UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure

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1 UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure Page CP: CHAPTER 3, Sections 1-3; HN: CHAPTER 7, Sections 1-2 Standard B-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells and their organelles. Indicators: B-2.1 B-2.2 B-2.3 Recall the three major tenets of cell theory (all living things are composed of one or more cells; cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things; and all presently existing cells arose from previously existing cells). Summarize the structures and functions of organelles found in a eukaryotic cell (including the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, vacuoles, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum [ER], golgi apparatus, cilia, flagella, cell membrane, nuclear membrane, cell wall, and cytoplasm). Compare the structures and organelles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Vocabulary: Cell Theory Nucleus Prokaryotic Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Eukaryotic Cell Organelle Cytoskeleton Cytoplasm Ribosome Golgi Apparatus Vesicle Vacuole Mitochondrion Lysosome Cell Membrane Cell Wall Chloroplast Centriole Nucleolus Peroxisome Define the following Vocabulary Terms: Cell Theory: Prokaryotic Cell: Eukaryotic Cell: Organelle:

2 UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure Vocabulary Chart *A= Animal Cell; P = Plant Cell; Write the Vocabulary Term also on the diagram to the right. A P Vocabulary Term Definition Color 4 9 Organelle composed of a double membrane that acts as he storehouse for most of a Pink cell s DNA 5 6 Organelle that contains enzymes Dark Orange 8 3 Jellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and in some cells organelles Organelle composed of numerous X 4 membranes that are used to convert solar energy into chemical energy; contains chlorophyll Organelle that is used to store materials, X 11 such as water, food, or enzymes, that are needed by the cell Interconnected network of thin, folded 9 13 membranes that produce, process, and distribute proteins 1 X Small organelle that contains and transports materials within the cytoplasm Rigid structure that gives protection, X 1 support, and shape to cells in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria Network of proteins, such as microtubules 11 7 and microfilaments, inside a eukaryotic cell that supports and shapes the cell Stack of flat, membrane-enclosed spaces 2 5 containing enzymes that process, sort, and deliver proteins Double-layer phospholipids that forms a 7 2 boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell 3 12 Organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins Bean-shaped organelle that supplies energy 10 8 to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA White Light Green Light Purple Light Blue Light Orange Dark Green Tan Red Dark Blue Black Purple

3 UNIT 3 BIOLOGY: Cell Structure Page CP: CHAPTER 3, Sections 1-3; HN: CHAPTER 7, Sections 1-2 Standard B-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells and their organelles. Indicators: B-2.1 B-2.2 B-2.3 Recall the three major tenets of cell theory (all living things are composed of one or more cells; cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things; and all presently existing cells arose from previously existing cells). Summarize the structures and functions of organelles found in a eukaryotic cell (including the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, vacuoles, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum [ER], golgi apparatus, cilia, flagella, cell membrane, nuclear membrane, cell wall, and cytoplasm). Compare the structures and organelles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Vocabulary: Cell Theory Nucleus Prokaryotic Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Eukaryotic Cell Organelle Cytoskeleton Cytoplasm Ribosome Golgi Apparatus Vesicle* Vacuole Mitochondrion Lysosome Cell Membrane Cell Wall Chloroplast Centriole Nucleolus Peroxisome* (* Represents not found in textbook. Refer to notes.) Define the following Vocabulary Terms: Cell Theory: Prokaryote: Eukaryote: Organelle:

4 UNIT 3 BIOLOGY: Cell Structure Vocabulary Chart *A= Animal Cell; P = Plant Cell; Write the Vocabulary Term also on the diagram to the right. A P Vocabulary Term Definition Color 4 9 In cells, large structure inside some cells that contains the cell s genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell s activities 5 6 Cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell 8 3 Material inside the cell membrane but not including the nucleus X Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that uses energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food molecules by photosynthesis 11 Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates Internal membrane system in cells in which components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified 1 X Small organelle that contains and transports materials within the cytoplasm X 2 Strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria Network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement Stack of membranes in the cell in which enzymes attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins 7 2 Thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell 3 12 Small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and proteins 10 8 Cell organelle that releases energy from stored food molecules 6 X One of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope Small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of ribosomes begins Organelle that contains digestive enzymes (differing from lysosomes) for breaking down toxic materials in the cell. Pink Dark Orange White Light Green Light Purple Light Blue Light Orange Dark Green Tan Red Dark Blue Black Purple Yellow Grey Brown

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