Day 1. What You ll Learn. 1. Organisms are living things. 2. All organisms are made of one or more cells.

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2 What You ll Learn Day 1 1. Organisms are living things. 2. All organisms are made of one or more cells. 3. There are two main types of cells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

3 A cell is the basic unit and structure of life. So, what is a cell? They make up all living things.

4 Perform the activities that keep a living thing alive. The cell itself is a living thing. Cells can make more cells like themselves. Cells

5 Cells come in all shapes and sizes.

6 Cells are very tiny.

7 Can you guess what these images are? What type of lab equipment would allow you to see these things? A special type of microscope called a scanning electron microscope (SEM). 5

8

9 So, how were cells discovered?

10 The History of the Cell Theory Long ago people thought that diseases were caused by spirits and curses! What Scientists invention now was most know important what causes in disproving disease. Do this you? idea? Microorganisms Microscopes! They such as bacteria, allow you to see viruses, fungi, and cells that were once protists. unknown!

11 The Scientists 1.Anton van Leeuwenhoek a)1 st person to record looking at water under a simple microscope b)1 st to look at living cells c) Invented over 200 microscopes during the 1700 s

12 Anton von Leewenhoek Anton von Leewenhoek Leeuwenhoek s microscope Described algae like this Spirogyra in his journals.

13 The Scientists 2. Robert Hooke Invented 1 st compound microscope in The compound microscope had very crude lenses that magnified objects Looked at cork and called these cells Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things.

14 Robert Hooke Robert Hooke Hooke s microscope Hooke s drawing of cork cells

15 C. The Cell Theory The cell theory is made up of three main ideas: All organisms are composed of one or more cells. The cell is the basic unit of organization of organisms. All cells come from preexisting cells.

16 Let s take notes. Divide a piece of paper in your journal into two columns. Label one side Prokaryotic Cells and the other Eukaryotic Cells. Draw a diagram or paste a diagram of each cell into the proper column on the page. Add key facts

17 Prokaryotic Cell Diagram

18 Two Basic Cell Types A. PROKARYOTIC 1. Unicellular (1 cell) 2. Do not have a true nucleus only a circular piece of DNA 3. Do not have organelles (have ribosomes) 4. Have a cell wall some surrounded by a slimy capsule 5. Usually move using method of locomotion requiring flagella or cilia 6. Size = 0.1 μm - 10 μm 7. Found only in the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria Cells that do not contain internal membrane-bound structures are called prokaryotic cells. Click here

19 Nucleus Eukaryotic Cell Diagram

20 Two Basic Cell Types B. EUKARYOTIC 1. Eu- means true - Have a true nucleus that contains long strands of DNA 2. Can be unicellular or multicellular 3. Have double membrane-bound organelles. 4. Found in more complex and larger organisms 5. Size = 10 m m 6. Found in the kingdoms Protist, Fungi, Plant, & Animal Cells containing membrane-bound structures are called eukaryotic cells. Click here

21 Day 2 Objectives: Compare and Contrast Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Identify cell parts common to eukaryotic cells.

22 READING IS FUNDAMENTAL!! There are TWO types of cells! 1. Read the handout on cell types. 2. What are the two main types of cells? 3. Use the Venn diagram to compare/contrast the two cell.

23 Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic No nuclues unicellular simple Prokaryoti c Bacteria cells Eukaryotic nuclues Unicellular or multicellular Complex, organelles are present Plant and animal

24 Cell Parts All cells have certain parts. membrane

25 Let s take notes! Your teacher will provide you with a model of a cell to place in your journal. Let s label the common parts to eukaryotic cells-plant and animal.

26 8 Parts of a Cell Organelles The membrane-bound structures within eukaryotic cells Each has a specific function that contributes to cell survival. Separation of organelles into distinct compartments benefits the eukaryotic cells. The nucleus is the central membrane-bound organelle that manages cellular functions.

27 This eukaryotic cell from an animal has distinct membrane-bound organelles that allow different parts of the cell to perform different functions. 1. Nucleus 2. Nucleolus 3. Chromosomes 4. Cell membrane 5. Organelles

28 Animal Cell Organelles Cytoplasm Nucleus Cell Membrane Vacuole Mitochondrion

29 Cellular Boundaries 1. Cell membrane Function controls what enters/leaves the cell - selectively permeable membrane maintains homeostasis (stability)

30 The cell wall of plants 2. cell wall Structure fairly rigid structure located outside the cell membrane Function provides additional support and protection.

31 B. Nucleus and cell control Located near the center of the cell Home of the chromosomes, genetic material Control center, directs cell activity

32 Vacuoles and storage Vacuoles Structure - membrane-bound sacs Notice any differences between vacuoles in plant and animal cells? Function used for temporary storage of materials like water and carbohydrates. Animal Cell Vacuole Plant Cell

33 Chloroplasts and energy (plant cell organelle) Structure Outer membrane with stacks of membranes filled with chlorophyll, the green pigment that gives leaves and stems their color Function Conducts photosynthesis: CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 capture light energy and converts it into food to store for a later time.

34 Mitochondria and energy Structure Outer membrane with highly folded inner membrane Found in both plant and animal cells Function Conducts cellular respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP transforms the stored energy in food (glucose) into energy for the cell (ATP).

35 A prokaryotic cell does not have internal organelles surrounded by a membrane. Most of a prokaryote s metabolism takes place in the cytoplasm. 1. Ribosomes 2. DNA 3. Plasma membrane 4. Cell wall

36 Let s Quiz

37 Question 1 What makes this cell eukaryotic? A. Because it has a cell wall. B. Because it contains DNA. C. Because it has membrane-bound organelles. D. Because it does not have DNA. QUIZ

38 Question 1 The Answer is C. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles that have specific functions in the cell; prokaryotic cells do not. Nucleus Nucleolus Chromosomes Plasma membrane Organelles

39 Question 2 QUIZ What is the primary function of the cell wall? A. act as selectively permeable membrane B. provide support C. control activity of organelles D. acquire nutrients from environment

40 The answer is B. It provides support.

41 Question 3 What is the function of structure C? A It produces ribosomes. B It synthesizes proteins. C It regulates the transport of materials. D It controls the energy released in respiration

42 Question 3 The correct answer is D. The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell. It transforms energy into a useable form for the cells.

43 Question 4 Which structure controls what enters and exits the cell? A cell membrane B cell wall C chloraplasts D mitochondria

44 Question 4 The answer is A. The cell membrane keeps unwanted substances on the outside of the cell, while holding needed materials such as water inside.

45 Question 5 What type of cell is this? A prokaryoytic B eukaryotic Ribosomes DNA Plasma membrane C animal Cell wall D plant

46 Question 5 The answer is A. The cell does not have a nuclueas or membrane bound organelles.

47 READING IS FUNDAMENTAL!! Cells have organelles that work to help the cell function. 1. Read pages in Gateways text book. 2. What cell parts are found in plants but not animals? 3. Are animal cells and plant cells eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells? Explain. 4. What are some structural differences between animal cells and plant cells? 5. Where can the genetic material be found?

48 Summary Main Ideas Microscopes enabled biologists to see cells and develop the cell theory. The cell theory states that the cell is the basic unit of organization, all organisms are made up of one or more cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells.

49 Main Ideas Continued Using electron microscopes, scientists can study cell structure in detail. Cells are classified as prokaryotic and eukaryotic based on whether or not they have a nucleus.

50 Main Ideas Continued Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and organelles, are enclosed by a cell membrane, and some have a cell wall that provides support and protection.

51 Main Ideas Continued Mitochondria break down food molecules to release energy. Chloroplasts convert light energy into chemical energy.

52 Question 1 Which of the following is a main idea of the cell theory? A. All organisms are composed of one cell. B. The organelle is the basic unit structure and organization of organisms. C. All cells come from two parent cells. D. All cells come from preexisting cells.

53 The answer is D. The cell theory states that a cell divides to form two identical cells.

54 Question 2 In what type of cell would you find chlorophyll? A. prokaryote B. animal C. plant D. fungus

55 The answer is C. Chlorophyll is the green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plant cells.

56 Question 3 Which of these structures is the control center of the cell? A. B. C. D.

57 Answer A depicts the nuclues.

58 Question 4 What is the difference between the cell wall and the cell membrane? Cell membrane Inside cell Outside cell Cell wall

59 The cell membrane is a flexible boundary between the cell and its environment that controls the supply of nutrients, waste, and other products entering and leaving the cell. The cell wall is a rigid structure found in plant cells that provides support and protection but does not select which molecules can enter or leave the cell. Inside cell Plasma membrane Cell wall Outside cell

60 Question 5 Which of the following structures is found in both plant and animal cells? A. chloroplast B. cell wall C. mitochondrion D. thylakoid membrane

61 The answer is C. Mitochondria are the organelles in both plant and animal cells that transform energy for the cell.

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