Operation and Modeling of. The MOS Transistor. Second Edition. Yannis Tsividis Columbia University. New York Oxford OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS


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1 Operation and Modeling of The MOS Transistor Second Edition Yannis Tsividis Columbia University New York Oxford OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
2 CONTENTS Chapter 1 l.l Chapter Semiconductors, Junctions, and MOSFET Overview Semiconductors Conduction Transit Time Drift Diffusion Contact Potentials The pn Junction Overview of the MOS Transistor Basic Structure A Qualitative Description of MOS Transistor Operation A Fluid Dynamical Analog MOS Transistor Characteristics A Brief Overview of This Book The TwoTerminal MOS Structure The FiatBand Voltage Potential Balance and Charge Balance Effect of GateSubstrate Voltage on Surface Condition FiatBand Condition Accumulation XV
3 XVI CONTENTS Depletion and Inversion General Analysis Inversion General Relations and Regions of Inversion Strong Inversion Weak Inversion Moderate Inversion SmallSignal Capacitance Summary of Properties of the Regions of Inversion Chapter Chapter The ThreeTerminal MOS Structure Contacting the Inversion Layer The Body Effect Regions of Inversion Approximate Limits Strong Inversion Weak Inversion Moderate Inversion A "V CB Control" Point of View Fundamentals "Pinchoff' Voltage Expressions in Terms of the "Pinchoff Voltage The FourTerminal MOS Transistor Transistor Regions of Operation General Charge Sheet Models Complete Charge Sheet Model Simplified Charge Sheet Models Model Based on QuasiFermi Potentials Regions of Inversion in Terms of Terminal Voltages Strong Inversion Complete Symmetrie StrongInversion Model Simplified Symmetrie StrongInversion Model Simplified, SourceReferenced, StrongInversion Model Model Origin Summary Weak Inversion Moderate Inversion
4 CONTENTS XVÜ 4.8 Interpolation Models SourceReferenced vs. BodyReferenced Modeling Effective Mobility Temperature Effects Breakdown The /^Channel MOS Transistor EnhancementMode and DepletionMode Transistors Model Parameter Values, Model Accuracy, and Model Comparison Chapter 5 MOS Transistors with lonimplanted Channels Enhancement nmos Transistors Preliminaries Charges and Threshold Voltages DraintoSource Current Model for Strong Inversion Simplified Model for Strong Inversion Weak Inversion Depletion nmos Transistors The Need for an «Type Implant Charges and Threshold Voltage Transistor Operation Enhancement pmos Transistors SurfaceChannel EnhancementMode pmos BuriedChannel EnhancementMode pmos Chapter 6 SmallDimension Effects 248 by D. Antoniadis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Channel Length Modulation Barrier Lowering, TwoDimensional Charge Sharing, and Threshold Voltage ShortChannel Devices NarrowChannel Devices Summary and Comments Punchthrough Carrier Velocity Saturation Hot Carrier Effects Substrate Current, Gate Current, and Breakdown Scaling 290
5 XV1I1 CONTENTS 6.8 Effect of Surface and Drain Series Resistances Effects due to Thin Oxides and High Doping Chapter 7 The MOS Transistor in Dynamic Operation LargeSignal Modeling QuasiStatic Operation Terminal Currents in QuasiStatic Operation Evaluation of Charges in QuasiStatic Operation Strong Inversion Moderate Inversion Weak Inversion General Charge Sheet Model Depletion Accumulation Plots of Charges versus V GS Use of Charges in Evaluating Terminal Currents Transit Time under DC Conditions Limitations of the QuasiStatic Model NonQuasiStatic Modeling The Continuity Equation NonQuasiStatic Analysis Chapter 8 SmallSignal Modeling for Low and Medium Frequencies A LowFrequency SmallSignal Model for the Intrinsic Part A TwoPath View A SmallSignal Model for the Channel Path A SmallSignal Model for the DraintoSubstrate Path Strong Inversion Weak Inversion Moderate Inversion General Models A MediumFrequency SmallSignal Model for the Intrinsic Part Intrinsic Capacitances 385
6 CONTENTS XiX SmallSignal Modeling for the Extrinsic Part Noise White Noise Flicker Noise SmallDimension Effects EquivalentCircuit Model General Models Chapter Chapter HighFrequency SmallSignal Models A Complete QuasiStatic Model Complete Description of Capacitance Effects SmallSignal Equivalent Circuit Topologies Evaluation of Capacitances Frequency Region of Validity jparameter Models NonQuasiStatic Models A NonQuasiStatic StrongInversion Model Other Approximations and HigherOrder Models Model Comparison HighFrequency Noise Considerations in MOSFET Modeling for RF Applications MOSFET Modeling for Circuit Simulation Types of Models Combining Several Effects into One Physical Model Parameter Extraction Accuracy Properties of Good Models Considerations and Choices General Considerations Considerations Related to Computer Implementation Benchmark Tests Nontechnical Considerations
7 Appendices A Energy Bands and Related Concepts 557 B Basic Laws of Electrostatics in One Dimension 566 C Charge Density, Electric Field, and Potential in the pn Junction 572 D Energy Band Diagrams for the TwoTerminal MOS Structure 574 E Charge Density, Electric Field, and Potential in the Two Terminal MOS Structure 578 F General Analysis of the TwoTerminal MOS Structure 580 G Careful Definitions for the Limits of Moderate Inversion 584 H Energy Band Diagrams for the ThreeTerminal MOS Structure 587 I General Analysis of the ThreeTerminal MOS Structure 591 J Drain Current Formulation Using QuasiFermi Potentials 594 K Results of a Detailed Formulation for the Drain Current and Drain SmallSignal Conductance in the Saturation Region 598 L Evaluation of the Intrinsic Transient Source and Drain Currents 600 M Charges for the Accurate StrongInversion Model 603 N Quantities Used in the Derivation of the NonQuasiStatic yparameter Model 606 Index 609
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