Iƒ hnizm-k-k-aqlw {]tbm-p-\-s -Sp-Øp- p. kzx-{ -ambn Nn n- p-hm klm-b-ic-amb F{Xtbm {KŸ-߃. Zriy-am-[y-a-ß-fn-eq-sSbpw \h am[ya-ß-fn-eq-ssbpw e`n- p Bflob ktμ-i-߃ ]pxnb ss{ikvxh kwkvim-csø cq]-s -SpØp psh p ]d-bmw. ] n-bnepw ]ptcm-ln-x- m-cnepw HXp-ßp- -X {InkvXob-Xsb t_m y-øn-emwv hnizm-k-k-aq-lw. sx m-sn- pgn ImWn p t]sn- n- p Imew Ign- p. Ipgn- n-sm\pw hnhmlw \ho-i-cw ]mx-bn-te v t]mti- -Xn\p ]Icw Dt]- n Zpcm-Nm-c-ß-fn-te pw A -hn-izm-k- Øn-te pw Xncn p t]mim Nne kaq-l-߃ Bthiw ImWn- p- p. Dt]- n- -Xns\ Xncn- -Wn-bm\pw X n- -d- -Xns\ G p snm m\pw hy{k-x-im-wn- p-tºmƒ \jvs-s -Sp- Xv aqeyßfpw Bflob ssnx-\y-hp-am-wv. Zpcm-Nm-c߃s -Xnsc \ne-sim- p-hm D DØ-chm-ZnXzw ss{ikvx-h-k-aq-l-øn-\p- v. \h ticfw krjvsn- p-hm hne-sim-sp-ø-h-cmwv ss{ikvx-h. ax-øn-s bpw PmXn-bp-sSbpw Ipe-Øn-s -bp-sams t]cn ]e X n-em- nb tic-f-k-aq-l-øn\v ka-xz-øns kzxz-t_m[w simsp-ø-h-cmwv ss{ikvx-h. BsWt m s]sæt m hyxym-k-an- m-sx, sszhsø Bcm- [n- m B pw IS p hcm-sa ktμ-iamwv ss{ikvxh tzhm-e-b-߃ \ Ip- -Xv. Ign- m\pw ] n kwkv mcw Xs thw-sa v \n _ w C n. kz -Øn-s bpw ]mxm-f-øn-s bpw Xmt m ]ptcmln-x- m-cpss ] -en-s pw P\-߃ Xncn- -dn- p. Bcm-[-\m- {I-a-ß-fn am{xw HXp-ßp- Bflo-b-Xbv v ]pxpa \jvs-s - p. P\-߃ Bh-iy-s -Sp- Xv Pohs XpSn- p-i-fp Bcm-[\m ssien-bm-wv. AXn\v \ne-hn-ep coxn-iƒ t]mcm. P\-ß-fpsS simgn p t]m n F n-kvt m- k`-iƒ Bi- -s -Sp- p- v. ]t Be-Iƒ iq\y-am-ip Xns Imc-W-߃ IqSn Is tø- -Xnt? \ho-i-cw ]mx-bn-te v t]mti- -Xn\p ]Icw Dt]- n Zpcm-Nm-c-ß-fn-te pw A -hn-izm-k-øn-te pw Xncn p t]mim Nne kaq-l-߃ Bthiw ImWn- p- p. Dt]- n- - Xns\ Xncn- -Wn-bm\pw X n- -d- -Xns\ G p snm m\pw hy{k- X-Im-Wn- p-tºmƒ \jvs-s -Sp- Xv aqey-ßfpw Bflob ssnx- \y-hp-am-wv. Zpcm-Nm-c-߃s -Xnsc \ne-sim- p-hm D DØc-hm-ZnXzw ss{ikvx-h-k-aq-l-øn-\p- v. \h ticfw krjvsn- p-hm hne-sim-sp-ø-h-cmwv ss{ikvxh. ax-øn-s bpw PmXn-bp-sSbpw Ipe-Øn-s -bp-sams t]cn ]e X n-em- nb tic-f-k-aq-l-øn\v ka-xz-øns kzxz-t_m[w simsp-ø-h-cmwv ss{ikvx-h. BsWt m s]sæt m hyxymk-an- m-sx, sszhsø Bcm-[n- m B pw IS p hcm-sa ktμ-i-amwv ss{ikvxh tzhm-e-b-߃ \ Ip- -Xv. \oxn-am- m Bcp-an-. F m-hcpw ]m]n-i-fm-wv. Bcpw ]pwy- {]-h Øn-Iƒ sim v \oxo-i-cn- -s -Sp- n-. F{X ITn\ ]m]n- Iƒ pw D Ir]-bpsS c m-iq-sm-c-amwv {InkvXp k n-[nsb ktμ-i-amwv {InkvXym- \nxzw \ Ip- -Xv. tbip-{inkvxp-hn-ep hnizmkw \nkvxp-ey-am-wv. Ahn-Sp p c - I\pw I Øm-hp-am-Wv. Ahn- SpsØ c w am{x-amwv ]m]- im- n v \nzm-\w. CXv hnfw- _cw snøm \ntbm-kn- -s - -h-cmwv ss{ikvx-h. Cu ktμ-i-amwv {]N-cn-t - -Xv. Cu hnizmk Z i-\-øn\v `mc- X-Ønse CX-c-a-X-ß-fp-ambn kam-\-x-bn-. {InkvXo-b-Xbn {InkvXp-am-{X-amWv c p \nzm-\w. tbip-{inkvxp-hn-eqss shfn-s sszhkvt\l-amwv a\p-jys\ ]m]- Øn \n ho-s -Sp- p- -Xv. F m hgn-ifpw H m-sw v {InkvXym-\nXzw ]Tn- n- p- n-. B- pw GXp-a-X-Ønepw hniz-kn- mw. axsø X n- d-bmw. {Inkv-Xym- -\n-xz-øns BNm-c-ß-sf n kwhm-zn-t - Xv CX-c-a-X- m-c-. thsdmcp ax-øns BNm-c-ß-fn C-S- -s]-ts DØ-c-hm-ZnXzw ss{i-kv-x-h-cp-ts-xp-a-. F m ax-ß-fpw H m-sw- n ]ns Ip-cnipw {InkvXym-\n-Xzhpw C-hn-sS Bh-iy-an- t m. cmjv{sob ]m n-i-fpss {]Xyb-im-kv{X-߃ t]mepw hyxykvx-at? axm-nm-c-߃ ]uckzm-x-{ ysø l\n- p- pthm-sb- p t\mt - -Xp- v. a\p-jym-h-im-i-ß-fpss XpeyX {][m-\-am-wv. PmXn-bp-sStbm ax-øn-s tbm h W-Øns tbm t]cn hnth-n\w D m-im ]msn-. kh W-s\t m Ah W-s\t m th Xn-cn p ImW-cp- Xv. ax-ß-fpss Zpcm-Nm-c-߃ ]n Xp-W-t DØ-c-hm-ZnXzw ss{ikvx-h n-. `cw LS-\m-h-Im-i-߃ F m ax-k-aq-l߃ pw A l-x-s - -Xm-Wv. \thm- m-\-]m-x-bn C\nbpw _lp-zqcw \ap v k -cn- m-\p- v. thm p-e- y-am- p- -h `qcn- ] kaq-l-øns Zpcm-Nm-c-ßsf ]n Xp-W-s - n-cn- pw. ]t BZ im-[n-jvtnx cmjv{so-b-øn thm n-t\- mƒ hne-s - -XmWv \thm- m\ aqey-߃. Zpcm-Nm-c-ßsf Xncn p sim- p- -h-cp-hm e y-an-sp- -h D v. ax-hn-izm-k-øns `m-kambn Ahsb hymjym-\n- m Hcp kaq-lsø apgp-h el-cn- ]n-sn- n- mw. ]t AXp kaqlsø sims -Øn- p- Xv C- cp- n-em-wv. shfn w C m-sx-bmbm tic-f-øns `mhn A]-I- S-Øn-em-Ipw. AXn\p \Ωƒ Iq p \nev twm?

3 3 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn {InkvXym-\n-Xz-Øns BtLmjw ss{ikvxh djybv v d-jy-bp-ss A-Sn-ÿm-\w ss{i-kv-x-h hn-izm-k-am-sw- v ]-c-ky-am-bn G- p ]-d- p- {]- kn-u-\v-dv hv-fm-uo-an ]p-sn. d- jy {In-kv-Xo-b hn-izm-kw kzo- I-cn- -Xn-s a-xv hm -jn-imtlm-j N-S-ßn ]-s -Sp-Øv kw-km-cn- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p A-tZlw. {In-kv-Xo-b hn-izm-kw kzo- I-cn- -Xm-bn-cp- p d-jy-bp-ss cq- ]o-i-c-w-øn-s B-cw-`-_nμp.B-bn-cw h -j-߃- v ap-ºv {In-kv-Xo-b hn-izm-kw kzo-i-cn- H-cp `q-{]-tz-i-am-wv C- -sø d- jy-sb- pw cm-jv-{s-øn-s hy- n-xz-øn-s -bpw ]p-tcm-k-xn-bpts-bpw hn-i-kn- v sim- n-cn- p- kmw-kv-im-cn-i-hpw hn-zym-`ymkv-]-c-hp-am-b D- -Xn-bp-tS-bpw d- jy-bn-se ]q -Δn-I-cp-sS B-flob P-\-\-Øn-s -bpw B-[m-c-ine-bpw {]m-cw-`-_n-μp-hpw ss{i-kv- X-h hn-izm-k-am-bn-cp- p-sb- pw ]p-sn Iq- n-t -Øp. d-jy-bn-se hn-jym-x-am-b s{i-en sim- m-c-øn-\v ]p-d-øv hv-fm-un-an cm-pm-hn-s {]-Xn-abv- v ap- n h- m-bn-cp- p cm- Pyw {In-kv-Xo-b hn-izm-kw kzo- I-cn- -Xn-s Hm -Ω ]p-xp- n-b- Xv. ss{i-kv-x-h t\-xm- -fpw ]ptcm-ln-x-cpw hn-izm-kn-i-fp-ap-ƒs -ss B-bn-c- -W- n-\v B-fp- Iƒ N-S-ßn ]-s -Sp- m-s\- Øn-bn-cp- p. d-jy k-` ]-I-cp- B-flo-b A-\p-`-h-an- m-ø d- jy-sb- p-dn- v C- v Nn- n- m- \m-hn-s - pw kz-h - m-\p-cm-kn- Iƒ X-Ωn-ep- hn-hm-l _- w X-S-bp-I-sb- -Xv cm-jv-{s X-e-hs\- \n-e-bn X-s D-Ø-c-hm- Zn-Xz-am-sW- pw ]p-sn C-Xn-\v ap-ºpw ]-c-ky-am-bn {]-ÿm-hn- n- 100 hbkv cp- p. d-jy Hm -Ø-tUm-Iv-kv k-`mw-k-am-b {]-kn-u- v hv-fm-unan ]p-sn F- m {In-kv-Xo-b B- tlm-j ]-cn-]m-sn-i-fn-epw ]-s - Sp- p- p. d-jy Hm -Ø-tUm-Ivkv k-`m-hn-`m-k-߃- p C-hn-sS hy- -am-b kzm-[o-\w \n-e- \n - Øm-\m-Ip- p-sh- n-epw a- v k-`mhn-`m-k-ß-fp-ss Im-cyw A-ß-s\- b-. i-cn- pw {]-Xn-k- n-i-tfm- Sv ]-S s]m-cp-xn-bm-wv kp-hn-tij hn-ln-x k-`-iƒ cm-py-øv \n- jmpn am-dm-\mym e-sim- p- -Xv. I-ayq-Wn-k-Øns X-I - -tbm-ss C-X-c ss{ikv-x-h hn-`m-k-߃ cm-py-øv thcv ]-S -Øn-bn-cp- p. A-Xn {it -b-am-bn-cp- p s]- -t m-kv- Xp- C-X-c \-ho-i-c-w-k-`-iƒ. F- m C-h cm-py-øv h-f-cm Xp-S-ßn-b-t m-tg-bv- pw \n-b-aw aq-ew kp-hn-ti-jo-i-c-ww cm-py- Øv \n-b-{ n- p-i-bm-wp- m-b- Xv. C- v I-Sp-Ø \n-b-{ -W-ßfm-Wv C-Ø-cw k-`-iƒ cm-py-øv A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-t - n h-cp- -Xv. ]-c-ky-am-bn kp-hn-ti-j {]-tlmj-ww \-S-Øp- -Xn-t\m ]-c-kyam-bn {In-kv-Xo-b ]-cn-]m-sn-iƒ A-h-X-cn- n- p- -Xn-t\m A-\phm-Z-an-. hv-em-uo-an ]p-sn-s `- I-ayq-Wn-k-Øn-s X-I - -tbm-ss C-Xc ss{i-kv-x-h hn-`m-k-߃ cm-py-øv th-cv ]-S -Øn-bn-cp- p. A-Xn {i-t b-am-bn-cp- p s]- -t m-kv-xp- C-X-c \-ho-i-c-w-k-`-iƒ. F- m C-h cm-py- Øv h-f-cm Xp-S-ßn-b-t m-tg-bv- pw \n-b-aw aq-ew kp-hn-ti-jo-i-c-ww cm-py- Øv \n-b-{ n- p-i-bm-wp- m-b-xv. C- v I-Sp-Ø \n-b-{ -W-ß-fm-Wv C-Øcw k-`-iƒ cm-py-øv A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-t - n h-cp- -Xv. ]-c-ky-am-bn kp-hn-ti-j {]-tlm-j-ww \-S-Øp- -Xn-t\m ]-c-kyam-bn {In-kv-Xo-b ]-cn-]m-sn-iƒ A-h-Xcn- n- p- -Xn-t\m A-\p-hm-Z-an-. hv-em- Uo-an ]p-sn-s `-c-w-iq-sw A-Ø-cw Imcy-߃ hn-e- p-iƒ G -s -Sp-Øn-bncn- p-i-bm-wv. an-j-w-dn {]-h -Ø-\-߃ Xo-{h-hm-Z {]-h -Ø-\-߃- v Xp-ey-sa- \n-e-bn \-S-]-Sn-Iƒ ss{i-kv-x-h-sc e- yw h- v d-jy-bn sim- v h- ]pxn-b a-x-\n-b-aw {]m-h -Øn-I-am-bn Xp-S-ßn-b-tXm-sS s{]m- -à -cv ss{i-kv-x-h -s -Xn-sc hym-]-i-am-b A-d-Ãpw ]o-u- \-ß-fpw. \-S- p- -Xm-bn dn-t m - v. a-x-]-c-am-b {]-h -Ø-\- ߃- v I-Sp-Ø \n-_- -\-Iƒ G -s -Sp-Øn-s m- v ss{ikv-x-h-\m-b {]-kn-u- v ªm-Uo-a ]p-sn ap -I-sø-Sp-Øv cm- Py-Øv sim- v h- a-x-kzm-x-{ y \n-b-{ -W _n- n-se \nb-a {]-Im-cw s{]m- -à v ss{i-kv-x-h -s -Xn-sc hym-]-i-ambn ti-kp-iƒ c-pn-ã sn-ø-s -Sp-I-bm-Wv Pq-sse-bnem-Wv a-x-kzm-x-{ y-øn-\v I-Sp-Ø \n-b-{ -W-߃ G -s - Sp-Øn-s m- p- _n- v d-jy ]m -e-sa v ]m-km- n-b-xv. an-j-w-dn {]-h -Ø-\-ß-sf Xo-{h-hm-Z {]-h -Ø-\-ß-fmbn I-W- m- n F-Sp-Ø ti-kp-i-fn-se- mw Ip- - m s{]m- - à v k-aq-l-am-wv. 90 i-x-am-\-hpw ti-kp-iƒ an-j-w-dn-am - s -Xn-sc-bm-Wv. ]p-xn-b \n-b-a-{]-im-cw B-sc- n-epw ]-c-kyam-bn kp-hn-ti-j, {]-h -Ø-\-߃ \-S-Øn-bm dq-_nƒkv h-sc ]n-g-sbm-sp-t - p- in- -bm-wv _n- n D- -Xv. kp-hn-ti-j {]-tlm-j-w-ß-iv F- mw tim-ºu- p-iƒ- pw ]- n-iƒ- pw D- n am-{x-ta B-Im-hq F- m-wv ]p-xn-b \n-b-a-øn ]-d-bp- -Xv. I-gn- G-{]n-en H-cp ]m-ã-sd \m-sp I-S-Øn-bn-cp- p. C-Xp-h-tc-bpw F-Sp-Ø 205 ti-kp-ifn G-dn-b ]- pw an-j-w-dn {]-h -Ø-\w \-S-Øn-b-h- -s - Xn-sc-bm-Wv. s]m- -à v k-`-i-fpw kp-hn-ti-j hn-ln-x k-`- I-fpw an-j-w-dn kw-l-s-\-i-fpw h-en-b sh- p-hn-fn t\-cn-sp-ibm-wv d-jy-bn-en-t mƒ. c-w-iq-sw A-Ø-cw Im-cy-߃ hn-e- p-iƒ G -s -Sp-Øn-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. Im-e-L- -Øn-s C-S-th-f-Ifn C-cp- N-cn-{Xw F-gp-Xnt - m-\p-s - n-epw d-jy-bp-ss ss{i-kv-x-h N-cn-{Xw \o- ]mc-º-cy-øn-t -Xpw G-sd {]-txy- I-X-I-fp-tS-Xp-am-Wv. B-bn-cw h - j-tøn-e- p-dw d-jy-bv- v ss{ikv-x-h ]m-c-º-cyw A-h-Im-i-s - Sm-\p-s - -Xm-Wv B N-cn-{-{X- Øn-s G- -hpw h-en-b {]-txy- I-X. 988 a-lm-\m-b hv-fm-unan cm-pm-hm-wv {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ c- -I-\pw ssz-h-hp-am-bn Aw-Ko- I-cn- v sim- v s_-k-s anj-w-dn-am-cn \n- v {In-kv-Xp-a- Xw kzo-i-cn- p- -Xv. ]n- o-sv X -sc Ip-Spw-_-sØ A-Xn-\v t{]-cn- n- p-i-bpw hn-pm-xn-b-ambn-cp- In-hm dp-kv F- a- lm-\-k-c-sø {In-kv-Xo-b hn-izmk-hp-am-bn _- -s -Sp-Øp-I-bpw sn-bv-xp. "d-jy-bp-ss am-tam-zo-k' F- m-wv Cu kw-`-hw A-dn-bs -Sp- -Xv. In-hm dp-kn-se dqkv B-Wv d-jy-bm-bn ]-cn-w-an- -sx- pw N-cn-{X-ap- v. A-t±-l- Øn-\v ]n- m-se km N-{I-h - Øn-am- `-c-ww \-S-Øn A-h-cpw {In-kv-Xo-b ]m-c-º-cy-øn-s ]n -Xp-S - - m-cm-bn-cp- p. -H-Sphn 1917 \-hw-_-dn km \nt m-fm-kn-t\-bpw `m-cy-tb-bpw 5 Ip- n-i-tf-bpw hn-π-h {]-ÿm-\- m-cm-b t_mƒ-tj-hn- p-iƒ sh-sn-h- v sim-e-s -Sp-Øn-b tij-am-wv d-jy I-ayq-Wn-Ãv `-c-w- Øn-s Io-gn-em-Ip- -Xv. d-jy hn-π-h-øns _p- nti-{μ-hpw ss{i-kv-x-h hn-tcm-[nbp-am-b hv-em-un-an se-\n, km N-{I-h -Øn-am-cp-sS {]-Xn- \n-[n-i-fm-bm-wv ss{i-kv-x-h ]ptcm-ln-x-sc I- n-cp- -Xv. A-Xn- \m A-t\-I ss{i-kv-x-h C- m-e-b-f-hn c- -km- n-i-fmbn. D-]-hm-k-hpw {]m - -\-bpam-bn A-t\-Im-bn-c-ß-fm-Wv sxmgn-en-s-ß-fn-epw X-S-h-d-I-fn-epw I- (ti-jw t]-pv 10)

4 4 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn ae- -c-bpss \ho-i-cw hgn-iƒ kpdn-bm\n k`-bn sshzn-i p {_ -Ncyw \n - -am-bn-cp- p. CXv t]m pko-kp-im-cpss hc-hn\p tij-amsw p ]d-bp- p. AXp-sIm v ]e {]-bm-k-߃ D m-bn-cp- p. ]mc-º-cym-h-imiw A\p-k-cn pw amxm-]n-xm- - mcpss t{]c-w-sim pw _mey-{]m-b-øn -Xs siωm-i- m-cm-bn-øo-cp {]mb-am-ip-tºmƒ kv{xohn-j-b-øn XmXv]cyw ImWn- n-cp- p. hy`n-nmcw Hcp ]m]-am-sw v Adn-bm-am-bn-cp- n pw AXn howp-t]m-ip- Xv Hgn-hm- m Ign- ncp- n-. sshzn-i p hnhm-l-øn-\p hne v ]n h-en- p-i-bmwv AXn-\p ]cn-lm-c-am w F v a tdm sa{xmt m-eo-ømsb [cn- n- p. A m-cy-øn s]s -s mcp Xocp-am\w FSp- m sa{xm\p Ign- n-. C m-cysø n sa{xm-\p-ambn N snøp-hm tiw a tdm dh. txmakv t\m s\ Npa-X-e-s -Sp-Øn. Chn-sS C-ßs\-sbm-s -bm-bn-cp p tum. kmap-h s\ n-ap-iƒ kn.-fw.-f-kv.-an-j-s {]- h -Ø-\w Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-epw sim- n kw-ÿm-\-øpw kp-dn-bm- \n {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fp-sS B- ymfln-i Po-hn-X-Øn D-f-hm- n-b kzm-[o-\-sø- - n ]-cn-nn- n- p- -Xv h-f-sc D-Nn-X-am-Wv. kn.-fw.- F-kv. an-j-w-dn-am C-hn-sS h- - Xn-s {]-[m-\ D-t±-iyw A-Xm-bncp- -t m. ""kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn kp-hn-ti-jm-\p-kr-x-am-b H-cp \- ho-i-c-ww kw-`-hn- p- -Xn-\p km- n-i-fm-hp-i F- -Xm-bn-cp- p N - v an-j-w-dn skm-ssk- n-bp-ss-bpw an-j-w-dn-am-cp-ss-bpw B-{K-lw'' F- v d-h. U-ªyp.-Fkv.-l- pw k-ω-xn- p- p. kn.-fw.-f-kv.-an-j-w-dn-am a- p cm-py-ß-fn t]m-b-xv {In-kv- Xym-\n-Iƒ C- m-ø ÿ-e-ß-fnem-wv. ti-c-f-øn A-X- m-bncp- p ÿn-xn. d-h.-kn.-f.-\o-hns te-j-\-øn-eq-ss A-Xp Iq- Sp-X hy- -am- mw. ""Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn kn.-fw.- F-kv.-an-j H-cp {]-txy-i-x-bp- -Xm-bn-cp- p. H-cp {In-kv-Xym-\nt]m-epw C- m-ø H-cp ÿ-e-ø- an-j-w-dn-am sn- -Xv. A-Xni- -hpw A-Xn-ssZ -Ly-hp-am-b ]m-c-º-cyw D- m-bn-cp- H-cp ss{i-kv-x-h-k-` C-hn-sS D- mbn-cp- p. B k-` kz-bw \-ho-icn- -s -Sm t{]-c-w sn-ep-øp- I F- -Xm-bn-cp- p. kn.-fw.-fkv. an-j-s e- yw. tb-ip-{inkv-xp-hn-s A-s m-kv-x-e- mcn H-cmƒ, sk-bv v txm-a-kv C-hn-sS h- v kp-hn-ti-jw {]-kw- Kn- n- p-s - v ss{i-kv-x-h ]n- Xm- - m hy- -am-bn Nq- n- m-wn- p- p. sk-bv v txm-akn-\v C-hn-sS F-ß-s\ h-cm I-gn- p? C-hn-sS h- v P-\-ßfp-am-bn F-ß-s\ B-i-b-hn-\n-abw \-S-Øn? C-ß-s\ H-t -sd kwi-b-߃ ]-e-cpw tnm-zn- n- p- v. C-Xn-s D-Ø-cw N-cn-{X-Im-c- m ]-d- n- p- v.'' C -Uy-bp-sS ]- Sn- m-d Xo-c-hp-am-bn _n.kn 1000 ap-x Cu-Pn-]v- v, kn-dn-b Xp- S-ßn-b cm-py-߃- v hym-]m-c-_- w D- m-bn-cp- p. i-tem-tams X -io-iv I- -ep-iƒ ti-c-f- Øn h- -Xm-sW- p I-cp-Xp- p. b-lq-z- m-cp-ss h-en-b timf-\n-iƒ a-e-_m-dn-epw sim- n-bnepw a- p ]-e-bn-s-øpw D- m-bncp- p. {In-kv-Xp-h -jm-cw-`w ap- X A-e-Iv-km -{Un-b-bpw C - Uy-bpw X-Ωn hym-]m-c-_- w D- m-bn-cp- p apx kpdn-bm-\n-k` ]cn-jv -cn- -s -Sp- -Xn-s\- p-dn v sk v txm-a-kv C-hn-sS h- -t mƒ, a-e-_m `m-j \- mbn A-dn-bm-hp- [m-cm-fw b-lq- Z- m, I- -h-s- m D- m-bn-cp- p. A-h-cn-eq-sS B-i-b-hn-\n-abw \-S-Øn. ""a-e-_m-dn-se {In-kv- Xym-\n-Iƒ hn-iz-kn- p- N-cn- {Xw Iq-Sm-sX ]m- m-xy N-cn-{X- Im-c- m \ -Ip- sx-fn-hp-i-fpw- Iq-Sn tn -Øp hm-bn- p-tºmƒ sk v txm-a-kv B-Wv a-e-_m-dnse {In-kv-Xo-b k-`-bp-ss ÿm- ]-I F- v D-d- n mw.'' A-Xn-\p-ti-jw F-s - mw am- -ß-fm-Wv ti-c-f-øn-se k-`bv- p kw-`-hn- -sx- v Cu {K- Ÿ-Øn-s H- mw `m-kw B-ZysØ A- ym-b-ß-fn hy- -am- n-bn- p- v. kn.-fw.-f-kv an-j- W-dn-am h- -ti-jw sn-bv-x Imcy-ß-fpw Xp-S - p- A- ym-bß-fn hn-h-c-n- n- p- v ap- X kp-dn-bm-\n k-` ]-cn-jv- cn- -s -Sp- -Xn-s\ Ip-dn- m-wv C- hn-ss {]-Xn-]m-Zn- p- -Xv. i- -Øn-s\ {In-kv-Xym-\n- Iƒ ]q -Æ-am-bn A-h-K-Wn- n-cp- p. I- -h-s-øn-epw tpm-en-bnepw ]-e-cpw ap-gp-in-bn-cp- p. a-zy- ]m-\w ]p-tcm-ln-x- m-cn -t]mepw D- m-bn-cp- p. ]ptcm-ln-x- m-cpss \n - nx {_ -Ncyw Ah-km-\n- n- p- p kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn ssh-zn- I - p {_- -N-cyw \n - - -ambn-cp- p. C-Xv t]m - p-ko-kp-imcp-ss h-c-hn-\p ti-j-am-sw- p ]-d-bp- p. A-Xp-sIm- v ]-e {]- bm-k-߃ D- m-bn-cp- p. ]m-c- º-cym-h-Im-iw A-\p-k-cn- pw am- Xm-]n-Xm- - m-cp-ss t{]-c-w-sim- pw _m-ey-{]m-b-øn -X-s si-ωm-i- m-cm-bn-øo-cp- {]m-bam-ip-tºmƒ kv-{xo-hn-j-b-øn Xm-Xv-]-cyw Im-Wn- n-cp- p. hy-`n- Nm-cw H-cp ]m-]-am-sw- v A-dnbm-am-bn-cp- n- pw A-Xn ho-wpt]m-ip- -Xv H-gn-hm- m I-gn- n-cp- n-. ssh-zn-i - p hnhm-l-øn-\p- hn-e- v ]n -hen- p-i-bm-wv A-Xn-\p- ]-cnlm-c-am - w F- v a -tdm sa- {Xm-t m-eo-øm-sb [-cn- n- p. A- m-cy-øn s]-s -s m-cp Xo-cpam-\w F-Sp- m sa-{xm-\p I-gn- n-. C- m-cy-sø- - n sa-{xm- \p-am-bn N - sn-øp-hm ti- W a -tdm d-h. txm-a-kv t\m - -s\ Np-a-X-e-s -Sp-Øn. A- t±-lw F-gp-Xn-bn-cn- p- p: ""]p-en-t m- n Zo-h- mtkym-kv c- m-a sa-{xm-t m-eo- Øm-bp-am-bp- kw-`m-j-w-ßfn {]-[m-\-s - H-cp hn-j-bw R-߃ N - sn-bv-x-xv ssh-zn- I-cp-sS {_- -N-cy-am-Wv. A-Xns Xn- -I-sf- p-dn- v A-dn-bm-hp- sa-{xm \n - - n-x {_- - N-cy-\n-b-aw \o- w sn-øm B- {K-ln- p. C-Xn-t\m-Sp tbm-pn- p- H-cp hn-_m-kw ssh-zn-i A- p kp-dn-bm-\n-k-`-bn D- m-bncp- p. hn-hm-l-øn-\p X-S- -ambn A-h D- -bn- G-I {]-iv- \w km-º-øn-i ]-cn-an-xn-bm-wv. `m-cy-sb-bpw Ip-Spw-_-sØ-bpw t]m- m-\p- km-º-øn-i I-gn-hv I-Ø-\m-c- m-cn A-[n-Iw t] - pw C- m-bn-cp- p. Cu {]-iv-\- Øn-\p ]-cn-lm-c-am-bn B-Zyw hnhm-ln-x-\m-ip- I-Ø-\m - v 400 cq-]-bpw ]n- o-sv hn-hm-lw I- gn- p- -h - v Ip-Spw-_w t]m- m I-gn-bp- hn-[-øn-ep- km-º-øn-i k-lm-b-hpw \ - Im-sa- v d-kn-u v hm-kv-zm-\w sn-bv-xp.'' Cu \n -t±-iw sa-{xm-t m-eo- Øm Aw-Ko-I-cn- p. \n - - n-x {_- -N-cy-\n-b-aw ]n -h-en- psim- v A-t±-lw F- m ]- n- Iƒ- pw H-cp C-S-b-te-J-\w A- b- p. ssh-zn-i - v hn-hm-lw hne- n-b-xv A-t ym-iy k-`-b-s - pw A-Xp tdm-am-k-`-bn \n- p I-S- p-iq-sn-b H-cp B-Nm-c-am-sW- pw C-S-b-te-J-\-Øn sa-{xmt m-eo-øm hy- -am- n-bn-cp- p. ssh-zn-i Cu Im-cyw ]-cn- K-Wn- -W-sa- pw hn-hm-l-øns A-Sn-b- n-c \n-b-a-im-k-\w A-\p-k-cn- -W-sa- pw sa-{xm I-ev-]n- p. B-Zyw c- p I-Ø-\m-c- m hn-hm-lw I-gn- p. Xp-S - v \m - -Xp t] hn-hm-lw I-gn- m X-øm-dm-sW- v A-dn-bn- p. A-h - s - mw d-kn-u v hm-kv-zm-\w sn-bv-x km-º-øn-i k-lm-bw \ -In. F- m a-s m-cp {]-iv- \w Zm-º-Xy-Po-hn-Xw B-{K-ln- I-Ø-\m-c- m-cn a-\x-t -i-ap- m- n. I-Ø-\m-c- m - v s] -a- -sf sim-sp- m ]-e am-xm-]n-xm- - m-cpw hn-k-ω-xn- p. A-h-cp-sS hn-k-ω-xw A-[n- Iw Im-ew Xp-S-cp-I-bn-s - v t\m - I-Ø-\m-c- m-sc A-dnbn- p. A-Xv A-ß-s\-X-s kw- `-hn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp B-K-Ãn t\m - F- gp-xn: ""C-t mƒ \m - -søm- p I-Ø-\m-c- m-cp-ss hn-hm-lw \n- -bn- p I-gn- n- p- v. A-hcn ]-Øp-t] - p kz- -am-bn h-kv-xp- ƒ D- -Xn-\m km-º- Øn-I k-lm-bw B-h-iy-an-. ap- -søm- p t] Ip-Spw-_w t]m- m km-º-øn-i-ti-jn C- m- Ø-h-cm-Wv. `m-hn-bn A-h-cp-sS k-lm-b-øn-\v F- p Xp-I th- n-h-cp-sa- v \n- -bn- m A- h-cp-ss Np- p-]m-sp-i-sf- p-dn- v A- t\z-jn- p- -Xn-\v d-kn-u v F- s Np-a-X-e-s -Sp-Øn.'' d-h. t\m - -s dn-t m - n-s A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn I-Ø-\m-c- mcp-ss km-º-øn-i \n-e A-\p-kcn- v, Hm-tcm I-Ø-\m - pw 150 cq-] ap-x 200 cq-] h-sc \ - Ip- -Xm-sW- v d-kn-u v hm-kv- Zm-\w sn-bv-xp. ]-Iz-a-Xn-bm-bn-cp- sa-{xm H-cp t`-z-k-xn \n - t±-iw t\m - ap-tj-\ d-kn- U n-s\ A-dn-bn- p. H-cp-an- v H-cp Xp-I sim-sp- Øm Nn-e _p- n-]q -Δw A- Xp {]-tbm-p-\-s -Sp-Øn-tb- pw. F- m a- p- -h A-Xp th-kw sn-e-h-gn- v Iq-Sp-X Zm-cn-{Zy-Ønte- p \o-ßpw. A-Xp-sIm- v h- en-b Xp-I H-cp-an- p sim-sp- msx H-cp sn-dn-b Xp-I am-kw-txmdpw A-e-h -km-bn \ -Ip- -Xmbn-cn- pw \- -Xv F- m-bn-cp- p sa-{xm-s A-`n-{]m-bw. A-{]-Imcw am-kw ]-Øp-cq-] ho-xw hnhm-ln-x-cm-b I-Ø-\m-c- m - p \ -Im Xo-cp-am-\n- p. H-cp Ip- Spw-_-Øn-s kw-c- -W-Øn-\v B Xp-I a-xn-bm-ip-am-bn-cp- p. d-h. t\m - -\pw sa-{xm-t meo-øm-bpw X-Ωn-ep- ku-lr- Zw Zr-V-am-bn ]-c-kv-]-c _-lpam-\-tøm-sp-iq-sn \o-ßp-tºm-gm- Wv A-{]-Xo- n-x-am-bn B h-enb \-jv-sw kw-`-hn- -Xv \- hw-_ 24 \v Zo-h- m-t\ym-kv c- m-a Im-ew sn-bv-xp. kp-dn-bm-\n- - n-i-fn I-Ø- \m-c- m {]-kw-kn- p-i, kp-dnbm-\n B-cm-[-\-bv- p-]-i-cw a-ebm-f-øn B-cm-[-\ \-S-Øp-I, ssz-h-h-n-\w ]- n-i-fn hm-bn- p-i Xp-S-ßn-b ]-cn-jv- m-c߃ \-S- m- p-hm an-j-w-dnam kp-dn-bm-\n-k-`-sb D-]-tZ-in- p. P-\-߃- v C-Xp kzo-im-cyam-bn-cp- p. F- m s]-s - v H- cp-am- w A-km- y-am-sw- v I- Ø-\m-c- m t\m - -s\ A-dn-bn- p. a-e-bm-f-øn {]-kw-kn- phm I-Ø-\m-c- m - v Iq-Sp-X k-a-bw B-h-iy-am-bn-cp- p. Nne - p kz- -am-bn ss_-_nƒ X- s C- m-bn-cp- p. ""kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bp-ss C-t m-g-sø A-h-ÿ h-f-sc Xm-W-\n-e-bn-em-Wv. {Inkv-Xo-b-Xzw txm- p-sa- n-epw A- Xn-\p i- n-bn- '' F- p t\m - F-gp-Xn. 55 kp-dn-bm-\n ]- n-i-fp- v. ]- n- p- n _-t m C-cn- n- S-ß-tfm C-. In-g- v Aƒ-Ømc D-b - ÿ-e-øv. A-h-cp-sS B-cm-[-\-bv- v B -ao-\n-b ]- n-i-fn-se B-cm-[-\-tbm-Sv h-fsc km-ay-ap- v. B-cm-[-\ kp-dnbm-\n-bn-em-wv. P-\-߃- v bmsxm- pw a-\- n-em-hp-i-bn-. ]ptcm-ln-x- m-sc I-Ø-\m-c- m F- p ]-d-bp- p. ]- n-bn {]- kw-kn- p-i-bn-. P-\-ß-fp-sS B- flo-b t]m-j-w-øn-\v B-cm-[- \-bn D-S-\o-fw H- pw e-`n- p- n-. A-Sp-Ø-Im-e-Øm-bn kphn-ti-j-ß-fn \n- v G-sX- nepw H-cp sn-dn-b `m-kw a-e-bm-f- Øn hm-bn- p- p- v. P-\-߃ ]-cn-xm-]-i-c-am-bn A- -X-bnem-Wv. A- -X-bn-em- kp-dnbm-\n {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-sf ip- -kphn-ti-j-øn-s sh-fn- -Øn-te- p \-bn- p-i-bm-wv an-j-w-dnam-cp-ss e- yw. H-cp I-Ø-\m-cp-am-bn Rm kw-km-cn- -t mƒ kp-hn-ti-j- Øn-s kz-`m-h-sø- - n-bpw i- n-sb- - n-bpw A-t±-lw A- -\m-sw- v F-\n- p a-\- n- em-bn. ""a-s m-cp I-Ø-\m, A-t±-l- Øn-\p kz- -am-bn H-cp th-z-]pkv-x-iw C-s - p ]-d- p. kpdn-bm-\n-bn-ep- H-sc-Æw ]- nbn-se D-]-tbm-K-Øn-\p- -Xm-bncp- p. H-cp {]m - -\m ]p-kv-x- I-a- m-sx kz- w D-]-tbm-K-Øn- \v H-cp th-z-]p-kv-x-iw C-s - p ]-d-bp-tºmƒ kz-im-cy ssz-h-h- N-\-]-T-\w ]p-tcm-ln-x- m - pt]m-epw A-km- y-am-w-t m F- t m -Øp Rm Zpx-Jn- p. C-Xv ss_-_n-fn-s H-cp \m-sm-bn Xoc-s F- p Rm {]m - n- p.''

5 5 ka-im-eni ]{XnI amcm-a kpdn-bm-\n-k` Bw n- k`-bn tncm Xocp-am-\n- p- p d-h. t\m - -s -bpw d-h. s_- bv-en-bp-ss-bpw kp-dn-bm-\n- - n- I-fn-se {]-kw-kw ss_-_nƒ Iq- Sp-X A-Sp-Ø-dn-bp-hm-\p- A- h-k-cw P-\-߃- p \ -In t\m - F-gp-Xp- p: ]-Xp-s -bm-sw- n-epw {I-aam-b ]p-tcm-k-xn k-`-bn Im-Wp- p- v. sa-{xm-t m-eo-øm-bpw anj-w-dn-am-cpw B-gv-N-bn c- p- X-h-W-Iq-Sn k-`-bp-ss ]p-tcm-k- Xn- p-th- n-bp- \n -t±-i-߃ N - sn-øp- p. {]-[m-\ a-ev- ]m tpm -Pn-s D- m-lw {]- iw-km -l-am-wv. A-t±-lw h-fsc hn-e-tb-dn-b hy- -nbm-wv. Cw- o-jv B-cm-[-\-bp-sS a-e-bmfw ]-cn-`m-j kp-dn-bm-\n- - n-ifn D-]-tbm-Kn- m Xp-S-ßn. kp-dn-bm-\n B-cm-[-\ X- p-ibpw Bw- n- B-cm-[-\ ÿm- ]n- p-i-bpw sn-øm-\- A-{]-Imcw sn-bv-x-xv. P-\-߃- v a-\- n-em-ip- a-e-bm-fw Bw- n- B-cm-[-\ B-flo-b ]p-tcm- K-Xn- p k-lm-bn- pw F- Nn- -sim- m-bn-cp- p A-ßs-\ sn-bv-x-xv. ""Cw- o-jv N - n-s B-cm-[- \-bpw Nn- -I-fpw kp-dn-bm-\n k- `-bn ÿm-]n- p- -Xn-s\- mƒ A-h-cp-sS ]p-cm-x-\-hpw bm-ymÿn-xn-i-hp-am-b B-cm-[-\-bpw Nn- -I-fpw ]p-\x-ÿm-]n- p-i-bm- Wp th- -Xv'' F- v d-kn-u v a -tdm an-j-w-dn-am-sc D-]-tZin p. kp-dn-bm-\n-k-`-bp-ss ]p-tcm- K-Xn-sb- - n d-h. s_-bv-en F-gp- Xp- p: ""1821 se dn-t m - n-\pti-jw sk-an-\m-cn-bn ]Tn- ]- Øp hn-zym - n-iƒ I-Ø-\m-c- m-cm-bn ÿm-\w G- p. F- m-hcpw hn-hm-ln-x-cp-am-wv.'' Cu bph-i-ø-\m-c- m kp-dn-bm-\n-k-`bp-ss B- ym-fln-i h-f - -bn k-lm-bn- p-sa- v s_-bv-en hniz-kn- p. dh. lyqhns kμ i\w 1820 Un-kw-_-dn d-h.lyq Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq an-j k-μ -in- -t mƒ d-h.-s_-bv-en, t_- F- n-h-tcm-ssm- w kp-dn-bm-\n- - n-iƒ k-μ -in- m t]m-bn. kp-dn-bm-\n-k-`-bp-ss \-ho-i-c-ww Xz-cn-X-s -Sp-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp- p d- h. lyq-hn-s k-μ -i-\-øn-s D-t±-iyw. A-t±-l-Øn-s bm-{xmhn-h-c-w-øn-s kw-{k-lw. ""B-Zyw R-߃ k-μ -in- - Xv \n-c-ww ]- n-bm-wv. A-hn-sS h- Nn-e I-Ø-\m-c- m-cp-am-bn kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bp-ss \-ho-i-c-wsø- - n R-߃ kw-km-cn- p. F- m Rm-b-dm-gv-N-bpw P-\-߃- p-th- n ssz-h-h-n-\w hm-bn- p-i-bpw hym-jym-\n- p-i-bpw tb-ip-{in-kv-xp-hn-s A-\p-{K-ln- -s - kp-hn-ti-jw {]-kw-kn- p-i-bpw sn-ø-ww F- p R- ߃ \n -t±-in- p. hn-izm-kw tigv-hn-bn-eq-ss-bm-wp h-cp- -Xv. tbip-hn-s\- - n {]-kw-kn- n-s - n I -Øm-hm-b tb-ip-{in-kv-xp ]m- ]n-i-fp-ss c- -I-\m-sW- v P-\w F-ß-s\ hn-iz-kn- pw?'' ]- n-bn h- p Ip - m-\ I- m a-xn-sb- P-\-ß-fp-sS hn-izm-kw A-h-cp-sS c- -bv- p a-xn-bm-ip- -X-. B-cm-[-\ P-\- ߃- p bm-sxm- pw a-\- n-em- Im-Ø kp-dn-bm-\n `m-j-bn-ep-am- Wv. A-Xn \n- v A-h - v F- s - n-epw B-flo-b-am-b \- e- `n- pw F- p {]-Xo- n- m I-gn-bp- -X-. Cu k-xy-߃ a- \- n-em- p-i-bpw `m-hn-bn I- ]n- o-sv ]p-ø -Im-hv, am-cm-a, tim-g-t -cn F- o kp-dn-bm-\n- - n-i-fpw R-߃ k-μ -in- p. am-cm-a ]- n-bn-se I-Ø- \m-c- m-cn H-cmƒ, G-{_-lmw, kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn-se {]-[m-\-s - a-ev-]m- m-cn H-cm-fm-Wv. a-x- ]-c-am-b hn-j-b-ß-sf- - n h-f-sc {]-tbm-p-\-i-c-am-b H-cp kw-`m-j- Ww R-߃ X-Ωn \-S-Øn. ""{In-kv-Xp-a-X k-tμ-i-ß-fp-ss {]- Nm-c-W-hpw ]u-tcm-ln-xy [ -Ωhpw'' C-Xm-bn-cp- p N - m-hn-jbw. h-en-b Xm-e- p-iƒ D- H- cp bp-hm-hm-wv A-t±-lw. kz-bw \- m-ip- -Xn B-Imw- -bp- B-fp-am-Wv. ssz-h-øn-s ]- cn-ip- m-flm-hn-s i- n A-t±l-Øn-s a-\- n {In-b sn-øphm k-lm-bn- -s. A-t±-lw h- am-xyq-kv am A-Ø-t\-jy-kv a-e-_m kpdn-bm-\n k-`-bp-ss sa-{xm-t m-eo-øm ÿm- \-Øn-\p-th- n {i-an- p-sim- n-cn- ptºmƒ G-{_-lmw a-ev-]m t\-xr-xzw h- ln- n-cp- am-cm-a k-` kn.-fw.-f-kv k-`bn tn-cm Xo-cp-am-\n- p. A-hn-Sp-sØ I-Ø-\m-cpw ssi- m-c- m-cpw ap- q-dp Ip- Spw-_-ß-fn -s - B-bn-c-tØm-fw t]-cpw H- n- A-t] sk-]v- w-_-dn kn.- Fw.-F-kv an-j-w-dn-am - p k-a - n- p. ]- n-bpw kz-øp- -fpw k-`mw-k-ß-fp-ss A- [o-\-øn-epw ]q -Æ \n-b-{ -W-Øn-epw B- I-bm A-Xpw B- n- k-`-bv- p \ - Im-sa- pw k-ω-xn- n-cp- p. H-cp an-j-w-dn A-hn-sS Xm-a-kn- -Ww F- \n-_- -\-am- {X-am-Wv A-h h- -Xv. Ø-\m-c- m ssz-h-h-n-\w hm-bn- p-i-bpw I-gn-h-\p-k-cn- v hym- Jym-\n- p-i-bpw sn-øp-sa- v D- d- p X- p. F- n-epw {]-kw-kn- m-\p- I-gn-hv C-t mƒ A-h - p- v F- -h I-cp-Xp- n. c- m-a-xv R-߃ k-μ -in- -Xv sn-ß- q kp-dn-bm-\n- - nbm-wv. A-hn-sS F- m I-Ø-\mc- m-cpw h-en-b H-cp Iq- w k-`m- P-\-ß-fpw h- n- p- m-bn-cp- p. f-sc {]-tbm-p-\-ap- H-cp hy- nbm-bn Xo-cpw F- p {]-Xo- n- phm F- m Im-c-W-hpw Im-Wp- p- v. an-j-w-dn-am-cp-ss \n -t±-i-ßsf- mw kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bp-ss B- ym-fln-i Kp-Wo-I-c-W-Øn-\p k-lm-bn- p-sa- v am Zo-h- mtkym-kv aq- m-a sa-{xm-t m-eo- Øm a-\- n-em- n. ""\- -b- msxm- pw sn-bv-xn-sm-tøm''cm-wv kpdn-bm\n {InkvXym-\n-Iƒ t {X-Øn d-h. tp- -_v Nm- n F-gp-Xn-b hn-h-c-ww: am-th-en- -c t - {X-Øn-se D- -h-øn-s A-h-km-\ Zn-h-kw. h-en-b P-\- q- w. {_m- -W, \m-b, kp-dn-bm-\n-iƒ, ap-l-ω-zo-b, tnm-k, ]-db, ]p-e-b, Ip-d-h F- o Pm-Xn- m A-h-c-h - p \n- -bn- A-I-e-Øn \n - p- p. Nn-e a-zy-øn-s e-l-cn-bn tim- am-fn-ø- -߃ Im- p- p. Ip-sd kp-dn-bm-\n-iƒ Zq-sc am-dn t -{X- Øn-te- p- h-gn-]m-sp-i-fp-am-bn \n-ev- p- p. H-cp a-wn-bpw Ipd- p N-{I-hp-am-Wv h-gn-]m-sv. t -{X-Øn {]-th-i-\w A-\p-h-Zn- m-ø-xp-sim- v G-sX- n-epw \m-b-cp-ss ssi-bn-em-wv A-Xv A - n- m sim-sp- p- Xv. C-h bm-ym-ÿn-xn-i kp-dn-bm-\n- I-fp-sS {]-Xn-\n-[n-I-fm-bn-cp p. Ih -tãm-dn ae- -c-bpss \ho-i-cw hgn-iƒ G{_lmw aev]m kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn-se \-ho- I-c-W hn-`m-k-øn-s X-e-h-\m-bncp- p am-cm-a kp-dn-bm-\n- - nbn-se hn-im-cn-bm-bn-cp- ]m-e- p- -Øv G-{_-lmw a-ev-]m C-t±-lw P-\n- p. tim- -bw tim-f-pn kp-dn-bm-\n e-iv-n-d B-bn-cp- -Xp-sIm- m-wv a-ev-]m F- p hn-fn- n-cp- -Xv. G-{_-lmw _m-ey-im-e-øp X- s am -tøm-ωm F- m-a-\n \n- pw si-ωm-i -]- w kzo-i-cn- p. 16 mw h-b- n I-Ø-\m-cm-bn ]- w e-`n- p. am-cm-a ]- n-bn-se ]p-tcm-ln-x-\pw tim- -bw timf-pn-se a-ev-]m-\p-am-bn tk-h-\w A-\p-jvTn- A-t±-lw an-j-wdn-am-cp-am-bp- A-Sp-Ø k-º - w-aq-ew kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn-ep- X-s F- m k-tlm-z-c- m-sc-bpw-imƒ h-f-sc A- p-dw ]-cn- m-\ Zo-]v-Xn B -Pn- p. C-t±-lw hn-hm-lw I-gn- v c- v B a- -fp-ss ]n-xm-hm-bn. a- -fm-b txm-a-kpw sss- -kpw ]n- o-sv am -txm-ωm k-`-bn-se sa-{xm- m-cm-bn am txm-a-kv A-Øt\-jy-kpw sss- -kv am txm-am-bpw. ]- m-f ta-p B-bn-cp- Un-Kv-_n a-iv-h -Øv Xn-cp-hn-Xmw- Iq k-μ -in- -t mƒ A-t\-Iw kp-dn-bm-\n- - n-iƒ t\-cn- p Im-Wm t]m-bn. am-cm-a ]- n k-μ -in- -t mƒ G-{_-lmw a-ev-]m-\p-am-bn kw-`m-j-ww \-S-Øn. a-ev-]m-s\- p-dn- v A-t±lw tc-j-s -Sp-Øn-bn-cn- p- p: am-cm-a ]- n-bn-se {]-[m-\ I-Ø-\m-cm-b G-{_-lmw kz-`m-hw-sim- pw s]-cp-am- w sim- pw h-f-sc _-lp-am-\y-\m-b H-cp hy- n-bm-wv. A-t±-l-Øns A-\- -c-h-\pw H-cp I-Ø-\m-cpw a-ev-]m-\p-am-wv. bp-hm-hmb A-t±-lw h-f-sc I-gn-hp-I-fp- hy- n-bpw \m- p-im-cp-ss C- S-bn B-Z-cn- -s -Sp- ]p-tcm-ln-x-\p-am-wv. am-ø (am-xyp) F- m-wv A-t±-l-Øn-s t]-cv. am-xyp a-{zm-kn-ep- kn.-fw.-f-kn-s kv-iq-fn ]T-\w ]q - Øn-bm- n Xn-cn- p h- p. A-t±-l-sØ sa-k-s m-t -an-b-bn A-b- v ]m-{xn-bm - o-kn \n- pw sa-{xm-\m-bn A-`n-tj-Iw sn-øn- p-hm B-{K-ln- p. am-xp-e-s \-ho-i-c-w {]-ÿm-\- tøm-sv ]q -Æ-am-bn tbm-pn- n-cp- am-xyp si-ωm-i A-t±-l- Øn-s Xm-Xv-]-cy-{]-Im-cw t]m-im Xo-cp-am-\n- p A- t±-lw sa-k-t m-t -an-bm-bn-te- p bm-{x B-cw-`n- p. \o- -bm- {X-bv- p-ti-jw e- y-ÿm-\-øv F-Øn. ]m-{xn-bm - o-kn-s B-ÿm-\-Øv A-t±-lw c- p h -jw Xm-a-kn- p. A-t±-l-sØ B-Zyw I-Ø-\m-cm-bpw ]n- o-sv a-e-_m kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bp-ss sa-{xm-t m-eo-øm B-bpw ]m-{xn-bm - o-kv A-`n-tj-Iw snbv-xp A-t±-lw am-xyq-kv am A-Ø-t\-jy-kv F- t]-cn Xn-cn- v ti-c-f-øn-se-øn. B k-a-bw G-{_-lmw a-ev- ]m o-wn-x-\m-bn. 47 h-b- m-bn-cp- p {]m-bw. kn.-fw.-f-kn-\v ]p-xn-b sa-{xm-\n h-en-b {]-Xo- D- mbn-cp- p. kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bp-ss \-ho-i-c-ww Iq-Sp-X hym-]-ihpw i- -hpw B-Ipw F- m-bn-cp- p A-h I-cp-Xn-b-Xv. am-xyq-kv am A-Ø-t\-jy-kv Xn-cn-s -Øn-b-t mƒ X-s am-xp-e-s D-]-tZ-i-{]-Im-cw \-ho-i-c-w {]-ÿm-\-sø i- ns -Sp-Øp- -Xn-\p ]-I-cw am Zo-h- m-tkym-kv \m-em-a-s\ ]pd-øm- m-\m-wv B-{K-ln- -Xv. C-Xv am-xp-e-\m-b G-{_-lmw a - m-\v h-f-sc th-z-\-bpw \n-cm-i-bpw D- m- n sk-]v- w- _ am-kw A-t±-lw Cu tem-iw hn- p-t]m-bn. an-j-w-dn-am-sc- v A-t±-l-Øn-\p t_m- y-am-bn. d-h. tpm-k-^v s^ F-gp-Xp- p: ""sa-{xm-t meo-øm h-f-sc B-Imw- -bn-em- Wv. X-s P-\-ß-fp-sS C-S-bn {]-txy-in- v I-Ø-\m-c- m - v i- cn-bm-b A-dn-hpw th-z-]p-kv-x-i kw-_- -am-b hn- m-\-hpw D- m-ip- -Xn A-t±-l-Øn-s k-t m-jw F-{X-am-{X-am-sW- v F-gp-Xp-hm km-[n- p-i-bn-.'' Im-ew ap-t m- p-t]m-bn. am Zo-h- m-tkym-kv aq- m-a Imew sn-bv-xp. Zo-h- m-tkym-kv \m-em-a sa-{xm-t m-eo-ø-bmbn. kp-dn-bm-\n {In-kv-Xym-\n-Ifn H-cp hn-`m-kw Iq-Sp-X D - ]-Xn-jv-Wp- -fm-bn. A-h-cp-sS C- S-bn D- m-b am-\-km- -cw Iq- Sp-X hym-]-i-am-bn Xp-S-ßn. C-Xn-\n-sS kp-dn-bm-\n {In-kv- Xym-\n-I-fp-sS C-S-bn A-km-[mc-W-am-b H-cp Pn- m-k B-thi-I-c-am-bn h - n- p h- p. {Inkv-Xo-b k-`-bn-epw {In-kv-Xo-b k-aq-l-øn-epw \n-e-hn-ep- sx- m-b hn-izm-k-ß-fpw B-Nm-c-ßfpw A-h Xn-cn- -dn- p Xp-S-ßn. tb-ip-{in-kv-xp-hn-s k-`-bn-se \n -Ω-e-am-b D-]-tZ-i-ß-fpw B- cm-[-\-bpw A-h-sc B-I -jn- p. Cu B-th-iw A-h-cn h - n- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv F- pw C-Xv B- flo-b-am-b H-cp D-W -Δv A-h-cpsS C-S-bn D-f-hm- pw F- pw an-j-w-dn-am a-\- n-em- n. ""C-t mƒ P-\-ß-fp-sS C-Sbn s]m-xp-sh H-cp D-W -Δv, H- cp N-e-\w {]-I-S-am-bn- p- v. th- Z-]p-kv-X-I `m-k-ß-fp-ss a-e-bmfw X - -a-bp-ss A- -Sn- {]- Xn-Iƒ- pw a- p ]p-kv-x-i-߃- pw B-h-iy- m-cp-ss F-Æw h- f-sc h - n- n-cn- p- p. Cu ]pkv-x-i-߃ A-h h-f-sc {i- tbm-sp-iq-sn hm-bn- p- p-s - v A-h-cp-am-bn kw-`m-j-ww \-S- Øp-tºmƒ a-\- n-em-ipw.'' kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn-se bm-ymÿn-xn-i ]- w an-j-w-dn-am-sc kw-i-bn- m Xp-S-ßn. A-Xn-\p {]-[m-\ Im-c-Ww tim- -b-sø Bw- n- B-cm-[-\-bn tncp- kp-dn-bm-\n {In-kv-Xym-\n-Ifp-sS F-Æw h - n- -Xm-Wv. b- Ym-ÿn-Xn-I ]- -Øn-s kw-ibw \o- p-hm kn.-fw.-f-kv. C- {]-Im-cw hy- -am- n: ""]p-cm-x-\-am-b kp-dn-bm-\n-k- `-sb a-dn- n-sp-i-bpw a-s m-sc-æw A-hn-sS ]-Wn-bp-I-bpw sn-øp-ib- N - v an-j-w-dn skm-ssk- n-bp-ss an-j-w-dn-am-cp-ss tpm-en. kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn-se Po -Æn- - Xpw No- -Xp-am-b `m-k-߃ am n ]p-xp- n- -Wn-bp-I F- - Xm-Wv A-h-cp-sS e- yw.'' ti-jw t]-pv 8

6 6 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn ae- -c-bpss \ho-i-cw hgn-iƒ I-fp-sS A-h-km-\- tøm-sp-iq-sn kp-dn-bm-\n k-`bn G-Xm-\pw Nn-e-cn B-cw- `n- b-ym - \-ho-i-c-ww \p-ti-jw Zn-i sx- n A-t\-Iw t]-sc sx- m-b h-gn-bn-te- p \- bn- p- -Xm-Wp Im-Wp- -Xv. b- Ym - \-ho-i-c-w-øn-s i-cnbm-b t]m- n-s\- p-dn- p am-{xw F-gp-Xp- p. ""Cu cm-py-sø ]pcm-x-\-am-b kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn ap h -j-ß-fn Xp-S - -bm-bn i- n {]m-]n- p-sim- n-cp- \- ho-i-c-w hn-`m-kw Iq-Sp-X i- -am-bn- p- v.'' se an-j-s A-h-tem-I- \-Øn C-ß-s\ F-gp-Xn-bn-cn- p- p. ""]p-cm-x-\-xz-ap- kp-dnbm-\n k-`-bn H-cp kp-hn-ti-jo- I-c-W {]-ÿm-\w D-b - p-h-cn- I-bpw i- n {]m-]n- p-i-bpw snbv-xn- p- v. ]-e ]p-tcm-ln-x- mcpw A- -hn-izm-k-߃ D-t]- n- p-i-bpw kp-hn-ti-j-øns Du - -kz-e-cm-b {]-tlm- I- m-cm-bn am-dp-i-bpw sn-bv-xn- p- v. F- m sim- n-bn-epw Ip- w-ip-f-øpw kp-dn-bm-\n k-aq-l- Øn C-{]-Im-c-ap- N-e-\-߃ D- m-bn- n-.'' kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn Xn-cp-hn- Xmw-Iq-dn D- m-b D-W -Δv sbsl-kv-t {]-h-n-\w 37 mw A- ym-b-øn F-gp-Xn-bn-cn- p- Z -i-\w-t]m-se-bm-wv. ""a-\p-jy- ]p-{xm, Cu A-ÿn-Iƒ Po-hn- ptam F- p tnm-zn- p. A-Xn- p Rm, b-tlm-h-bm-b I -Ømth, \o A-dn-bp- p F- p D-Øcw ]-d- p.'' D-W-ßn-b A-ÿn- Iƒ Iq-Sn-t - p Xz- pw R-c- ºpw amw-k-hpw h- p Po-h-\p- mb-xp-t]m-se G-sd \m-fm-bn B- e-ky-øn In-S- n-cp- kp-dnbm-\n-k-` D-W -s -gp-t - p. C- Xn-s\- - n d-h. sl n t_- {]-hm-n-i kz-c-øn C-{]-Im-cw hn-h-cn- n-cn- p- p. ""Cu cm-py-øv kp-dn-bm-\n k- `-bn k-po-h-am-bn {]-h -Øn- p sim- n-cn- p- \-ho-i-c-w {]- ÿm-\- m-cp-ss F-Æw A-Sp-Ø Im-e-Øv h - n- p h-cp- p. [mcm-fw ]p-tcm-ln-x- m-cpw A-flmb-cpw \-ho-i-c-ww B-{K-ln- p- p- v. \-ho-i-c-w hm-z- m-cpw kp-dn-bm-\n k-`m-t\-xr-xz-hpw C- t m-gpw X - -Øn-em-Wv.'' kp-dn-bm-\n-iƒ- p-th- n ]- g-b tim-f-pn-\p \ -In-b ]m-cntxm-jn-iw 1835 ap-x C- p-hsc d-kn-u n-s -{S-j-dn-bn kq- n- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. A-t ym- Iy k-`m-t\-xr-xz-hpw ti-c-f-ønse kp-dn-bm-\n k-`m-t\-xr-xz-hpw X-Ωn-ep- X - -am-wv {]-[m-\ Im-c-Ww. am A-Ø-t\-jy-kns\-bm-Wv kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bp-ss _n-j- m-bn k - m Aw-Ko-Icn- -sx- n-epw C-t m-gpw ap sa- {Xm-s A-[n-Im-cw Ip-d- n- n-. ]- n-iƒ H-cp sa-{xm-\n \n- p a-s m-cp sa-{xm-\n-te- p h- gp-xn-s m- n-cn- p- p. a-{zm-kv _n-j- n-s H-Sp-hn-esØ k-μ -i-\-øn c- p sa- {Xm- m-cpw A-t±-l-sØ k-μ -in- v, ]-gb tim-tf-pv Xp-d- m d- kn-u v \-S-]-Sn-sb-Sp- -Ww F- v A-t]- n- p. _n-j- v C- mcyw d-kn-u n-\v F-gp-Xn. _n-j- \ho-i-cww Zni-sX pw apºv v kp-dn-bm-\n ]- n-iƒ k-μ - in- -t mƒ F- m-h-cpw k- p-jv- Sn {]-I-Sn- n- p. _n-j- v sa-{xms\ k-μ -in- p. Iq-Sm-sX am A- Ø-t\-jy-kn-s\-bpw c- p k-{^- K- m-sc-bpw I- p. tim-f-pv Xp-d- p {]-h -Øn- p- -Xn-\pw k - m Aw-Ko-Icn- am A-Ø-t\-jy-kn-s\ A- h-cp-ss k-`-bp-ss X-e-h-\m-bn Aw-Ko-I-cn- p- -Xn-\pw 82 kp-dnbm-\n- - n-i-fp-ss {]-Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ H- n- H-cp sa-tωm-dm-fiw d-kn- U n-\p \ -In. Cu ]- n-i-fpss-bpw a- p ]- n-i-fp-ss-bpw hn- Im-cn-am-cpw ssi- m-c- m-cpw d-kn- U v _- m -Un-s\ F-s ho- n -h- p I- p. F-s I-W- p- {]-Im-cw 700 t] D- m-bn-cp- p. Nn-e 1000 F- p ]-d-bp- p. an. _- m -Uv, Zn-hm t]-jv- Im, sa-{xm- m F- n-h-cp-ss ap- ºn Hm-tcm {]-Xn-\n-[n-bpw kwkm-cn- p. a-{zm-kv K-h -sa v B-]-Ww {S-Ãn-am - p sim-sp- m I-ev-]n- p. h-f-sc \m-fm-bn \n -Po-hm-h-ÿ-bn In-S- p- tim-f-pn-s\ {]-h -Ø-\- -a-am- m ]-{ - v A-flm-b-cpw ssh-zn-i-cpw A-S-ßp- H-cp Iu -kn cq-]-h - -cn- p. k- `-bp-ss F- m Im-cy-ß-fpw \n-b- { n- m-\p- A-[n-Im-cw A-h - m-bn-cp- p. F- m si-ωm-i- mcpw tim-f-pn ]Tn- -Ww. {]mb-]q -Øn-bm-Im-Ø B - pw ssh-zn-i-]- w \ -I-cp-Xv. ssh-zn- I ]- n-i-fn a-e-bm-f-øn {]-kw-kn- -Ww. F- m ]- n-itfm-sv A-\p-_- n- pw kv-iqƒ {]- h -Øn- -Ww. sk-an-\m-cn (tim-f-pv) Xp-d- p {]-h -Øn- m \-S-]-Sn-Iƒ B- cw-`n- p. sk-an-\m-cn-bn ]Tn- p- Hm-tcm si-ωm-i-\pw am-kw 11 cq-] \ -I-Ww F- p Xo-cpam-\n- p. h-kv-{xw kz-bw hm-ß- Ww. kn.-fw.-f-kn-s G-sX- nepw ÿm-]-\-øn -\n- v H-cp a- am-xyq-kv am A-Ø-t\-jy-kn-s hn-tbm-kw 1877 Pq-sse am-kw am txm-ωm kp-dn-bm-\n-k-`-bp-ss sa-{xm am-xyq-kv am A-Øt\-jy-kv Im-ew sn-bv-xp. A- t±-l-øn-s A-\- -c-h am txm-a-kv A-Ø-t\-jy-kv Pqsse 25 -\v kn.-fw.-f-kv.-an-j- \v A-b- I-Øv. Im-ew sn-bv-x sa-{xm-s t]-cv am-xyp F- m-wv. A-t±lw tim- -bw ]-g-b kp-dn-bm- \n tim-f-pn-se hn-zym - n-bmbn-cp- p. A- v {]n -kn- -ens Np-a-X-e h-ln- n-cp- d-h. tpm-k-dv ]o- v 1837 si-ωmi- m-cm-b c- p-t]-sc G- -hpw \- hn-zym - n-i-fm-bn Xn-cs -Sp-Øv d-h.-sp.-t{k-bp-ss Io-gn D-]-cn-]-T-\w \-S-Øm a-{zm-kn-se kn.-fw.-f-kv Xntbm-f-Pn- tim-f-pn A-b- p. a-{zm-kn-se ]T-\-ti-jw am- Xyp a -Un-\n-te- p t]m-bn. A- hn-ss-h- v A-t±-l-sØ A- t ym-iy ]m-{xn-bm - o-kv sa- {Xm-\m-bn A-`n-tj-Iw sn-bv-xp. A-t±-lw Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn Xncn-s -Øn kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bp-ss sa-{xm-t m-eo-øm B-bn. F- m a-s m-cp hn-`m-k-øn-s {]- Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ ]m-{xn-bm - m-sb Im-Wp-I-bpw A-h-cp-sS t{]-c-wbm am A-Ø-t\-jy-kn-s \n-b-a-\w ]n -h-en- p-i-bpw snbv-xp. ]-I-cw am U-b-\o-jy-kns\ kp-dn-bm-\n-k-`-bp-ss sa-{xm- kp-dn-bm-\n-iƒ- p-th- n ]-g-b tim-f- Pn-\p \ -In-b ]m-cn-txm-jn-iw 1835 ap- X C- p-h-sc d-kn-u n-s -{S-j-dn-bn kq- n- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. A-t ym-iy k- `m-t\-xr-xz-hpw ti-c-f-øn-se kp-dn-bm- \n k-`m-t\-xr-xz-hpw X-Ωn-ep- X - am-wv {]-[m-\ Im-c-Ww. am A-Ø-t\- jy-kn-s\-bm-wv kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bp-ss _n-j- m-bn k - m Aw-Ko-I-cn- -sx- nepw C-t m-gpw ap sa-{xm-s A-[n-Imcw Ip-d- n- n-. ]- n-iƒ H-cp sa-{xm- \n \n- p a-s m-cp sa-{xm-\n-te- p h- gp-xn-s m- n-cn- p- p. e-bm-fw A- ym-]-i-s\ sk-an-\mcn-bn ]Tn- n- m-\m-bn \ -I- Ww F- p {S-Ãn-Iƒ A-t]- n- p. Iq-Sm-sX, tim- -b-øn-\p h- S- v kv-iq-fp-i-fn ]Tn- n- m \m-ev-]-xv A- ym-]-i-sc-iq-sn th- Ww. s{s-bn-\nw-kv e-`n- A- ym- ]-I-sc an-j-\n -\n- pw \ -I- Ww F- v A-h A-`y - n- p. sx- pw In-g- p-ap- kp-dn-bm- \n- - n-i-fn-se Ip- n-iƒ- v anj kv-iq-fp-i-fp-ss {]-tbm-p-\w 25 h -j-am-bn e-`n- p- p- v. ]p-tcm-ln-x- m-cpw A -am-b {]-Xn-\n-[n-I-fpw F-t m-sv G- - hpw Z-bm-]q -Δw s]-cp-am-dn. F- s ]n-xm-hv ]- n- q-s-ß-fp-ss \-S-Øn- n-\p-th- n sn-bv-x tkh-\-ß-sf A-h A-\p-kv-a-cn- p. kp-dn-bm-\n ]- n-i-fn {]- kw-kn- -W-sa- v sa-{xm F- t m-sv B-h-iy-s - p. A-Xn-\v F- m k-lm-b-hpw A-t±-lw hm-kv- Zm-\w sn-bv-xp. ss_-_nƒ skmssk- n-bp-ss D-Zm-c-am-b [-\-klm-b-øn-\v A-t±-lw \-μn ]-d- p. am A-Ø-t\-jy-kv hn-zym- `ym-kw sn-bv-x-xv a-{zm-kn d- h.-t{k-bp-ss in-jy-xz-øn-em-wv. am txm-a-kv k-{^-k a-{zm-knse {^o kv-iq-fn-se H-cp hn-zym - n-bm-bn-cp- p. kp-dn-bm-\n-k-` A-ß-s\ b-ym - -Øn D-Wcp-I-bm-Wv. kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-sb D- m-]-\w sn-øn- m d-h.- sl n t_- sn-bv-x tk-h- \w \n- m-c-a-. A-t±-lw \n-jv- ]- -\m-bn F- m Im-cy-߃- pw t\-xr-xzw h-ln- p \v A-Sp-Øp- m-b D-W - Δp-{]-ÿm-\w kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bnepw H-cp \-ho-i-c-w-øn-\p Im-c- W-am-bn. ""Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se ]pcm-x-\ kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn H- cp kp-hn-ti-j {]-Nm-c-W {]- ÿm-\w D-b - p-h-cn-i-bpw A- Sp-Ø k-a-b-øv A-Xp i- n B - n- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xn- p- v. ]p-tcm-ln-x- m-cn ]-e-cpw kphn-ti-j-øn-s B-flm - -Xbp- {]-kw-k-i-cm-wv. F- m Nn-e ÿ-e-ß-fn \-ho-i-c-w- Øn-s Im- p ho-in-bn- n-.'' ""D-W -Δp-{]-ÿm-\''Øn-s \- h-f-ß-sf- p-dn- m-w-t m C- hn-ss Nn- n- p Xp-S-ßn-b-Xv. an-j-w-dn-am-cp-ss hn-e-bn-cp-ø C-ß-s\-bm-bn-cp- p. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw- Iq-dn C-t mƒ D- m-bn- p- B-flo-b D-W -Δn-s ]p-xn-b ap- J-sØ- - n-bp- G-Xm-\pw hn-hc-w-߃: I-gn- 12 am-k-ßfm-bn kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn-se A- t\-iw t]-sc A-Xv B-I -jn- n- p- v. Cu {]-ÿm-\w aq-ew H-cp ÿn-c-am-b \-ho-i-c-ww D- m-ipsa- p {]-Xo- n- p- p. \-ho-i-c-w-{]-ÿm-\-øn-s B-th-iw {I-ta-W Ip-d-bp- ps - n-epw \- ^-e-hpw D- m- Ip- p- v. ssz-h-h-n-\-øn-s {]- Nm-c-W-Øn-ep- m-b h -h - -\- bm-wv A-Xn {]-[m-\w. tim- bw kn.-fw.-f-kv.-_p- p Un-t mbn \n- v ss_-_n-fpw ss_- _nƒ ]p-xn-b-\n-b-a-hpw h-en-btxm-xn hn- p-t]m-bn {]-Xn-Iƒ hn- p-sh- n 1874 A-Xv 3034 B-bn h - n- p. kp-dn-bm-\n {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fpsS C-S-bn {]-N-cn- n-cp- A- t\-iw A- -hn-izm-k-ß-fn ]- e-xpw D-t]- n- p. \-ho-i-c-w-tøm-sp hn-tbm-pn- p- kp-dn-bm-\n hn-`m-kw h-en-b A-f-hn-ep- Hm-tcm a-e-bm-fw ss_-_nƒ Xn-cp-hn-Xmw- Iq-dn-se F- m kp-dn-bm-\n ]- n- \m-bn Aw-Ko-I-cn- p. F- m am A-Ø-t\-jy-kv ]m-{xnbm - m-bp-ss I-ev-]-\ Aw-Ko- I-cn- n-. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq k - m A-t±-l-sØ kp-dn-bm-\n k-`bp-ss sa-{xm-\m-bn Aw-Ko-I-cn- n-cp- p... ]n- o-sv ]-e {]-iv-\- ß-fpw k-`-bn D- m-bn. am A-Ø-t\-jy-kv am-cm-a-æn A-t±-l-Øn-s h-k-xn-bn-em- Wv a-cn- -Xv. A-t±-lw \-ho-ic-w-øn-\p-th- n \n-e-sim- hy- n-bm-wv. kn.-fw.-f-kv anj-\p-am-bn G- -hpw \- kp-lr- Zv _- w A-t±-lw ]p-e -Ønbn-cp- p. A-t±-l-Øn-s ]- n-ifn {]-kw-kn- m-\pw ]Tn- n- m-\pw kn.-fw.-f-kv an-j-wdn-am-sc X-s k-`-bn-te- v A- t±-lw -Wn- p-am-bn-cp- p. A-Sn-a k-aq-l-øn \n- pw hy- n-i-sf {In-kv-Xo-b k-`-bnte- p kzo-i-cn- p- -Xn-s\- A- t±-lw F- pw t{]m- m-ln- n- n-cp- p. I - pw ss_-_nƒ skm-ssk- n ku-p-\y-am-bn \ -In. F- m ]-e ]- n-i-fn-epw A-Xv D-]-tbm-Kn- p- n- F- v ]n- o- Sp I-s -Øn. \-ho-i-c-w-sø F-Xn - p- ]- n-i-fm-bn-cp- p A-h. \-ho-i-c-w-sø F-Xn - p- hn-`m-kw ]-g-b bm-t m-_mb B-Nm-cm-\p-jvTm-\-߃ X- s Xp-S - p. ""\-ho-i-c-w-tøm- Sv F-Xn - p- hn-`m-kw ap-ºv F- -sø-bpw-t]m-se kp-hn-ti-j- Øn-s em-fn-xy-tøm-sv i-{xp-xma-t\m-`m-h-tøm-sp-iq-sn \n-co- - I-cm-bn \n - p- p.'' Cu hn-`m- K- m-cm-bn-cp- p F-Æ-Øn Iq- Sp-X. F- m C-h - v N - v Hm-^v Cw- - n-t\m-sv D- m-bn-cp- -Xn-s\- mƒ Iq-Sp-X i-{xp- X \-ho-i-c-w hn-`m-k-am-b kpdn-bm-\n am -txm-am k-`-tbm-smbn-cp- p. \-ho-i-c-w-tøm-sp hn-tbm-pn- p- hn-`m-k- m-cp-ss sa-{xm- m am Zo-h- m-tkym-kpw am {Ko-tKm-dn-tbm-kpw B-bn-cp- p. d- h. kv-]o- v-en _n-j- m-b-t mƒ C-h c- p-t]-cpw A-t±-l-sØ k-μ -in- p. ""_n-j- v kv-]o- v-en kp-dn-bm- \n sa-{xm- m-sc k-k-t m-jw kzo-i-cn- p. A-t±-lw A-h-cp-sS \- -bv- p-th- n A-h-cp-sS a-\- n-s\ kzm-[o-\n- m {i-an- p. ssz-h-h-n-\-øn-\p hn-cp- -am-b Nn-e ]-g-b B-Nm-c-߃ kp-dnbm-\n k-`-bn \n-e-\n -Øp- - Xm-Wv H-cp hn-`m-kw kp-dn-bm-\n- I-sf \-ho-i-c-w-øn-\p t{]-cn- n- -sx- v _n-j- v A-h-sc t_m- y-s -Sp-Øm {i-an- p. F- m am Zo-h- m-tkym-kv G- -hpw am-\y-x-tbm-sp-iq-sn A-sX- mw {i- n-s - n-epw _n-j- v ]- d- -Xv Aw-Ko-I-cn- m A-t±l-Øn-\p I-gn- n-. Iq-Sm-sX \-ho-i-c-w hn-`m-k- m-cp-ss sa- {Xm-\m-b txm-a-kv am A-Ø-t\- jy-kn-s\- - n C-ß-s\ ]-d- p: am A-Ø-t\-jy-kn-\v am- w h- c-ww F- v B-{K-l-ap-s - n A-t±-lw Cu tem-i-øn A- t\-iw k-`-i-fp- -Xn G-sX- nepw H- n -tn-c-ww. A-t±-lw kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-sb-bpw A-Xn-s B-Nm-c-ß-sf-bpw D-t]- n- - Ww. A-tX-k-a-bw kz-øp- -sf kw-_- n- p- hy-h-lm-c- Øn a- y-ÿw h-ln- m-sa- _n-j- n-s k- -\- n A-t±lw kw-xr-]v-xn {]-I-Sn- n- p-ibpw sn-bv-xp. am A-Ø-t\-jykn-\v C- m-cyw D-S-s\ F-gp-Xn A-dn-bn- m-sa- v _n-j- v D-d- p \ -In.'' _n-j- v kv-]o- v-en-bpam-bn \-S- Iq-Sn- m-gv-n am Zoh- m-tkym-kn-s -bpw am {KotKm-dn-tbm-kn-s -bpw a-\- n-s\ kzm-[o-\n- p. kp-dn-bm-\n k-`bn \-ho-i-c-ww B-h-iy-amsW- Nn- A-h - p- m-bn. ti-jw t]-pv 8

7 7 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Im-\-U: sf.]n.kn Im-\-U do-pnb {]-kn-u m-bn ]m-ã s]-\ntb sn-dn-bm-\pw, sk-{i- -dn-bmbn ]m-ã s_- n am-xyq-hpw Xnc-s -Sp- -s - p. sf-]n-kn P-\- d {]-kn-u v- ]m-ã tp- -_vtpm-wn-s -bpw, t\m-_nƒ tpm- Wn-s -bpw A-[y- -X-bn C-cp- ]-Øn-sbm- p Aw-K F-Iv-kn-Iyp- o-hv- Dƒ-s -Sp- sf.]n.kn do-pnb H-tŒm-_ 25-\p cq-]o-ir-x-ambn. ]m-ã s]-\n-tb sn-dn-bm ({]-kn-u v) ]m-ã kw h -Ko-kv (ssh-kv-{]-kn-u v-), ]m-ã s_- n am-xyq(sk-{i- -dn), ]m-ã F- _n si.s_ (tpm.sk-{i- -dn ), km-_p am-xyq ({S-j-d ). Im-\-Ubn-se C- ym s]-s -sim-kv-xp ssz-h-k-`m _- -Øn-ep- A- q-dn - -cw hn-izm-kn-i-fp-ss sf-iy Iq- m-bv-a-bm-wn-xv. {]-kn- U m-bn Xn-c-s -Sp- -s - ]m- à s]-\n-tb sn-dn-bm, sf.]n.kn ÿm-]-i t\-xm- sf.]n.kn Im\U dopnb `mc-hm-ln-iƒ Im-\-U: ssm-d-t m ti-c-f {In-kv- Xy A-kw-ªn hm -jn-i I h -j Un-kw-_ 7 ap-x 9 h-sc ssz-h-k-`m-lm-fn \-S- pw. F-gp-Øp-Im-c-\pw A-\p-{Klo-X B-flo-b {]-`m-j-i-\p-am-b kp-hn-ti-j-i km-pp am-xyp ap- Jy-{]-`m-j-I-\m-Ipw. Un-kw-_ F-d-Wm-Ip-fw I -sh -j \-hw-_ 29 ap-x Nm-t m si.txm-a-kv sim- n: Zn s]-s -t m-kv-xv anj F-d-Wm-Ip-fw sk hm - jn-i I -h -j-\pw ssz-ho-i tcm-k-im- n ip-{iq-j-bpw \-hw- _ 29 ap-x Un-kw-_ 2 h- sc F-c-a- q n.]n.fw I -h j {Ku- n \-S- pw. k-`-bpss 2019 se I -h -j-\p-i-fpss Xp-S- w Ip-dn- p- -Xpw ]p- Xn-b Km-\-߃ c-nn- v kn-un-iƒ ]p-d-øn-d- p- -Xpw Cu I sh -j-\n-eq-ss-bm-wv. Zn-h-k-hpw th-z-]t-\w, s]m-xp-tbm-kw, Im- Øn-cn- v tbm-kw, {]-txy-i {]m - Y-\, kw-ko-x-{ip-{iq-j, kp-hn-tij {]-kw-kw F- n-h-bpw i-\nbm-gv-n D- -b- v aq- n-\v bp-h-p- \-k-tω-f-\-hpw D- m-bn-cn- pw. k-`-bp-ss {]-[m-\ ip-{iq-j- I ssz-h-h-n-\w {]-kw-kn- pw. ]p-xn-b I -h -j Km-\-߃ an-j {]-h -Ø-I B-e-]n- pw. C- y-bp-ss hn-hn-[-bn-s-ßfn \n- pw hn-tz-i cm-py-ßfn \n- p-ap- ip-{iq-j-i-cpw fn H-cm-fm-b ]m-ã Sn Pn D-Ω- s a-i-\m-wv. \m - -Xp h -j-am-bn Im-\-Ubn ]m - p- C-t±-lw tsmtdm -tsm-bn-se sf.]n.kn slt{_m s]-s -sim-kv-x N - v A-tkm-kn-sb- v ]m-ãdm-wv. sshkv {]-kn-u v- ]m-ã kmw h -Kokv- F-Uv-a n-se ti-c-f s]-s sim-kv-x A- w-ªn k-`m ip- {iq-j-i-\m-wv. ]n.ssh.]n.f, k -tu kv-iqƒ k-po-h {]-h - Ø-I-\pw, Iw-]m-jv t^m G- jy U-b-d-Œ-dp-am-Wv. sk-{i- -dn-bmb ]m-ã s_- n am-xyq bp-ss\- sf.-]n.kn shãv _wkmƒ tã v ip{iq-ji ktω-f\w sim - -Ø: C- ym s]-s -t m-kv-xv ssz-h-k-` sh-kv- v _w- Kmƒ tã- n-s sx- ta-j-e-bn-se ip-{iq-j-i- m-cp-ss k- tω-f-\w \-hw.23 -\v sim - -Ø-bn \-S- pw. s_-lm-em-bnep- sf.-]n.-kn.-sim - -Ø N - v _n -Un-ßn cm-hn-se 10-4 h-sc-bm-wv k-tω-f-\w. tã- v {]-kn-u v ]m-ã ]n.-f.-ipcy ap-jy-{]-kw-k-i-\m-bn-cn- pw. tã- v sk-{i- -dn ]m-ã ^n- n ]m-d-bn A-[y- -X h-ln- pw. ]m-ã jn-pp am-xyp Nm-cpth-en-bp-sS t\-xr-xz-øn-ep- hn-hn-[ I-Ω- n-iƒ {I-ao-I-c-W߃- v t\-xr-xzw h-ln- p- p. _w-km-fn-s sx- ta-j-ebn-ep- sk ]m-ã -am-cpw, {]m-tz-in-i k-`m ip-{iq-j-i- mcpw Ip-Spw-_mw-K-ß-fpw Cu tbm-k-ß-fn kw-_- n- p-w. ti-c-f {In-kv-Xy A-kw-ªn hm -jn-i I -h -j 3 ap-x 6 h-sc ssh-in- v 8 ap-x h-sc th-z-]t-\ m-kp-ifpw B-flo-b B-cm-[-\-bpw D- mbn-cn- pw. ]m-ã sp-dn txm-akv, tsmw h -Ko-kv, tp- -_v G- {_-lmw, knw-k tpm -Pv Xp-Sßn-b-h I -h -j {I-ao-I-c- W-߃- v t\-xr-xzw \ -Ipw. s]-s -t m-k-xv an-j ]m-ã s]-\n-tb sn-dn-bm, ]m-ã kw h -Ko-kv, ]m-ã s_- n am-xyq, ]m-ã F-_n si.s_, km-_p am-xyq hn-izm-kn-i-fpw ]-s -Sp- p- I -h -j-\n Iq-Sp-X t]-sc Dƒ-s m- n- p-hm-\m-wv tn - Ø-e - A-cq \m-j-w sslth, F-c-a- q Pw-Mv-j-\p k-ao- ]w 3.5 G- hn-kv-xr-xn-bp- n.]n.fw I -h -j {Ku- n \-S-Øp- -Xv. k-am-]-\ Znh-k-am-b Rm-b-dm-gv-N cm-hn-se 9 \v F-d-Wm-Ip-fw sk k-`bp-ss Io-gn-ep- 28 {]m-tz-in-i k-`-i-fn-se ip-{iq-j-i-cpw hn-izmkn-i-fpw ]-s -Sp- p- kw-bp- B-cm-[-\-tbm-sS I -h j k-am-]n- pw. I -h -j-\v ap-t m-sn-bm-bn \-hw-_ 25 \v 3 \v F-c-a- q Pw-Mv-j-\n ]-c-ky tbm-k-hpw \q-dp-i-w- n-\v ip-{iq-j-i-cpw hnizm-kn-i-fpw ]-s -Sp- p- kphn-ti-j hn-fw-_-c dm-en-bpw \-S- pw. sk ]m-ã txm-a-kv ssh-zy, A-kn-à v sk ]m-ã si. k-æn F- n-h I -h -j-\v t\-xr-xzw \ Ipw. -Uv {In-kv-Xy s]-s -tim-kv- X s^-t m-jn- vv- ip-{iq-j-i-\m- Wv. ]-Xn-t\-gp h -j-am-bn Im-\-Ubn ]m - p- C-t±-lw Nn-e h - j-߃ sf-]n.kn ^m-an-en tim -^-d -kv \m-j-w sd-{]- sk-t - o-hv B-bn-cp- p. Hm sse ss_-_nƒ Ã-Un an-j- \n k-po-h-am-wv. `m-cy sp- n am- Xyq 2019 se sf ]n kn ^m-an-en tim -^-d -kv \m-j-w te- Uo-kv tim-hm-un-t\- -cm-wv. kv- Im -_-tdm F-_-t\-k ti-c-f s]-s -tim-kv-x N -Nv ]m-ã-dm- Wv-F-_n si.s_. sf ]n kn Xn-cp-h-\- -]p-cw t\m -Øv sk - dn-se hn-hn-[ D-Ø-c-hm-Zn-Ø-߃ \n -h-ln- n- p- ]m-ã F-_n sf ]n kn sh-ºm-bw sk kvt]m -k an-\n-ã-cm-wv. sf kn ]n F-^v Im-\-U ÿm-]-imw-k-hpam-wv. k-po-h k-`m {]-h -Ø-I- \m-b km-_p I -tω sf ]n kn sk-{i- -dn-bm-wv. \n-_p sh- -h- m-\w (]-ªn-kn- n I -ho-\ ) tpm - n-b: sf-]n-kn t\m - Øv A-ta-cn- ku-øv Cu-Ãv do-pn-b `m-c-hm-ln-i-sf Xn-cs -Sp-Øp. tpm - n-b sk v ssk-a -kv sf-e v ko ]mwkv dn-tkm - n \-S- Iu kn tbm-k-øn do-pn-b {]- kn-u v- ]m-ã am-xyp tpmk^v A- y- -X-h-ln- p. sk- {I- -dn ]m-ã hn.]n.tpm-kv {]- h -Ø-\ dn-t m - pw {S-j-dm k- Pn-tam am-xyp km-º-øn-i dnt m - pw A-h-X-cn- n- p. C-e- Hm-^o-k s\-_p Ão-^-s Np-a-X-e-bn \-S-Øs - do-pn-b `m-c-hm-ln-i-fp-ss Xn-c-s -Sp- n ]m-ã tum. tpm-bn G-{_-lmw ({]-kn-u -dv), ]m-ã t]m-ø Nm-t m (sshkv {]-kn-u v), ]m-ã _n-\p tpm (sk-{i- -dn), cm-p B- cy- - n (tpm. sk-{i- -dn), A- e-iv-km- tpm -Pv- ({S-j-dm ), cm-pp s]m-t m-en (P-\-d Iu -kn Aw-Kw) F- n-h-sc hm -ØIƒ d-h.tum. tpm-bn G-{_-lmw {]-kn-u v, d-h. _n-\p tpm sk-{i- -dn sf-]n-kn t\m -Øv A-ta-cn- ku-øv Cu-Ãv do-pn-b d-h.tum. tpm-bn G-{_-lmw, d-h. _n-\p tpm Xn-c-s -Sp-Øp. ip-{iq-j-i {]- Xn-\n-[n-I-fm-bn P-\-d Iu kn-en-te- v ]m-ã -am-cm-b tdmbn hm-i-øm-\w, A-\n-b -Ip- v h- w-ip-fw F- n-h-sc P- \-d Iu -kn-en-te- v t\m-ant\- v sn-øp-hm Xo-cp-am-\n- p {]-h -Ø-\ Im-e-bf-hn-te- v do-pn-b {]-h -Ø-\- ߃ hn-]p-eo-i-cn- p- -Xn-s `m- K-am-bn hn-hn-[ k-_v I-Ω- n `mc-hm-ln-i-sf Iu -kn tbm- K-Øn Xn-c-s -Sp-Øp. ^v-tfmdn-u, tpm - n-b, ss- -kn, ku- Øv I-tcm-fn-\, Xp-S-ßn-b kwÿm-\-ß-fn-ep- sf.]n.kn k- `-I-fpw ip-{iq-j-i- m-cp-am-wv do- Pn-b-\n-ep- -Xv.

8 8 ka-im-eni ]{XnI ]cn-jv -cn kpdn-bm\n Bcm-[-\-{Iaw th-z-]p-kv-x-i k-xy-߃ Iq- Sp-X t]-sc kzm-[o-\n- -Xn-s ^-e-am-bn kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn \-ho-i-c-w-]- -hpw (]p-tcm-k-a- \ hn-`m-kw) bm-ym-ÿn-xn-i ]- -hpw F- v c- p hn-`m-kw D- m-bn. ]p-tcm-k-a-\-hn-`m-kw k- `-bv- p- n \n- p-sim- v k-`sb \-ho-i-cn- m {i-an- p. B k-a-b-øv D- m-b Nn-e kp-{]-[m- \ kw-`-h-ß-sf- - n P-Uv-Pn ]n.- sn-dn-bm C-ß-s\ F-gp-Xp- p: 1836 P-\p-h-cn I-gn- v F- pam-kw B-b-t mƒ sk-]v- w-_- dn h-en-b H-cp hn-`m-kw kp-dnbm-\n {In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ H- n- H- cp sa-tωm-dm-fiw d-kn-u v ti- W t{^-k-dn-\p k-a - n- p. tn- m-sv am Zo-h- m-tkym-kv (Zoh- m-tkym-kv \m-em-a ) X-s sxm- -Sp-Ø ap -Km-an-I-fm-b ]pen-t m- n am Zo-h- m-tkymkv, ]p- -{X am Zo-hm- m-tkymkv, am ]o-e-iv-kn-t\m-kv F- nh-cp-ss \-b-ß-fn \n- v A-I v ]- n-i-fp-ss h-cp-am-\w Zp -hn-\ntbm-kw sn-øp-i-bpw ]-W-tØm- Sp- A-Xym -Øn \n-an-øw k- `-bn A-]-kz-cw C-f- n-hn- v `n- n- p- m- p-i-bpw an-j-w-dn-amcp-am-bp- _- -Øn ]n-f - p- m- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xn- p-s - v A-Xn F-gp-Xn-bn-cp- p. ssz-hh-n-\-øn-\pw k-`m-\n-b-a-øn-\pw F-Xn-cm-bn A-t±-lw kz-bw F- m Im-cy-ß-fpw \-S-Øp- p. [- \w Zp -hn-\n-tbm-kw sn-bv-x-xns A-\-h-[n Im-cy-ß-fp-sS hni-z-am-b I-W- pw sa-tωm-dm-fi- Øn Dƒ-s -Sp-Øn d-kn-u n- \p k-a - n- p. P-\-ß-sf Iq-Sm-sX am-cma, ]p-xp- - n, I- q- m-d, tim- -bw, tim-g-t -cn tx-h-e- -c Nm-Ø- q F- o kp-dn-bm-\n ]- n-i-fn-se I-Ø-\m-c- m-cpw satωm-dm-fi-øn H- p-h- n-cp- p. C-h-cn G- -hpw {]-ap-j-\mb hy- n am-cm-a G-{_-lmw a-ev-]m-\m-wv. (a- p I-Ø-\m-c- mcp-ss t]-cp-iƒ: ssi-x-bn Koh -Ko-kv I-Ø-\m (]p-xp- - n), A-S-ß- p-d-øp tpm-k-^v I-Ø-\m (I- q- m-d), F-cp-Øn- a -t m-kv I-Ø-\m (tim- -bw sn-dn-b- - n)... am Zo-h- m-tkym-kv \m-ema-s\ am- -W-sa- v A-h sa-tωmdm-fi-øn A-t]- n- p. txmgn-bq-cn-se sa-{xm am kn-dn-ens\ ]-I-cw sa-{xm-\m-bn Aw-Ko- I-cn- p-hm X-øm-dm-sW- pw A-h-cp-sS B-{K-lw hy- -am- n. sa-tωm-dm-fi-øn an-j-wdn-am-tcm-sm-wv Iq-Sp-X A-\p-`mhw {]-I-S-am- n-bn-cp- -Xv. Cu sa-tωm-dm-fi-øn-\v d- kn-u v \-S-]-Sn-Iƒ H- pw F- Sp- p- n- F- p I- -t mƒ Zoh- m-tkym-kv \m-em-a F- m kp-dn-bm-\n-]- n-iƒ- pw H-cp C- S-b-te-J-\w A-b- p. an-j-w-dnam-sc ta-en H-cp kp-dn-bm-\n ]- n-bn-epw {]-kw-kn- m A-\ph-Zn- -cp-sx- v 1837 B-Zy-am-bncp- p C-Xv. Cu sa-tωm-dm-fiw k-a - n- -h - pw A-h-cp-sS ]- - m - pw A-ev-]w \n-cm-i D- f-hm-bn. F- m sa-{xm-\p-am-bn A-h k-a-c-øn-\p X-øm-dm-bn-. kp-dn-bm-\n B-cm-[-\-{I-a-Øns ]-cn-jv- -cn- a-e-bm-fw ]- Xn- v sk-an-\m-cn Nm- -en D-]- tbm-kn- n-cp- p. Cu B-cm-[-\-{Iaw 1840 h-sc ]- -Øpw sim- m- pw D- kn.-fw.-f-kv. an-j-s Chn-sS C-ßs\-sbm-s -bm-bn-cp p k-`-i-fn D-]-tbm-Kn- n-cp- p. A-Xn-\p-ti-jw N - v Hm-^v Cw- - n-s B-cm-[-\-{I-aw D-]-tbm- Kn- p Xp-S-ßn. amcm-a kpdn-bm-\n-k` Bw n- k`-bn tncm Xocp-am-\n- p- p am-xyq-kv am A-Ø-t\-jykv a-e-_m kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bpss sa-{xm-t m-eo-øm ÿm-\- Øn-\p-th- n {i-an- p-sim- n-cn- p-tºmƒ G-{_-lmw a-ev-]m t\-xr-xzw h-ln- n-cp- am-cm-a k-` kn.-fw.-f-kv k-`-bn tncm Xo-cp-am-\n- p. A-hn-Sp-sØ I-Ø-\m-cpw ssi- m-c- m-cpw ap- q-dp Ip-Spw-_-ß-fn -s - B- bn-c-tøm-fw t]-cpw H- n- A-t] sk-]v- w-_-dn kn.-fw.- F-kv an-j-w-dn-am - p k-a - n- p. ]- n-bpw kz-øp- -fpw k- `mw-k-ß-fp-ss A-[o-\-Øn-epw ]q -Æ \n-b-{ -W-Øn-epw B-Ibm A-Xpw B- n- k-`-bv- p \ -Im-sa- pw k-ω-xn- n-cp- p. H-cp an-j-w-dn A-hn-sS Xma-kn- -Ww F- \n-_- -\-am- {X-am-Wv A-h h- -Xv. an-j-w-dn-am - p k-a - n- tc-j-bn C-ß-s\ F-gp-Xn-bn-cp- p: ""R-ß-fp-sS B-flo-b ]n-xmhv, hm- -ey-ap- ]p-tcm-ln-x, Zn-hw-K-X-\m-b _-lp-am-\-s - G- {_-lmw a-ev-]m-\v ssz-h-øns A-\p-{K-l-Øm-epw Cu cm-py- Øp-h- an-j-w-dn-am-cp-ss k-lmb-øm-epw R-ß-fp-sS k-`-bn H-cp \-ho-i-c-ww D-f-hm- p-hm I-gn- p. A-t±-l-Øn-s A- zm-\w, {]-kw-kw, ssz-hn-i-am-b Po-hn-Xw F- n-h-bm k-` Xp- S - p-t]m- A-_- -߃ Xn-cp- Øp- -Xn-epw X -ÿm-\-øv kphn-ti-j X-Øz-ß-fp-sS A-Snÿm-\-Øn {In-kv-Xo-b a-x- Øn-s \n -a-e-am-b {I-a-߃ ÿm-]n- p- -Xn-epw h-en-b H-cp ]-cn-[n-h-sc hn-p-bn- p. F- m A-t±-l-Øn-s th-e-bp-ss a- y- Øn A-t±-l-sØ R-ß-fn \n- p Xn-cn-sI F-Sp- p-hm ssz-h-øn-\v C-jv-Sw txm- n. A- t±-l-øn-s Xn-tcm-`m-h-Øn-\pti-jw R-ß-fp-sS k-` km-h-[m- \w A-[x-]-X-\-Øn-te- p \oßp-hm Xp-S-ßn. F- m C- Xv ap -Iq- n- I _-lp-am-\y-\mb a-ev-]m C-Xn-s\-Xn-sc Pm-{K- X-bp- -h B-bn-cn- m R- ߃- p ap- -dn-bn- p \ -In-bncp- p. C-t m-g-sø kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bp-ss A-h-ÿ-bn \n- v B-I-am-\-am-b H-cp \-ho-i-c-w- Øn-\v km- y-x-bn-s - v A-t±lw a-\- n-em- n-bn-cp- p. A-Xn- \m A-t±-l-Øn-s Im-e-tijw R-߃ N - v Hm-^v Cw- - n tn-cm A-t±-lw R-ßsf D-]-tZ-in- p. A-{]-Im-cw R- ߃ A-t±-l-Øn-s D-]-tZ-iw A-\p-k-cn- v \-Ωp-sS I -Øm-hmb tb-ip-{in-kv-xp-hn-s\ a-l-xzs -Sp-Øp-hm-\pw A-h-s cm-py- Øn-s si- p-]-wn-sb k-lm-bn- p-hm-\pw R-ß-fp-sS D-d- Xocp-am-\w tc-j-s -Sp-Øn.'' Cu A-t]- -bv- p s]-s - v H-cp Xo-cp-am-\w F-Sp- p-hm anj-w-dn-am - p I-gn- n-. Cu A-t]- -bp-ss A-\- -c ^-esø- - n d-h. tlm-iv-kv-h -Øv F-gp-Xn-b-Xv C-ß-s\-bm-Wv: ""Cu Hu-]-Nm-cn-I \n -t±-i-øn-s ^- ew F- m-ip-sa- v \-ap- v C- t mƒ ]-d-bm I-gn-bp-I-bn-. a- {Zm-kn-se _n-j- n-s -bpw C - Uy-bn-se sa-{xm-t m-eo-øm-bpss-bpw \n-b-{ -W-Øn {]-h - C-S-Zn-h-kw I-eym-Ww kp-dn-bm-\n {In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ Rm-b-dm-gv-N am-{x-ta hn-hmlw \-S-Øn-bn-cp- p- q. C- Xn-s\-Xn-sc an-j-w-dn-am h -j-ß-fm-bn A-h-sc D-]- tz-in- p-sim- n-cp- p. \-ho- I-c-W-Øn-s Cu- n- -am-b am-cm-a k-` C-S-Zn-h-kw hn-hm-lw \-S-Øn am-xr-i kr-jv-sn- p. ]n- o-sv \-ho-ic-w hn-`m-k-øn-ep- kp-dnbm-\n-iƒ C-Xv B-h -Øn- p Un-kw-_ 9 -\v d- h. D-Ω am-ω F-gp-Xp- p: ""C- v am-cm-a-æn-ep- H-cp kp-dn-bm-\n {In-kv-Xym- \-nbp-ss `-h-\-øn-te- v Rm t]m-bn. Rm-b-dm-gv-N A- m-ø Zn-h-kw ]- nbn -h- v I-eym-Ww \-S-Ønb-Xn-\v A-h-sc A-`n-\-μn- m-\m-wv Rm t]m-b-xv.'' Øn- p- an-j-w-dn-am kp-dn-bm- \n tdm-a -k-`-i-fn \n- v B- fp-i-sf kzo-i-cn- p-tºmƒ hn-izkv-x a-\x-km- n-{]-im-cw A- m- Ø-h-sc A-X-Xv k-`-i-fn -Øs Xp-S-cm A-\p-h-Zn- -bm-wp th- -sx- v B-bn-cp- p \n - t±iw.'' C-{]-Im-cw am-cm-a kp-dn-bm- \n k-`-bn-se Aw-K-ß-fp-sS A- t]- an-j-w-dn-am hn-th-i-]q - Δw \n-c-kn- p. A-h - v B-flob h - -\-hn-\p-th- n a- p k- lm-b-߃ an-j-w-dn-am sn-bv- Xp. an-j-w-dn {]-h -Ø-\w kp- Xm-cy-hpw kw-ip- -hpw B-bn-cp- p F- -Xn-\v H-cp D-Zm-l-c-Wam-Wv ta hn-h-cn- kw-`-hw. kpdn-bm-\n-i-fpss \ho-i-cw hn`mkw AYhm ae-_m-dnse am txmωm k` am-cm-a kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bv- v N - v Hm-^v Cw- - n-s `m- K-am-Im I-gn-bm-sX h- -Xv H- cp ]p-xn-b k-`-bp-ss cq-]-h - c-w-øn-\p Im-c-W-am-bn. G-{_- lmw a-ev-]m P-\-߃- p ]-I - p sim-sp-ø \-ho-i-c-w B-ib-߃ A-h kw-c- n- p. kphn-ti-j-sø- - n-bp- ]p-xn-b sh-fn- w A-h Dƒ-s m- p. B- cm-[-\-bn am- -߃ h-cp-øn. hn-ip- - m-tcm-sp- a- y-ÿ {]m - -\, I-\y-I a-dn-b-tøm- Sp- A-t]-, a-cn- -h - p-th- n-bp- {]m - -\-I-fpw I -Ωß-fpw F- mw D-t]- n- p. sszhm-e-b-øn-\p- n -\n- p hn-ip- - m-cp-ss-bpw I-\y-I-am-Xm-hns -bpw Nn-{X-ß-fpw _nw-_-ßfpw am- n. B-cm-[-\ kp-dn-bm-\nbn \-S-Øp- -Xn-\p ]-I-cw a- e-bm-f-øn \-S-Øn. \-ho-i-c-w B-i-b-ß-tfm-Sv Xm-Xv-]-cy-ap- sn-dp-xpw h-ep-xpam-b Iq- -߃ kp-dn-bm-\n-k-`bn F- m-bn-s-øpw D- m-bn-cp- p. h-f-sc th-kw Cu hn-`m-kw H-cp {]-txy-i k-`-bm-bn h-f - p. A-t m-kv-x-e-\m-b hn-ip- txma-kn \n- pw a-e-_m-dn-se kpdn-bm-\n k-` D- -hn- p F- ]mc-º-cy hn-izm-k-øn D-d- p-\n- p-sim- v ""am -txm-am {In-kv- Xym-\n-Iƒ'' F- ]p-cm-x-\ t]- cv A-h \n-e-\n -Øn. ]p-cm-x-\ tc-j-i-fn a-e-_m-dn-se {In-kv- Xym-\n-I-sf hn-fn- p- -Xv ""txmam {In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ'' F- m-wv. Im-e-sØ A-Xn-Po-hn- p \n-e- \n - p- Cu hn-izm-k-sø a- Ih -tãm-dn ae- -c-bpss \ho-i-cw hgn-iƒ 5 mw t]-pv Xp-S tx-x-c N-cn-{X-Im-c- m sk v txm-a-kp-am-bn _- n- n- p- p. aq-t m \m-tem \q- m- p-iƒ- p ti-j-am-wv kp-dn-bm-\n (kn-dnb ) _- w D- m-ip- Xv. s{]m- -à v kw-kv-im-c-tøm- Sp- {]-Xn-]-Øn (1848) sh-dpw aq- p Z-im-_v-Z-߃sIm- v, hn-zym-`ym-kw, A- -Sn, ss_-_nƒ hn-h -Ø-\w, kp-hnti-j-{]-nm-c-ww F- n-h-bn-eqss kn.-fw.-f-kv. an-j-w-dn-am {]-N-cn- n- ]p-xn-b kmw-kv-im-cn- I X-cw-Kw B - pw A-h-K-Wn- m km-[n- m-ø hn-[-øn i- n {]m-]n- p. {]-Xn-tbm-Kn-Iƒt]m-epw A-Xn B-Ir-jv-S-cm-bn F- -Xm-Wp k-xyw. kp-dn-bm-\nk-` an-j-\p-am-bp- _- w D- t]- n-s - n-epw s{]m- -k v kw-kv-im-c-tøm-sv B-`n-ap-Jy-ap- P-\-ß-fpw ssh-zn-i-cpw D- mbn-cp- p. H-cp kp-dn-bm-\n ]p-tcm-ln-xs aq-ø-a-i tim- -bw tim-f- Pn ]Tn- n-cp- p. A-h timf-d-aq-ew a-cn- p. am-xm-]n-xm- - mcp-ss Zpx-Jw h-f-sc h-ep-xm-bn-cp- p. kp-lr-øp- -fpw _- p- fpw A-h-sc k-am-iz-kn- n- m ]-d- p: ""C-\n \n-ß-fp-ss a- fn B-sc-bpw tim- -b-øp timf-pn ]Tn- m hn-s-cp-xv.'' I-c- p sim- n-cp- A-Ω C-XptI- -t mƒ ` -Øm-hn-s\ t\m- n ]-d- p: ""\-Ωp-sS Ip- p-ß-sf- m-hcpw I -Øm-hn-\m-bn Po-hn- p-hm- \-t \mw B-{K-ln- p- -Xv? A- h-s\ Xn-cn-sI F-Sp- p-hm sszh-øn-\v C-jv-Sw txm- n.- \-ap- v \-Ωp-sS a-i-s\-bpw a-i-sf-bpw A-hn-sS-Ø-s A-b-bv- -Ww.'' a-s m-cp a-i-s\-bpw A-h tim- -bw tim-f-pn A-b- p. H-cp a- I-sf an-kn-kv t_- -dp-ss t_m - Unw-Kv kv-iq-fn-epw tn -Øp. k-aq-l-øn ""s{]m- -à v hn-im-cw'' F- H-cp ]p-xn-b X- cw-kw {]-N-cn- p. hr-øn-bm-bn \- S- p-i, am-\y-am-bn s]-cp-am-dp-i, sx- p-iƒ- v F-Xn-sc {]-Xn-I-cn- p-i Xp-S-ßn-b hn-im-cw P-\-ßfn D- m-bn. s{]m- -à v hn-imcw F- -Xv H-cp ]p-tcm-k-a-\ B- i-b-øn-s ]-cym-b-am-bn am-dn. Cw- o-jv `m-j-bpw ]m- m-xy k- {º-Zm-b-Øn-ep- hn-zym-`ym-khpw th-j-hpw D-Xv-]-Xn-jv-Wp- fm-b bp-h-p-\-ß-sf kzm-[o-\n- p. kp-dn-bm-\n- -I-tØm-en- k- `-I-fn ]p-tcm-k-a-\ hm-zn-i-fp-ss H-cp ]p-xn-b hn-`m-kw cq-]w-sim- p. ""Protestant feeling against surrounding error'' F Hcp B]vX-hmIyw A m-eøp {]N-cn- n-cp- p. an-j-s kzm-[o-\w kp-dn-bm-\n-i-fn kn.-fw.-f-kv an-j-s kzm- [o-\w kp-dn-bm-\n-i-fp-ss Po-hn- X-ssi-en-bn D- m- n-b am- w G- -hpw hn-e-s - -Xm-bn-cp- p. d- h. tlm-iv-kv-h -Øv C-{]-Im-cw F-gp-Xp- p: ""\-Ωp-sS an-j kpdn-bm-\n {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fp-sS-ta h-f-sc B-tcm-Ky-I-c-am-b kzm-[o- \w t\-sn-bn-cn- p- p F- p Rm hn-iz-kn- p- p. A-Sp-Øk-a-bw h-sc Rm-b-dm-gv-N Ip - m-\ I- -Xn-\p-ti-jw kp-dn-bm- \n {In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ hym-]m-c-øn- \v t]m-ip- -Xp ]-Xn-hm-bn-cp- p. C-t mƒ Rm-b-dm-gv-N hym-]m-c- Øn-\p t]m-ip- -Xv A-h \n Øn.'' \ho-i-cww Zni-sX pw apºv 6 mw t]-pv Xp-S C-Xn-s\ an-j-w-dn kzm-[o-\-sa- pw ]-d-bm-hp- -Xm-Wv. d-h.-kn.- F. \o-hv A-h-X-cn- n- H-cp ]T- \-Øn-em-Wv C-sX-gp-Xn-bn-cn- p- -Xv. ""kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn I-gn- 30 h -j-am-bn D- m-bn- p- \-ho-i-c-ww A-Xn-\p-ap-ºv D- mbn-cp- -Xn-s\- mƒ Iq-Sp-X aptºm- p t]m-bn- p- v. kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bp-ss sa-{xm H-cp C-S-b-te- J-\-Øn-eq-sS P-\-߃ ss_- _nƒ hm-ßn ssz-h-h-n-\w hmbn- -W-sa- v D- m-ln- n- p. tim- -bw kn.-fw.-f-kv. tim-f-pnse hn-zym - n-i-fn ]-Ip-Xnbpw kp-dn-bm-\n hn-`m-k-øn -s]- -h-cm-wv. A-h Bw- n- k- `-bn-se hn-zym - n-i-sf-t m-se X-s ssz-h-h-n-\w {i- -tbm-sp Xm-Xv-]-cy-tØm-Spw hm-bn- p- p.'' kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bn kn.- Fw.-F-kv. tim-f-pn-s kzm-[o-\- sø- - n tim-f-pn-s {]n -kn- B-bn-cp- d-h.-sp.-f- v.-_nj- v F-gp-Xp- p: kp-dn-bm-\n {Inkv-Xym-\n-I-fp-sS ta tim-f-pn- \v t\-cn- p kzm-[o-\w t\-sp-hm I-gn- n- p- v. I-gn- Rm-b-dmgv-N A-t -cn-bn-ep- kv-iqƒ apdn-bn H-cp h-en-b Iq- w kp-dnbm-\n-i-fp-ss {]m - -\m-tbm-k- Øn Rm kw-_- n- p. {Inkv-Xo-b Km-\-߃ ]m-sp-i-bpw ss_-_nƒ hm-bn- p-i-bpw {]m - n- p-i-bpw {]-kw-kn- p-i-bpw sn-øp- s{]m- -à v co-xn-bn-embn-cp- p tbm-kw. A-t -cn-bn-se ]p-tcm-ln-x kn.-fw.-f-kv. timf-pn-se hn-zym - n-bm-bn-cp- p. A-t -cn-bn-se kp-dn-bm-\n ]p-tcm-ln-x tnm-k-pm-xn- m-cmb C-cp-]-Xp-t]-sc kv-\m-\-s -Sp- Øn. F- m bm-ym-ÿn-xn-i-cmb kp-dn-bm-\n-iƒ A-h-sc ]- nbn tn - m A-\p-h-Zn- n-. A-h-sc F-dn-Im- p- kn.-fw.-fkv k-`-bn kzo-i-cn- p. C-Xp-t]m-se Bw- n- k- ` A-Y-hm kn.-fw.-f-kn-s kzm- [o-\w kp-dn-bm-\n-k-`-bn ]-e cw-k-ß-fn-epw D- m-bn- p- v. H-cp kp-dn-bm-\n I-Ø-\m H-cn- _n-j- v kv-]o- v-en-tbm-sp ]-d- p: ""kp-dn-bm-\n k-`-bv- v kn.- Fw.-F-kn-t\m-Sp- I-S- m-sn-s A-f-hv F-{X h-ep-xm-sw- v Rm- a-\- n-em- p- p. N - v an-j-wdn skm-ssk- n C-hn-sS h- n- mbn-cp- p-sh- n Rm D- m-hp- I-t]m-epw C- m-bn-cp- p'', A-t±lw ]-d- p. kp-dn-bm-\n-k-`-bn- 19 mw \q- m- n-s B-Zy-Z-i-I߃ h-sc D- m-bn-cp- ssh-zn- I-cp-sS \n - - n-x {_- -N-cysØ- p-dn- m-wv A-t±-lw ]-d- -Xv. C-Xv ]p-cm-x-\ kp-dn-bm- \n B-Nm-c-{]-Im-cw B-bn-cp- n. A- m-e-øv H-cp s]m-xp hnizm-kw D- m-bn-cp- p: H-cp kv- {Xo, ssz-h-th-e-bv- m-bn th -Xncn- -s - H-cp hy- n-sb A-s - n ]p-tcm-ln-x-s\ hn-hm-lw I-gn- m A-Xn-s ^-ew sszh-\n-μ-bv- p e-`n- p- in- -bmb a-c-ww B-bn-cn- pw. _n-j- nt\m-sp kw-km-cn- kp-dn-bm-\n ssh-zn-i ]-d- p: kp-dn-bm-\nk-`-bn B-Zyw hn-hm-lw I-gn- \m-ep ssh-zn-i-cn {]-[m-\- s - H-cm-fn-s a-i-\m-wv Rm. kp-dn-bm-\n \-ho-i-c-w hn-`m-kw (am txm-am-k-`) kp-hn-ti-jw {]-N-cn- n- m-\pw A-ss{I-kv-X-hsc k-`-bn Aw-K-ß-fm- m-\pw Xo-cp-am-\n- p. kn-dn-b an-j-wdn A-tkm-kn-tb-j F- kw- L-S-\ ]p-d-pm-xn- m-sc kv-\m-\- s -Sp-Øn k-`-bn tn -Øp.

9 9 ka-im-eni ]{XnI sf.]n.kn ^m-an-en tim -{^ -kv 1 mw t]-pv Xp-S A-ssUz-k-dn t_m -Uv Aw-K-ß-fm-b cm-pp s]m-t m-en, km-ap-th hn. Nmt m, kw-ÿm-\ {]-Xn-\n-[n s_- n tpm - Pv, ao-un-b tim -Un-t\- \n-_p sh- h- m-\w, {]m-tz-in-i I-Ω- n `m-c-hm-ln- Iƒ Xp-S-ßn-b-h t\-xy-xzw \ -In. A- Sp-Ø {]-tam-j-w tbm-kw Un-kw-_ 16\v \yq-tbm - v C- ym {In-kv-Xy A- kw-ªn k-`m-lm-fn \-S-Ø-s -Spw. 1 mw t]-pv Xp-S Hm -Ø-tUm-Iv-kv bm-t m-_m-b `n- -X-bp-sS ]p-d-in-epw Cu A-l- -bp- v. Xm-gv-a io-en- n-cp-s - n Cu `n- -X-Isfm- pw C-{X-`-bm-\-I-am-bn h-f-cp-i-bn- mbn-cp- p. {In-kv-Xp-hn Xm-gv-a-bp-sS H-cp a-t\m-`m-hw k-aq-l-am-bn D- m-ip-hm, A- Sn-ÿm-\-an- m-ø {_m- -Wy ]m-c-º-cyw D-t]- n-t - n-bn-cn- p- p. H- mw \q- m- n X-s {In-kv-Xp in-jy-\m-b txmam-«o-lm-bn Iq-Sn \mw {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ A-dn-bm-\n-S-h- p F- - m-sx {_m- -Wcm-bn-cp- p \-Ωp-sS ]q -Δn-I F- -sx- m-b N-cn-{Xw C-\n-bp- X-e-ap-d-sb ]Tn- n- -cp-xv. k-ss`-iy-øn-s A-Sn-ÿm-\w hn-izmk-øn-e-[n-jvtn-x-am-bn-cn- -W-sa- Hm - Ø-tUm-Iv-kv k-`m-hn- m-\-øn-\v H- psa \n-c- p- -X-. \q- m- p-iƒ \o- p- \n - p- hy-h-lm-c-ß-fpw, `n- -X-I-fpw hn-izm-k-øn hy-xy-kv-x-x ]p-e -Øp- h-tcm-sp- -Xn-t\- mƒ F-{X-tbm h-ep-xmb i-{xp-x-bpw a- -c-hp-am-wv, H-tc-hn-izmk-hpw B-cm-[-\-bpw sh- p ]p-e -Øp- 1 mw t]-pv Xp-S 2025 HmsS hnj 2025 F ] XnbpsS Iogn temiøv kpo-hambn D]-tbm-Kn- p F m `mj-bnepw ss nƒ ]cn-`mj ]q Øo-I-cn- m- \p {ia-øn-emwv kwl-s-\. GItZiw 2500 Hmfw `mj-i-fnse X n-a- Iƒ Ct mƒ \S v hcn-i-bm-wv. Ahbn GXm v 1600 Hmfw `mj-iƒ v hy -am-sbmcp en]n C m-ø-xmwv {][m\ sh p-hn-fn. Ct mƒ G hpw henb sh p-hnfn t\cn-sp- Xv kuøv F- m hym-gm-gv-n-i-fn-epw 9 ssh-in- v 10 h-sc {]-txy-i {]m - -\-bv- m-bn th - Xn-cn- n- p- v F- t^m \-º-dn-eq-sS F- B-Iv-k-kv tim- Uv \ -In {]m - -\m sse-\n {]-thin- mw. Iq-Sp-X hn-h-c-߃- pw c-pn-kvt{s-j-\pw F- sh-_v-ssk- v k-μ -in- m-hp- -Xm-Wv. G-{]n 25 \-Iw c-pn-ã sn-øp- -h - v Ip-d- \n-c- p-iƒ e-`y-am-bn-cn- p-sa- v `m-c-hm-ln-iƒ A-dn-bn- p. txmam- o-lm-bpss ss]xriw Dd- n- p-ibpw {_m Wss]XrIw Dt]- n- p-ibpw thww C-cp-hn-`m-K-߃- p-ap- -Xv. `m-c-x-øn-se ]p-cm-x-\-hpw tz-io-b-hp-am-b k-`-sb- \ne-bn hn-l-sn- p \n - p- -h H- m-bn- Øo-c-Ww. `n- n- p \n - p- n-s-tøm-fw \-Ωp-sS {In-kv-Xo-b km- yw \-jv-s-s - p-sim-t -bn-cn- p- p. X-s -bp-a- m k- ` A-h-Im-i-s -Sp- ]u-cm-wn-i-x-bp-ssbpw k-xy-hn-izm-k-øn-s -bpw k-xym-cm- [-\-bp-ss-bpw ]m-c-º-cy-߃- v a- m-cpw h- en-b hn-e-i - n- p-i-bn-. s]-s - v H- m-im km-[n- p- n-s - n A-Sp-Ø X-e-ap-d-bn-se- n-epw A-Xp-km-[n- -Ø- hn-[-øn Nn-e \o- p-t]m- p-iƒ D- m- m k-`m-t\-xr-xz-߃ t_m-[-]q -Δw {i-an-t - -Xm-Wv. D- -X-\o-Xn ]ot-øn-s hn-[n sf-iy- Øn-\p- ssz-h-øn-s C-S-s]-S-em-bn Im- Wm I-gn-b-Ww. hy-h-lm-c-߃ \o- p t]m-ip- -txm-sp-iq-sn k-`-i-fp-ss ]-W-hpw Du - -hpw \-jv-s-s -Sp- -X- m-sx B- flm- -sf t\-sm D-X-Ip- -X-. k-`-bpss ap-j-]-{x-am-b, a-e- -c k-`-bn-se-gp-xnb te-j-\-øn-em-wv C-ß-s\ A-`n-{]m-bs - -Xv. Bbncw `mj-i-fn hn n-^ns ss nƒ s]k-^niv Zzo]p-I-fnse `mjm kaq-l- Øn-em-Wv Hmfw `mj-iƒ \ne-hn-ep Chn- SpsØ an `mj-iƒ pw en]n-i-fn-. ]m ph \yqkn-\n-b-bne am{xw 800 `mj- Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn- p Gdnb ] v Bfp- Ifpw Xma-kn- p- Xv Zp L-S-ta-dnb h\- -] ΔX taj-e-i-fn-em-wv. Chn-sSsbms FØn-s -Sm-\p _p n-ap- pw, `mj-iƒ v IrXy-amb A -c-ame C m- ØXpw ]cn-`mjm {]h Ø-Isc G hpw he-bv p Imcy-am-Wv. h\y-ar-k-ß-fn \n pw a\p-jysc c n- m \nb-a-\n Ωm-W-Øn\v \nth-z\w tim-gn-t m-sv: h-\y-ar-km-{i-a-w-ß-fn \n- pw Ir-jn-I-sf-bpw I -j-i-sc-bpw c- n- m kw-ÿm-\ k - m \n-b-a-\n -am- Ww \-S-Ø-W-sa- v I -j-i c- m-k-an- Xn. ap-jy-a-{ n ]n-w-dm-bn hn-p-b-\v \ - In-b \n-th-z-\-øn-em-wv C- m-cyw B-hiy-s -Xv. kw-ÿm-\-sø a-e-tbm-c ta- J-e-I-fn-se I -j-i h-\y-ar-km-{i-a-w- Øm A-\p-`-hn- p- Zp-cn-X-߃ h - W-\m-Xo-X-am-Wv. X-e-ap-d-I-fm-bn ITn-\m- [zm-\w sn-bv-xp- m- n-b Ir-jn-Iƒ Im- m-\, Im- p-t]m-øv, ]- n, ap- -]- n, Ip-c-ßv ap-x-em-b h-\y-ar-k-߃ Ir-jnÿ-e-ß-fn-en-d-ßn ]m-ss \-in- n- p- -Xv \n-d-i-æp-i-tfm-ss \n-k-lm-b-cm-bn t\m- n-\n -t - K-Xn-tI-Sn-em-Wv I -j-isc- v \n-th-z-\-øn Nq- n- m- n. Ir-jn \-in- n- p- Im- p-ar-k-ß-sf \-in- n- m-t\m Xp-c-Øn Hm-Sn- m-t\m I - j-i - v I-gn-bp- n-. C-Xn-\m-bn bm-sxmcp \n-b-a-ß-fpw \n-e-hn-en-. h-\w, h-\y- Po-hn kw-c- -W \n-b-a-øn-s a-d-hn t^m-d-ãv D-tZym-K-ÿ I -j-i-sc A-\ymb-am-bn I- -t -kp-i-fn Ip-Sp- n \n-c- -c-am-bn ]o-un- n- p- p. h-\y-ar-k-߃ Im-Sp-hn- v bm-sxm-cp `-b-hp-an- m-sx Ir-jnÿ-e-ß-fn-te- v C-d-ßp- p. A-\n-b-{ n- X-am-bn C-h s]- p-s]-cp-in I -j-i - v Po-hn- m -t]m-epw ]- m-ø A-h-ÿ-bmbn. {]m-w-`-b-øm I -j-i ho-sp-hn- v t]m-ti- n-h-cp- p. h-\y-ar-km-{i-a-w- Øn \n-c-h-[n I -j-i C-Xn-t\m-S-Iw kw-ÿm-\-øv sim- -s - n- p- v. `-c-w-l-s-\ A-\p-im-kn- p- Po-h- \pw kz-øn-\pw kw-c- -Ww \ -I-W-sa- ]u-c-s au-en-i A-h-Im-i-߃ kwÿm-\-sø I -j-i - v am-{xw \n-tj-[n- -s -Sp- p. \n-c- -c-am-bp- m-ip- {]-Ir- Xn-Zp-c- -߃, C-d- p-a-xn aq-e-ap- m-ip- hn-e-bn-sn-hv, Ir-jn-sb _m-[n- p- tcm- K-߃, Ir-jn-\m-iw, Im -jn-i I-S-߃ Xp-S-ßn-b-h-sIm- v Po-hn-Xw h-gn-ap- n-b I -j-i - v Xm-ßm-\m-hm-Ø {]-iv-\-am-wv Cu h-\y-ar-k-i-eyw. C- y-bn-se a- v kwÿm-\-ß-fn-tem tem-i-øv a-s m-cp cm-pytøm C-Xp-t]m-se Im- p-ar-k-ß-sf a-\p-jysc-bpw Ir-jn-sb-bpw \-in- n- m A-\ph-Zn- p- {]m-ir-x \n-b-a-ß-fn- ; \n-th-z- \-Øn hy- -am n. ar-k-߃- v \ - Ip- kw-c- -Ww a-\p-jy - v \ -Ip- n- F- -Xv h-f-sc Ku-c-h-]q -hw N - m hn-j-b-am-t - k-a-bw A-Xn-{I-an- n-cn- p- p. P-\-߃ i- -am-b {]-Xn-tj- [-Øn-epw \n-e-\n -]n-\p th- n-bp- {]- t m-`-øn-ep-am-wv. h-\y-ar-km-{i-a-w-ßfn \n- pw Ir-jn-sb-bpw I -j-i-sc-bpw c- n- p-hm- A-Sn-b- n-c-am-bn B-h-iyam-b \n-b-a-\n -am-ww \-S-Øn I -j-i c- D-d- v h-cp-ø-w-sa- v \n-th-z-\-øn B-h-iy-s - p. BHUTAN TOURS (2NIGHTS) Paro-Thimphu. FROM KOCHI/INDIA(AIRPORT) Contact : hne 95/

10 10 ka-im-eni ]{XnI F.-sF. tpm p-ip n h -j-߃- p-ap-ºv D-Øtc- y-bn-se H-cp \-K-c-Øn hn-hm-l-k-ev- m-c-øn ]-s - Sp- -sh, X- -Øm F-Sp-Øp- I-gn- p- _p-s^- -co-xn-tbm-sv {]-Xn-tj-[w {]-I-Sn- n- H-cp h- tbm-[n-i ]-d- p: F-s a- I-s I-eym-W-Øn-\v ]m-{x-hpam-bn Iyq \n- v C-c- p-hm-ßn- -gn- m G-Xm-bm-epw Rm- \n-..! -A-Xp-tI- v a- m-tcm A- t±-l-øn-\v `- -Ww sim- ph- v sim-sp-sø- n-epw A-Xv hm-ßn- -gn- m X-øm-dm-bn-. A-Xn-Yn-sb D-]-Nm-c-]q -Δw kzo-i-cn- v, kv-t\-l-]q -Δw hnf-ºn-\n -_- n- v I-gn- n- p- ]-c-º-cm-k-x k-ev- m-c co- Xn ]-cn-n-bn- p-h- A-t±-l- Øn-\v _p-s^- -bn-se X- - Øm hn-f-º-epw, hn-f-ºp- h-cp-ss ap-ºn A-`-bm - n-isf-t m-se ]m-{x-hp-am-bn h-cn- \n- v hm-ßn- -gn- -epw A-htl-f-\-am-bn-tØm- n-b-xv kzm-`m-hn-iw am-{xw. kw-kv-im-c-߃ kmw-{i-an- I-tcm-K-߃ t]m-se-bm-wv. A-h X-e-ap-d-I-fn-te- v ]-I - X IY-bpw. p-in- p- p, Iq-Sm-sX Np- p-w D- h-cn-te- pw ]-c- p- p. a- p- -hsc B-I -jn- p- -Xn-\pw X-ßfp-sS B-i-b-߃- pw Xm-ev-]-cy߃- pw A-\p-k-cn- v Po-hn- p- -Xn-\m-bn A-h-sc- q-ss kzm-[o- \n- p- -Xn-\pw I-gn-hp- - Nn-e Hm-tcm k-aq-l-øn-epw D- m-bn-cn- pw. A-h-cm-Wv \-thm- m-\ \mb-i- m, kmw-kv-im-cn-i-\m-b-i- m F-s - mw A-dn-b-s -Sp- h. A-h-cp-sS kz-`m-h-ß-fpw s]- cp-am- -ß-fpw X-ß-fp-sS kzm-[o-\- hn-f-ºn-s m-sp- p- -h..! kw-kv-im-c-߃ kmw-{i-an-i-tcm-k-߃ t]m-se-bm-wv. A-h X-e-ap-d-I-fn-te- v ]-I - p-in- p- p, Iq-Sm-sX Np- p-w D- -h-cn-te- pw ]-c- p- p. a- p- -h-sc B-I -jn- p- -Xn-\pw X-ß-fp-sS B-i-b-߃- pw Xm-ev-]-cy-߃- pw A-\p-k-cn- v Po-hn- p- -Xn-\m-bn A-h-sc- q-ss kzm-[o-\n- p- -Xn-\pw I-gn-hp- - Nn-e Hm-tcm k-aq-l-øn-epw D- m-bn-cn- pw. A-h-cm-Wv \-thm- m-\ \m-b-i- m, kmw-kv-im-cn-i-\m-b-i- m F-s - mw A-dn-b-s -Sp- -h. h-e-b-øn D- -h-cn-te- v A- h a-\x-]q -Δ-am-tbm A- m-sxtbm ]-I - p-\-ev-ip- p. kw-kv- Im-c-߃ D-cp-Øn-cn-bp- -Xv Cu hn-[-am-wv. P-\-\w ap-x i-h-kw-kv-imcw h-sc Po-hn-X-Øn-se Hm-tcm \n -Æm-b-I -L- -Øn-\pw A-X-Xv k-aq-l-øn-t -Xm-b {]-txy-i N- S-ßp-I-fpw B-Nm-c-ß-fp-ap- v. A- h Ir-Xy-am-bn B-N-cn- p- -Xn-\v \n-jv-i -jn- p- -h-cm-wv B-Nmcy- m. B-Nm-c-ß-fp-sS Im-h-emfp-I-fm-bn \n-e-sim- p-hm X- ß-fp-sS X-e-ap-d-I-sf A-h ]-cnio-en- n- p- p. Hm-tcm k-ap-zm-b- 28 ip-{iq-j-i- m - v Hm -Un-t\-j ap-f- p-g: N - v Hm-^v tkm-uv ti-c-f tã- v 28 ip-{iq-j-i- m - v Hm -Un-t\-j \-ev-in. Hm -ssu-bv -Uv _n-j- v k - n-^n- - p-iƒ hn-x-c-ww sn-bv-xp. 40 ip-{iq-j-i -am - v Hm -ssu -Uv an-\n-ã ]-Z-hn-bpw e-`n- p. s{i-u -jy t_m -Uv U-b-d-Œ ]m-ã {In-Ã- ^ n cm-pp-hn-s t\-xr-xz-øn \-S- tbm-k-øn-\v Hm-h -kn-b ]m-ã kn kn txm-a-kv A- y- -X h-ln- p. Øn-s -bpw kw-kv-im-c-ß-fp-ss Xo-\m-fw A-W-bm-sX Im- p- - Xv A-h-cm-Wv. ]p-cm-x-\-im-e-sø P-\-k-aq-l-sØ- - n ]T-\w \-S- Øp- ]p-cm-h-kv-xp-k-th-j-i, A-Ø-cw ÿ-e-ß-fn-se D -J-\- \-Øn e-`n- h-kv-xp- -sf Nn- I-s -Sp-Øv B P-\-X F-ß-s\- bm-wv Po-hn- n-cp- -Xv F- -Xns\- - n- \n-k-a-\-ß-fn-se-øp- p. A-h-cp-sS th-j-hn-[m-\-߃, ]m- {X-߃, `- -W-co-Xn-Iƒ, B-bp- [-߃, I-e, km-ln-xyw, im-kv- {Xw, a-xm-\p-jvtm-\-߃, hn-hmlw, Ip-Spw-_w, a-c-ww, i-h-kwkv-im-cw, a-c-wm-\- -c-po-hn-xw ap- X-em-b-h hn-e-bn-cp-øp-hm-\pw, B-[p-\n-I k-aq-l-hp-am-bn A-h - p- hy-xym-k-ß-fpw km-ay-ßfpw a-\- n-em- p-hm-\pw A-h-cpsS \m-i-øn-\v Im-c-W-sa-s - v {K-ln- p-hm-\pw {i-an- p- p. kw-kv-im-c-ß-fp-ss kw-l- -\- ߃- v H-cp D-Zm-l-c-W-am-bn ar- X-i-co-cw a-d-hp-sn-øp- co-xn t\m- mw: {]-txy-i `-c-wn-i-fn ar-x-tz-lw kw-kv-i-cn- p- -h, ]m-d-bp-ss Kp-l-I-ƒ I- -d-i-fm- p- -h, a-æn Ip-gn- n-sp- h, \-Zn-I-fn H-gp- n-hn-sp- -h, I-gp-I- m - v `- -W-am-bn \-ev- Ip- -h, kp-k- -h - -߃ B- te-]-\w-sn-bv-xv s]- n-i-fn-epw ]nc-an-up-i-fn-epw kq- n- p- h..c-ß-s\ hn-hn-[ co-xn-iƒ. Nn-e-cp-sS co-xn-iƒ a- p- -h - v Dƒ-s m- m km-[n- p- -h-b-. ar-x-tz-lw I-gp-I- m - v `- - W-am-bn \-ev-ip- -Xv ]m-gv-kn-iƒ F- P-\-hn-`m-K-Øn-s co-xn-bm- Wv. B-Z-c-]q -Δ-am-bm-Wv A-h A-ß-s\ sn-øp- -Xv. ]-t, a- p- -h A-Xn-s\ ar-x-tz-l-tøm- Sp- A-\m-Z-c-hm-bn I-W- m- nsb- p-h-cmw. ar-x-tz-lw Z-ln- n- p- -Xv B-Nm-c-am-bn I-W- m- p- -h-cpw, A-Xn-s\ in- -tbm {Iq-c-am-b {]-hr-øn-tbm B-bn I- cp-xp- -h-cp-ap- v. Np-cp- -Øn, Hm-tcm k-aq-l-øn-ep-ap- kw-kv- Im-c-ß-fp-sS \-s - m-bn \n-e-sim- p- {]-txy-i- B-Nm-c-߃ a- p- -h-cp-ts-xp-am-bn G- p-ap- ptºmƒ km-ap-zm-bn-i kw-l -jß-fp- m-ip- p. A-h -Æ - v s]m-xp-h-gn D-]-tbm-Kn- m-\p- A-h-Im-i-Øn-\m-bn \-Ωp-sS \m- n kmw-kv-im-cn-i-\m-b-i- m kmwip n Nmt m \ne-ºq-cns AXn-a-t\m-l-c-amb aq v cn-\-iƒ sf.-]n.kn ]mtãgvkv tim {^ knse lmte-eqøm Ãmfn e`n- p- p sf.-]n.kn Ncn-{Xhpw tbmwkotnm apx {]`m-j-i ]mã hn.-sn.-txm-akpw n.-fkv _me hsc ae-bmfn s]s -t mkvxv k`-i-fpss Bcw-`-N-cn-{X- Øns ka{k hnh-cww H- w sf.-]n.-kn-bpss BZy- Ime t\xm- -fn {]ap-j- \m-bn-cp ]mã Ip - Øpw-Ic Ip n-b- s Pohn- hne 200 cq] Ct mƒ 150 cq]bv v 1 mw t]-pv Xp-S gn- -Xv. hn-π-h {]-ÿm-\-߃- v ]n- n P-\-߃ \n -_- n- X-am-bn A-Wn-t -tc- n-h-cn-ibpw ss{i-kv-x-h Z -i-\-߃ A- \y-am-hp-i-bpw sn-øp-i-bm-bn-cp- p. A- m-e-sø {]-kn- -am-b {In-kv-Xo-b B-cm-[-\m-e-b-߃ A-S- p ]q- p-i-bpw ]-e-xpw k - m ÿm-]-\-ß-fm- n am- p-ibpw sn-bv-xn-cp- p. ]n - m-e- Øv Ir-Xy-am-bn ]-d- m cm-py-߃ tn - v tkmhn-b- v bq-wn-b-\pw \n-e-hn h- -t m-gpw I-ayq-Wn-k-Øn-s ta -t m-bv-a-bn-em-wv B cm-py߃ \-bn- -s - -Xv. F- m Cu ssz-h-hn-tcm-[w G-sd \mƒ ap-t m- v t]m-bn-. an-jm-tb tkm -_-t -hn-s Im-e-Øv A- tei-sa-ßp-ap s]s t mkvxv kaq-lsø G -hpa-[niw kzm[o-\n Cu Xeap-d-bnse alm-\mb sszh-`r- Xy-\mWv tbmwko-tnm. aebmfn s]s -t m-kvxsc kao-i-im-eøv G -hp-a-[niw s\k- o-hmbn kzm[o-\n hy n-bmwv n.fkv _me. ka-im-eni hnj-b-ß-fp-ambn _ -s v kmwip n Nmt m \ne-ºq Fgp-Xnb 38 tej-\-ß-fpss kam-lmcw. hne 150 cq]. Ct mƒ 100 cq]bv v ss{ikvxh djybv v 100 hbkv Xm-b-Xv 1991 kw-l-cm-py-߃ th -]n-cn- p. tkm-hn-b- v bq-wnb X-I - -Sn- p.i-ayq-wn-k- Øn-s {]-`m-hw cm-py-ß-fn \n- v A-I- p. A-tXm-sS d-jy-bnse ss{i-kv-x-h hn-izm-kw ho- pw D-bn -sø-gp-t - p. C- v ]- c-º-cm-k-x {In-kv-Xo-b Z -i-\- ߃ th-tcm-sn Xp-S-ßn-bn-cn- p- p 2017 se I-W- v {]-Im-cw cm-py-sø 85 i-x-am-\w B-fp-Ifpw ss{i-kv-x-h-cm-wv. 12 i-x-am- \-tøm-fw C-t m-gpw \n-co-iz-c-hm- Zn-I-fm-bn I-gn-bp- p. d-jy ss{i-kv-x-h-cn-se `q-cn-`m-k-hpw d- jy Hm -Ø-tUm-Iv-kv k-`mw-kß-fm-wv. Hm -Ø-tUm-Iv-kv k-`bpw k - m-cpw X-Ωn i- - am-b _- w \n-e-\n -Øp- p. Ac-\q- m- p-imew Xncp-h-N\ {]tlm-j-w-øn-eqss ae- - csb Cf- n-a-dn ]mã si.- kn. tpmwns Pohn-X-I-Y kmwip n Nmt m \ne-ºq-cns Xqen-I-bn-eq-sS... hne 100 cq] Ct mƒ 50 cq]. 450 cq] hne-bp Cu aq v ]pkvx-i-߃ Ct mƒ kup\y hne-bmb 300 cq]bv v e`n- p- p. hn.-]n.]n Bbpw ]pkvx-i-߃ e`n- pw. hn.-]n. Nm Pmb 30 cq] IqsS tn Øv 330 cq] v 3 ]pkvx-i-߃ \nß-fpss ho n-seøpw hn.-]n.-]n. Bbn ]pkvxiw e`n- m B{K-ln- p- -h \nß-fpss hnem-khpw H w "3Books' F p-iqss sss v snbvxv SMS Or WATSAPP snøp-i. t^m : t^m snbvxv ]d- mepw axn-bmipw hnfn-t - p \º [ym\w \-S-Øn-b k-a-c-߃ A-Ø-c- Øn -s -Sp- p. F- n-epw A- `n-{]m-bw C-cn-ºp-e- -b- F- snm- p-t]m-se, A-kw- Jyw tkm-{x-hn-`m-k-ß-fpw A- h- -s - mw {]-txy-iw `m-j-ifpw B-Nm-c-ß-fpw hn-izm-kß-fpw D- \-Ωp-sS cm-py- Øn Nn-e-sX- mw B-[p-\n- I im-kv-{x-km-t -Xn-I -hn-zytbm-spw I- p-]n-sn-ø-ß-tfm- Spw a- v kw-kv-im-c-ß-tfm-spw G- p-ap- n X-I-cp- p- -hn-f-ºn I- gn- n- -epw _p-s^-bpw X-Ωnep- kw-l -jw-t]m-se. I- gn- \q- m- p-h-sc Km- n- Pn-bpƒ-s - k-aq-l-øn, k-ap-{z-bm-{x sn-øp- -Xv ]m-]- am-sw- m-bn-cp- p hn-izm-kw. B [m-c-w-sb a-l-xz-h-ev- cn- m A-t±-lw cm-py-saßpw {]-t m-`w kw-l-sn- n- n-cp-s - n C- v \mw F-hnsS-sb-Øp-am-bn-cp- p-! I- -ep- I-fpw Xp-d-ap-J-ß-fpw \m-hn-itk-\-bpw hm-wn-py-hpw hn-ik-\-hpw C- m-ø H-cp cm-pyam-bn ]u-cm-wn-i-xz-øn-s A-S-bm-f-߃ ]p-c- p-d-øv {]- Z -in- n- p-sim- v ]-c-kv-]-cw t]m-c-sn- p- P-\-k-aq-l-ambn Xp-S -t -t\w. a-\p-jy-\- bv- pw ]p-tcm-k-xn- pw X-S- - am-ip- kw-kv-im-c-߃ Imtem-Nn-X-am-bn ]-cn-jv-i-cn- p- -Xn-\v kzm-[o-\-i- n-bp- - \m-b-i A-X-Xv k-aq-l-ßfn -\n- p-x-s F-gp-t -evt - -Xp- v. tem-i-kw-kv- Im-c-ß-sf G- -hpw kzm-[o-\n- \m-b-i {In-kv-Xp-hm-Wv, A-Xn-\v ap-jm- n-c-am-b Ir-Xn kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fm-wv F- -Xv N-cn-{X-bm-Ym - y-a-t{x. lqã sf.-]n.-kn.- s^-tem-jn v hm jni I h j lq-ã : sf.-]n.-kn.-k-`-i-fp-ss sf-iy-th-zn-bm-b lq-ã sf.- ]n.-kn.-s^-tem-jn- n-s hm -jn- I I -h -j-\pw sf-iy B-cm- [-\-bpw \-hw-_ h-sc enhnw-kv hm- N - n \-S- pw. hnhn-[ ip-{iq-j-i- m t\-xr-xzw \ -Ipw. ]m-ã jn-_p txm-a-kv H- -e-tlm-a, ]m-ã P-à km- _p F- n-h ap-jy {]-`m-j-w߃ \-S-Øpw. ]m-ã jm-pn Um-\n-tb ({]-kn-u v), d-h.- tdm-bn -tam tim-in (ssh-kv {]- kn-u v), tpm-k-^v Ip-cy (sk- {I- -dn), P-bv-k tpm-k-^v ({Sj-dm ), Pn-_n tpm -Pv (bq-øv tim -Un-t\- ), eo-\m cm-tp-jv (Nn -{U -kv tim -Un-t\- ), tpm-bn Xp-º-a ao-un-bm tim - Un-t\- -dm-bpw {]-h -Øn- p- p. sk I h j tim- n: sf.]n.kn. tim- n sk I -h -j Un-kw h-sc sh- - m-d sf.]n.kn. ko-tbm I -h -j {Ku- n \-S- pw. sk an-\n-ã ]m-ã n.]n.zm-\o-tb- D-Zv-Lm- S-\w sn-øpw. kp-tc-jv _m-_p, ]m-ã -am-cm-b si.sp.txm-a-kv Ip-a-fn, kp-`m-jv Ip-a-c-Iw, F-{_- lmw Cu-tim, tdm-bn hm-g-ap- w, ]m-ã kn. kn. F-{_-lmw, kqk Fw. sn-dn-bm Xp-S-ßn-bh {]-kw-kn- pw. tkm-z-cn k- am-pw, k -tu-kv- qƒ ]n. ssh. ]n. F. hm -jn-iw,rm-bdm-gv-n kw-bp- B-cm-[-\.

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12 MARUPPACHA Planthottam Complex Tiruvalla Ph: R.N.I. Reg No.67619/97 Postal Reg. No. KL/TLA/100/-20 License No. KL/TLA/WPP-116/-20 Licensed to Post without Prepayment Date of Publication Kƒ^v, Ata-cn-, Cw v XpS-ßnb cmpy-ß-fn \n pw- t\cn p Sqdp-Iƒ. k`-iƒ pw anj kwl-s\iƒ pw th n {]txyiw ]mt -PpIƒ! \yq-u ln, apw-ss_, _mw q, sim- n F- n-hn-s-ßfn \n pw bm-{xm-kw-l-߃. JORDAN ISRAEL PALESTINE EGYPT Departures from USA, UK, CANADA, MIDDLE EAST & INDIA.. Cu bm{x-bpss {]txy-i-x-iƒ tami hmkvzø \msv Zqsc-\n pw Z in s\t_m ] Δ-X-Øn \n pw bm{xm-cw`w Keoem S-en t_m p-bm{x tbip tbml- m-\m kv\m\-ta tpm ±m- \Zn- -S-hn kvtxm{x ip{iqj Ipcn-ins hgnsb [ym\-bm{x Acn-a-Xy- m-c tpmk-^ns I d txm -Øn Bcm-[-\bpw I Ør-ta-ibpw ]q Δ ]nxm- - m-cpss I -d-i-fp slt{_m kμ i\w sl Ω KtZm bp w \S- m t]mip sakntzm Xmgvhcbn-eqsS bm{x ^nen- ns ssik-cy-bn kμ i\w sbcp-itew tzhm-ebw \n Ωn- m Xøm-sd-Sp- p ÿew Nmhp-I-S-ense A\p-`-h-߃ bn{k-tb a ƒ XmhfaSn ÿeøp IqSn {]bmww sn -S XocØv cm{xn hn{iaw kqbkv I\m IS p sibvtdm-bn-te v ss\ \Zn-bn I bm{xbpw AØm-ghpw CuPn-]vjy ayqkn-bw, ]nc-anup-iƒ, kv^nßvkv, tpmk^pw adn-bbpw tbip p- p-ambn Hfn p ]m Ø ÿe-߃.. bm{x snøp {][m\ ÿe-߃ tpm -±m : A-tΩm, tam-hm-_v, ]n-kv- Im sim-sp-ap-sn, Kn-e-bm-Zv, tpm -±m Xmgv-h-c. bn-{km-tb : tkmem Ip- p-iƒ, ^nen- n-s ssi-k-cy, tbm-, ssl-^, ss A-ho-hv, I -tω ] -Δ-Xw, s_- lm-bv Km -U, sb-cn-tlm ]- -Ww, \- t{k-øv {Km-aw, Kn -Km, Nm-hp-I-S, a-kv-z-e-{km-aw, i-a-cy, _-ty, \-bow, Im- \, bm-t m-_n-s In-W, a-iv-t]-e, sl-t{_m, G-em-Xm-gv-h-c, sl -Ω-KtZm, K-eo-e- -S, tpm -±m \-Zn, sb-cp-i-tew, _-Y-\n, t_-xv-e-tlw, Xmt_m -a-e, ko-tbm -a-e, H-en-hp-a-e, tkm -tkm-ym, I-øm-^m-hn-s A-c-a-\, Ip-cn-in-s h-gn, A-cn-a-Xy- m-c tpmk-^n-s I- -d-tøm- w, Jpw-{_m. Cu-Pn-]v-Xv: ko-\m-bv, tlm-tc-_v, am-dm, F-en-w, ^-d-thm-\n-iv hn-t -Pv, sn- -S, kq-b-kv I-\m, ss\, kv-^nw-kv-kv, ]n-c-an-up-iƒ, ]p-cm-x-\ k-`-iƒ. Hm Ω-bn kq n- m F{X-sb{X ÿe-ßfpw ImgvN-Ifpw... ASp-Ø-bm-{X s^{_p-h-cn 18 Printed, published and owned by Achenkunju Elanthoor, Planthottam Complex, Tiruvalla-1. Printed at Rashtra Deepika for MGM Offset Press, Kottayam, Published at Planthottam Complex, Tiruvalla-1 Editor : Achenkunju Elanthoor.

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