# System on a Chip. Prof. Dr. Michael Kraft

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1 System on a Chip Prof. Dr. Michael Kraft

2 Lecture 3: Sample and Hold Circuits Switched Capacitor Circuits Circuits and Systems Sampling Signal Processing Sample and Hold Analogue Circuits Switched Capacitor Circuits

3 Signal Characterisation Value and timing can be continuous or discrete time-continuous Discretevalues timediscrete Continuous values sampled signal analogsignal digitised value digital signal

4 Time-continuous Signals Continuous or analogue signal The signal is continuous in value (amplitude) and time The signal is a continuous function of time Examples: voltage, v(t), sound pressure p(t) Digitized signal The signal is discrete in value but not in time Change of value can occur at any instance in time

5 Time-discrete Signals Time discrete signals: function values between sampling points do not exit They are not zero Time discrete signals usually are created by sampling of analogue signals A(t) a(nt) T: sampling time, 1/T: sampling rate, sampling frequency Discrete time signal: signal is continuous in amplitude and time-discrete Usually sampling occurs at a fixed time interval Or the sample times are known (otherwise loss of information) Nyquist theorem: sampling frequency larger than twice the highest analogue frequency content No information loss

6 Digital Signals Digital signals are discrete in value (amplitude) and time-discrete Usually (but not always) a fixed clock frequency is assumed Amplitude discretization means information loss n-bit binary signal with 2 N possible values

7 Signal Characterisation Value and timing can be time-continuous or discrete time-continuous time-discrete Continuous values Discretevalues

8 Time-discrete Signals A signal is a mathematical function of the independent variable t For t continuous, the signal is time-continuous: analogue signal If t is only defined for discrete values, we have a time-discrete signal or sequence x[n] Typically, the sequence x[n] is created by a discretisation of time by (ideal) sampling at the interval T s. x[n] = x(t=nt s ) Examples: Shifted discrete Dirac impulse Discrete Dirac impulse Kronecker-function 1 [ n] n,0 1 für for n 0 0 für for n 0 [ n ] i ni, 1 für for n i 0 für for n i

9 Elementary Time-discrete Unit step sequence Signals un [ ] 0 for für n 0 1 für for n 0 Sampled Sine/Cosine signal x[ n] cos(2 f nt ) cos( n) 0 With normalized sampling frequency: 2 f T 2 f / f Rectangular impulse with width 2N+1 S 0 S 0 S 1 0 x p [n] n rect [ n] N 1 for für n N 0 otherwise sonst

10 Time-discrete Signals As Sum of Unit Pulses Any time discrete sequence can represented by time-shifted unit pulses Example x[ n] x[ i] [ n i] i x[n] x[0] [n] x[1] [n-1] x[2] [n-2] = n 0 n 0 n 0 n

11 Periodic Time-discrete Signals A time discrete signal is periodic with a period N if: x p [ n] x [ n N] p N: Period: smallest positive N that fulfils above equation: fundamental period. Note: The discrete sine function x[n] = sin(2 f 0 nt s ) is in general not periodic. It is only periodic of the ratio T 0 / T s = f s / f 0 is an integer.

12 Dynamic Range Definition Signal to Noise Ratio SNR Digital = 10 log 2 2 N SNR Analog = 10 log 2 V 2 max, eff V 2 n

13 Enhancing Analog Dynamic Range Solution: Chip cooling Increase power supply voltage Noise reduction using averaging /circuit tricks Increasing of components area Potential problems: Equipment cost & volume problems Voltage breakdown; power consumption Moderate increase of chip area & speed reduction Drastic increase of chip area

14 Comparison Analog/Digital Dynamic Range Analog design Signals have a range of values for amplitude and time Irregular blocks Customized Components have a range of values Requires precise modelling Difficult to use with CAD Designed at the circuit level Longer design times Two or three tries are necessary for success Difficult to test Digital design Signal have only two states Regular blocks Standardized Components with fixed values Modelling can be simplified Amenable to CAD methodology Designed at the system level Short design times Successful circuits the first time Amenable to design for test

15 Comparison of Analog and Digital Circuit Analog Analog Digital V DD V DD V DD In Out Out In Out In V SS Power supply noise immunity Low High High Functional density High High Low

16 kt/c Noise RC Circuit Ideal capacitors are noiseless But capacitors always have to be charged through a resistor Noise accumulated on a capacitor is independent of the charging resistor Noise bandwidth and resistor value cancel out For low noise, decrease temperature or increase capacitor R v 2 Noise Noise Power Density: 4 ktr V in + - C Eq, Noise Bandwidth: Noise Power: kt/c RC = π 2 f 0

17 kt/c Noise RC Circuit Ideal capacitors are noiseless But capacitors always have to be charged through a resistor Noise accumulated on a capacitor is independent of the charging resistor Noise bandwidth and resistor value cancel out SC-Circuit Clock Downsampled Noise kt/c V IN + R v 2 Noise C Noise Power Density Wideband Noise kt/c - Freq. 0 F Clock /2 ¼ RC

18 Sample and Hold Circuits S/H is used to sample an analog signal and to store its value for some length of time Also called track-and-hold circuits Often needed in A/D converters Conversion may require held signal reduces errors due to different delay times in A/D converter Performance parameter and errors in S/H: Sampling pedestal or Hold Step errors in going from track to hold: held voltage is different to sampled input voltage should be minimized and signal independent for no distortion Signal feedthrough: should be small during hold Speed at which S/H can track input voltage limitations to bandwidth and slew-rate Droop rate: slow change in output voltage during hold mode Aperture (or sampling) jitter effective sampling time changing every T difficult in high-speed designs Other errors: dynamic range, linearity, gain, and offset error

19 Basic Concept If φ clk is high, V follows V in If φ clk is low, V will stay constant, keeping the value when went φ clk low Basic circuit has some practical problems: Charge Injection of Q1 Causes (negative) hold step Aperture Jitter Sampling time variation as a function of V in

20 Charge Injection When φ clk goes low, channel charge on Q1 causes V to have negative step If clock edge is fast, 1/2 flows each way Channel charge: Resulting in:

21 Charge Injection ΔV linearly related to V in : gain error ΔV also linearly related to V tn, which is nonlinearly related to V in : distortion error (due to Body effect) Often gain error can be tolerated but not distortion Additional change in V due to the overlap capacitances Causes DC offset effect Which is signal independent Usually smaller than charge injection component Can be important of Clk signal has power supply noise can lead to poor power-supply rejection ratio

22 S/H Charge Reduction Transmission gate: Charge of equally sized p and n transistor cancel out Charge only cancel when V in in middle between V DD and V SS Finite slopes of clock edges make turn of times of p and n transistor different and signal dependent Dummy switch: clocked by inverse Clk Q2 is 1/2 size of Q1 to match charge injection up to 5 times better than without dummy switch (for fast Clk edges) difficult to make clocks fast enough so exactly 1/2 charge is injected

23 Finite Slopes of Clock Edges Ideal sampling time at the negative-going zero-crossing of φ clk Actual sampling at V Clk = V in + V tn Q1 turns off True sampling time depends on value of V in : distortion

24 S/H With High Input Impedance When the clock φ clk is high, the circuit responds similarly to an Opamp in a unity-gain feedback configuration When goes low, V in at that time is stored on C hld, similarly to a simple S/H DC offset of buffer is divided by the gain of input Opamp Disadvantages: in hold mode, the Opamp is open loop, resulting in its output saturating at one of the power supply voltages Opamp must have fast slew rate to go from saturation to Vin in next Clk cycle Sample time, charge injection input signal dependent Speed reduced due to overall feedback

25 Reduced Slew Rate Requirement In Hold mode, Q2 keeps the output of the first Opamp close to the voltage it will need to be at when the S/H goes into track mode Sample time, charge injection - input signal dependent

26 Input Signal Independence C hld is not to Gnd Q1 always at virtual ground; signals on both sides are independent of V in Sample time error, charge injection: independent of V in Charge injection causes ONLY DC offset Q2 used to clamp Opamp1 output near ground in hold mode Reduces slew rate requirement snd signal feedthrough Slower due to two Opamps in feedback

27 Reduced Offset (Single Ended) Charge injected by Q1 matched by Q2 into C hld If fully differential design, matching occurs naturally leading to lower offset.

28 Reduced Offset (Differential) Gnd is common mode voltage

29 Example 1: BiCMOS Inverting S/H When in track mode, Q1 is on and Q2 is off, resulting in the S/H acting as an inverting low-pass circuit with Ω -3dB = 1/(RC) When Q1 turns off, V out will remain constant Needs Opamp capable of driving resistive loads Difficult to implement in CMOS Good high-speed BiCMOS configuration Q2 minimizes feedthrough

30 Example 2 Opamp in unity gain follower mode during track In hold mode input signal is stored across C1, since Q1 is turned off Charge injection of transistors cancel Clock signals are signal dependent Good speed, moderate accuracy

31 Example 3 Hold capacitor is large Miller capacitor Can use smaller capacitors and switches good speed If Q2 turned off first, injection of Q1 small due to Miller effect

32 Example 3 Miller capacitor: Higher speed amplifier possible as Opamp output voltage swing is small Allows small capacitors and switch sizes Sample mode: Opamp is reset C1 and C2 between Vin and V - of Opamp Hold mode: Effective hold cap is C hld-eff

33 Example 4 For lower frequency application Based on switched capacitor circuits During φ 1 : C H is connected between the input signal source and the inverting input of the Opamp inverting input and the output of the opamp are connected together This causes the voltages at both of these nodes to be equal to the input-offset voltage of the Opamp, therefore C H charged to V in - V off Accurate since offset cancellation performed During φ 1 Vout = Vin independent of the Opamp offset voltage Slow since Opamp swings from 0 to V in every cycle Not really a S/H Output not valid during φ 1

34 Example 5 Improved accuracy High input impedance φ 1a advanced Charge injection of Q4 and Q5 cancel (and is signal independent) Charge injection of Q1 and Q2: no effect Charge injection of Q3: reduced as before In Hold mode

35 Switched Capacitor Circuits Switched capacitor (SC) circuits are probably the most popular integrated circuit analogue circuit technique SC operate at discrete time / analogue amplitude For the analysis z-transform is most appropriate Especially popular for filters Good linearity, accurate frequency response, high dynamic range Filter coefficients make use of capacitance ratios

36 Switched Capacitor Circuits Basic principles Signal entered and read out as voltages, but processed internally as charges on capacitors. Since CMOS preserves charges well, high SNR and linearity are possible. Significance Replaces absolute accuracy of R & C (10-30%) with matching accuracy of C ( %) Can realize accurate and tunable large RC time constants Can realize high-order circuits with high dynamic range Allows (medium-) accuracy data conversion without trimming Can realize large mixed-mode systems for telephony, audio, aerospace, consumer etc. applications on a single CMOS chip Tilted the MOS VS. BJT contest decisively.

37 SC Building Blocks Opamps Ideal Opamps usually assumed Important non-idealities dc gain: sets the accuracy of charge transfer hence, transfer-function accuracy unity-gain frequency, phase margin & slew-rate: sets the max clocking frequency. A general rule is that unity-gain frequency should be 5 times (or more) higher than the clock-frequency dc offset: Can create dc offset at output. Circuit techniques to combat this which also reduce 1/f noise.

38 SC Building Blocks Double Poly Capacitors Substantial parasitics with large bottom plate capacitance (20% of C 1 ) Sometimes metal-metal capacitors are used but have even larger parasitic capacitances.

39 SC Building Blocks Switches Mosfet switches are good switches off-resistance near GΩ range on-resistance in 100Ω to 5kΩ range (depends on transistor sizing) However, have non-linear parasitic capacitances When φ high, switch is on

40 SC Building Blocks Non-overlapping clocks Non-overlapping clocks both clocks are never High at same time Needed to ensure charge is not inadvertently lost Integer values occur at end of φ 1 i.e. (n-1), n, (n+1) End of φ 2 is 1/2 of integer value, i.e. (n-3/2), (n-1/2), (n+1/2)

41 Basic Operating Principle Switched-capacitor resistor equivalent C 1 charged to V 1 and then to V 2 during each Clk period T Average current is given by:

42 Basic Operating Principle Switched-capacitor resistor equivalent For equivalent resistor can be calculated from: Therefore: This equivalence is useful when looking at low-frequency portion of a SC-circuit For higher frequencies, discrete-time analysis is used.

43 Example Resistor Equivalence What is the equivalent resistance of a 5pF capacitance sampled at a clock frequency of 100kHz? large equivalent resistance of 2MΩ can be realized Requires only 2 transistors, a clock and a relatively small capacitance In a typical CMOS process, such a large resistor would normally require a huge amount of silicon area.

44 Integrator (Parasitic Sensitive) Switched capacitor discrete time integrator Extra switch at the output indicates that the output signal is valid at the end of φ 1 Input can change at any point in time it is sampled at the end of φ 1 Simplest circuit design but sensitive to parasitics (not shown) Calculate v co (t) at the end φ 1 of as a function of v ci (t) at the end of φ 1

45 Integrator (Parasitic Sensitive) Circuit diagrams for φ 1 high and for φ 2 high Charge on C 2 is equal to C 2 *v co (nt-t) when φ 1 is turning off Charge on C 1 is equal to C 1 *v ci (nt-t) when φ 1 is turning off When φ 2 goes high C 1 is discharged (due to virtual ground on its top plate) Charge is transferred to C 2 adding to the charge present there Positive input voltage will result in a negative voltage across C 2 (inverting integrator) So, at the end of φ 2 :

46 Integrator (Parasitic Sensitive) Circuit diagrams for φ 1 high and for φ 2 high What is the charge on C 2 at the end of φ 1 (as indicated by the additional φ 1 switch at the output)? When φ 2 turns off, the charge on C 2 is preserved during the next φ 1 phase (until φ 2 turns on again in the next cycle) Therefore the charge on C 2 at time nt at the end of the next φ 1 is equal to that at time (nt-t/2) Therefore:

47 Integrator (Parasitic Sensitive) Circuit diagrams for φ 1 high and for φ 2 high Dividing by C 2 and introducing discrete time variables v i (n)=v ci (nt) and v o (n)=v co (nt): Taking the z-transform: V o z = z 1 V o z C 1 C 2 z 1 V 1 (z) Integrator Transfer Function:

48 Integrator (Parasitic Sensitive) Circuit diagrams for φ 1 high and for φ 2 high Integrator Transfer Function: Gain depends only on capacitor ratios! Very accurate transfer functions can be realised!

49 Typical Waveforms Transfer function is only valid at the time nt just before the end of φ 1 Discrete time relationship of v oi (t) and v co (t) is valid only at times (nt) at the end of φ 1

50 Low Frequency Behaviour The transfer function can be rewritten as: Recall that: With T= 1 f s Therefore: For wt<<1 (i.e. at low frequency)

51 Low Frequency Behaviour For wt<<1 (i.e. at low frequency) This is the same transfer function as a continuous-time integrator with a gain constant of: The gain is a function of the capacitor ratio and the sampling time

52 Parasitic Effects Assuming double poly capacitors, the circuit diagram with parasitic capacitances is: The transfer function modifies to: C p1 : parasitic capacitances of C 1, top plate and nonlinear capacitances of the two switches C p2 : parasitic capacitances of C 1, bottom plate C p3 : parasitic capacitances of C 2, top plate and input capacitances of Opamp and of f 2 switch C p3 : parasitic capacitances of C2, bottom plate (and output capacitance) Therefore, gain coefficient is not well controlled and partially nonlinear, as C p1 is non-linear

53 Parasitic Insensitive Integrator By using 2 extra switches, integrator can be made insensitive to parasitic capacitances more accurate transfer-functions better linearity (since non-linear capacitances unimportant) Major development for SC circuits

54 Parasitic Insensitive Integrator Circuit diagrams for φ 1 high and for φ 2 high Same analysis as before except that C 1 is switched in polarity before discharging into C 2 This results in v co (t) rising for a positive v ci (nt-t) Therefore: Non-inverting amplifier! But full time period delay as H z = C 1 C 2 z 1 1 z 1

55 Parasitic Insensitive Integrator Circuit diagram with parasitic capacitances C p3 has little effect since it is connected to virtual Ground C p4 has little effect since it is driven by output C p2 has little effect since it is either connected to virtual Ground or physical Ground

56 Parasitic Insensitive Integrator C p1 is continuously being charged to v i (n) and discharged to ground φ 1 high: the fact that C p1 is also charged to v i (n-1) does not affect charge on C 1 φ 2 high: C p1 discharges through φ 2 switch attached to its node and does not affect the charge accumulating on C 2 While the parasitic capacitances may slow down settling time behaviour, they do not affect the discrete time difference equation

57 Parasitic Insensitive Inverting Integrator Present output depends on present input (delay-free) or H z = C 1 C z 1 Delay-free integrator has negative gain while delaying integrator has positive gain Delay free, parasitic insensitive inverting integrator: Same circuit, but switch phases at C 1, top plate, are swapped

58 Signal Flow Graph Analysis For more complex circuits charge analysis can be tedious

59 Signal Flow Graph Analysis Superposition is used on the input-output relationship for V 2 (z) and V 3 (z) are given by: V o z V 2 (z) = C 2 C A z 1 1 z 1 V o z V 3 (z) = C 3 C A 1 1 z 1 For the input V 1 (z), the input-output relationship is simply an inverting gain stage, with the input being sampled at the end of φ 1 V o z V 1 (z) = C 1 C A Therefore: V o z = C 1 V C 1 z + C 2 z 1 A C A 1 z 1 V 2 z C 3 1 C A 1 z 1 V 3 z V o z = C 1 V C 1 z + C 2 1 A C A 1 z V 2 z C 3 z C A z 1 V 3 z

60 Signal Flow Graph Analysis In a flow graph the Opamp is separated from the inputs Opamp is represented by: 1 1 C A 1 z 1 Non-switched capacitor input is represented by a gain of: C 1 1 z 1 Delaying switched capacitor is represented by a gain of: C 2 z 1 Non-delaying switched capacitor is represented by a gain of: C 3

61 Example First Order Filter Consider a general first order filter Start with an active-rc structure and replace resistors with SC equivalents Analyse using discrete-time analysis

62 Example First Order Filter Applying the flow chart rules

63 Example First Order Filter Transfer function can easily be derived

64 Example First Order Filter Find the pole of the transfer function by equating the denominator to zero: For positive capacitance values, z p is restricted to the real axis between 0 and 1 circuit is always stable The zero is found by equating the numerator to zero to yield: Also restricted to real axis between 0 and 1 The DC gain found evaluating the transfer function at z=1:

65 Numerical Example: First Order Filter Find the capacitance values needed for a first-order SC-circuit such that its 3dB point is at 10kHz when a clock frequency of 100kHz is used. It is also desired that the filter have zero gain at 50kHz (i.e. z=-1) and the DC gain be unity Assume C A =10pF Solution: Making use of the bilinear transform p = z 1 the zero at -1 is mapped z+1 to Ω= The frequency warping maps the -3dB frequency of 10kHz (or 0.2 rad/sample) to: in the continuous-time domain leading to the continuous-time pole, p p, required being: p p =

66 Numerical Example: First Order Filter This pole is mapped backed to z p given by: Therefore, the transfer function H(z) is given by: where k is determined by setting the DC gain to one (i.e. H(1)=1) resulting in: Equating the these coefficients with the general first order transfer filter transfer function (and assuming C A =10pF): C 1 =4.814pF; C 2 =-9.628pF; C 3 =9.628pF The negative capacitance can realised by using a differential input or:

67 Switch Sharing Some switches of the first order SC circuit are redundant Switches that are always connected to the some potential can be shared The top plate of C 2 and C 3 are always switched to virtual Ground of the Opamp and physical Ground at the same time. Therefore one pair of these switches can be eliminated

68 Fully Differential Filters Most modern SC filters are fully-differential Difference between two voltages represents signal (balanced around a common-mode voltage) Common-mode noise, drift, etc. is rejected Even order distortion terms cancel

69 Fully Differential Filters Fully differential first order filter Two identical copies of the single-ended version

70 Fully Differential Filters Negative continuous-time input: equivalent to a negative C 1

71 Fully Differential Filters Note that fully-differential version is essentially two copies of single-ended version, however... area penalty not twice Only one opamp needed (though common-mode circuit also needed) Input and output signal swings have been doubled so that same dynamic range can be achieved with half capacitor sizes (from kt/c analysis) Switches can be reduced in size since small caps used However, there is more wiring in fully-differ version but better noise and distortion performance

72 Low-Q Biquad Filter Higher order filters require biquadratic transfer functions Using flow chart analysis, one can obtain:

73 Implemented as a SC: Low-Q Biquad Filter

74 Low-Q Biquad Filter Flow chart representation:

75 Low-Q Biquad Filter Design The individual coefficients of z can be equated by comparing to the transfer function A degree of freedom is available here in setting internal V 1 (z) output

76 Low-Q Biquad Filter Design Can do proper dynamic range scaling Or let the time-constants of 2 integrators be equal by: Low-Q Biquad Capacitance Ratio Comparing resistor circuit to SC circuit, we have However, the sampling-rate, 1/T, is typically much larger that the approximated pole-frequency ω 0, so ω 0 T<<1

77 Low-Q Biquad Capacitance Ratio Thus, the largest capacitors determining pole positions are the integrating capacitors C 1 and C 2 If Q<1, the smallest capacitors are K 4 C 1 and K 5 C 2 resulting in an approximate capacitance spread of 1/ (ω 0 T) If Q<1, then the smallest capacitor would be K 6 C 2 resulting in an approximate capacitance spread of Q/(ω 0 T) can be quite large for Q>>1 due to a large damping resistor Q/ ω 0

78 High-Q Biquad Use a high-q biquad filter circuit when for Q>>1 Q-damping done with a cap around both integrators Alternative active-rc prototype filter:

79 High-Q Biquad SC implementation Q-damping now performed by K 6 C 1

80 High-Q Biquad Input K 1 C 1 : major path for lowpass Input K 2 C 1 : major path for band-pass filters Input K 3 C 2 : major path for high-pass filters General transfer-function is: If matched to the following general form: Freedom to determine the coefficients Reasonable choice is:

81 Charge Injection To reduce charge injection (thereby improving distortion), turn off certain switches first Advance φ 1a and φ 2a so that only their charge injection affect circuit result is a dc offset

82 Charge Injection Note: φ 2a connected to ground φ 1a while connected to virtual ground, therefore: can use single n-channel transistors charge injection NOT signal dependent Charge related to V GS and V t V t related to substrate-source voltage, thus V t remains constant Source of Q 3 and Q 4 remains at 0 volts amount of charge injected by Q 3, Q 4 is not signal dependent and can be considered as a DC offset

83 Charge Injection Example Estimate DC offset due to channel-charge injection when C1=0 and C2 = C4 = 10C3 = 10pF Assume switches Q 3, Q 4 have V t =0.8V, W=30mm, L=0.8mm and C ox =1.9e-3 pf/mm 2, and power supplies are ±2.5V Solution: Channel charge of Q3, Q4 (when on ) is: DC feedback keeps Opamp input at virtual ground (0V)

84 Charge Injection Example Charge transfer into given by: We estimate half channel-charges of Q 3, Q 4, are injected to the virtual ground leading to: Thus: DC offset affected by the capacitor sizes, switch sizes and power supply voltage

85 SC Gain Circuits Parallel RC SC circuits can be used for signal amplification General Gain circuit with two parallel RC: SC implementation: circuit amplifies 1/f noise as well as Opamp offset

86 SC Gain Circuits Resettable Gain Circuit Resets integrating capacitor C 2 every clock cycle performs offset cancellation also highpass filters 1/f noise of Opamp However, requires a high slew-rate from Opamp

87 Resettable Gain Circuit Offset cancellation SC Gain Circuits

88 SC Gain Circuits Capacitive Reset Eliminate slew problem and still cancel offset by coupling Opamp s output to inverting input C 4 is optional de-glitching capacitor

89 Capacitive Reset During Reset SC Gain Circuits During valid output

90 SC Gain Circuits Differential Capacitive Reset Accepts differential inputs and partially cancels switch clockfeedthrough

91 Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) Preceding SC gain circuit is an example of CDS Minimizes errors due to Opamp offset and 1/f noise When CDS used, Opamps should have low thermal noise (often use n- channel input transistors) Often use CDS in only a few stages: input stage for oversampling converter some stages in a filter (where low-frequency gain is high) Basic approach: Calibration phase: store input offset voltage Operation phase: error subtracted from signal

92 Better High-Freq CDS Amplifier φ 2 : C 1, C 2 used but include errors φ 1 : C 1, C 2 used but here no offset errors

93 CDS Integrator φ 1 : sample offset on C 2 φ 2 : C 2 placed in series with Opamp to reduce error Offset errors reduced by Opamp gain Can also apply this technique to gain amps

94 SC Amplitude Modulator Square wave modulate by ±1 (i.e. V out = ±V in ) Makes use of cap-reset gain circuit φ ca : is the modulating signal

95 SC Full-Wave Rectifier Use square wave modulator and comparator to make For proper operation, comparator output should change synchronously with the sampling instances

96 SC Peak Detector Left circuit can be fast but less accurate Right circuit is more accurate due to feedback but slower due to need for compensation circuit might also slew so Opamp s output should be clamped

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