7-1 Life Is Cellular. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

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1 7-1 Life Is Cellular

2 The Discovery of the Cell What is the cell theory?

3 The Discovery of the Cell The cell theory states: All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. New cells are produced from existing cells.

4 Exploring the Cell Electron Microscopes Electron microscopes reveal details 1000 times smaller than those visible in light microscopes. Electron microscopy can be used to visualize only nonliving, preserved cells and tissues.

5 Exploring the Cell Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) Used to study cell structures and large protein molecules Specimens must be cut into ultra-thin slices

6 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes. All cells: are surrounded by a barrier called a cell membrane. at some point contain DNA.

7 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cells are classified into two categories, depending on whether they contain a nucleus. The nucleus is a large membrane-enclosed structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA. The nucleus controls many of the cell's activities.

8 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Eukaryotes are cells that contain nuclei. Prokaryotes are cells that do not contain nuclei.

9 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes What are the characteristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

10 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Prokaryotic cells have genetic material that is not contained in a nucleus. Prokaryotes do not have membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells are generally smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells. Bacteria are prokaryotes.

11 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell.

12 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells generally contain dozens of structures and internal membranes. Many eukaryotic cells are highly specialized. Plants, animals, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes.

13 7-1

14 7-1 The cell theory states that new cells are produced from a. nonliving material. b. existing cells. c. cytoplasm. d. animals.

15 7-1 The person who first used the term cell was a. Matthias Schleiden. b. Lynn Margulis. c. Anton van Leeuwenhoek. d. Robert Hooke.

16 7-1 Electron microscopes are capable of revealing more details than light microscopes because a. electron microscopes can be used with live organisms. b. light microscopes cannot be used to examine thin tissues. c. the wavelengths of electrons are longer than those of light. d. the wavelengths of electrons are shorter than those of light.

17 7-1 Which organism listed is a prokaryote? a. protist b. bacterium c. fungus d. plant

18 7-1 One way prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes is that they a. contain DNA, which carries biological information. b. have a surrounding barrier called a cell membrane. c. do not have a membrane separating DNA from the rest of the cell. d. are usually larger and more complex.

19 END OF SECTION

20 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

21 Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic cell into two major parts: the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The Cytoplasm is the portion of the cell outside the nucleus.

22 Plant Cell Nucleus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Cell wall Cell membrane Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Ribosome (free) Ribosome (attached) Golgi apparatus Chloroplast Vacuole Mitochondrion

23 Animal Cell Eukaryotic Cell Structures Nucleus Nuclear envelope Rough endoplasmic reticulum Nucleolus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Ribosome (free) Cell membrane Ribosome (attached) Centrioles Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion

24 Nucleus What is the function of the nucleus?

25 Nucleus The nucleus is the control center of the cell. The nucleus contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules.

26 Nucleus The Nucleus Chromatin Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Nuclear pores

27 Ribosomes What is the function of the ribosomes?

28 Ribosomes One of the most important jobs carried out in the cell is making proteins. Proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Ribosomes are small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm.

29 Endoplasmic Reticulum What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?

30 Endoplasmic Reticulum There are two types of ER rough and smooth. Ribosomes

31 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts What is the function of the mitochondria?

32 Mitochondria Nearly all eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria. Mitochondria convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use. Mitochondrion

33 What is the function of chloroplasts?

34 Chloroplasts Plants and some other organisms contain chloroplasts. Chloroplasts capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis. Chloroplast

35 Cytoskeleton Centrioles are located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division. Cell Organelle Interactive Plant and Animal Model Interactive

36 7-2

37 7-2 In the nucleus of a cell, the DNA is usually visible as a dense region called the nucleolus. the nuclear envelope. granular material called chromatin. condensed bodies called chloroplasts.

38 7-2 Two functions of vacuoles are storing materials and helping to break down organelles. assemble proteins. maintain homeostasis. make new organelles.

39 7-2 Chloroplasts are found in the cells of plants only. plants and some other organisms. all eukaryotes. most prokaryotes.

40 7-2 Which of the following is NOT a function of the Golgi apparatus? synthesize proteins. modify proteins. sort proteins. package proteins.

41 7-2 Which of the following is a function of the cytoskeleton? manufactures new cell organelles assists in movement of some cells from one place to another releases energy in cells modifies, sorts, and packages proteins

42 END OF SECTION

43 7-3 Cell Boundaries 7-3 Cell Boundaries

44 Why are cells so small? 1. Nutrients must get into the cell and wastes must be removed; what limits this exchange is the cell's surface area-to-volume ratio. 2. Therefore, the smaller the cell the larger the surface area this means more materials can be exchanged with the environment. By minimizing its size, a cell is maximizing the speed at which it can communicate, the rate at which diffusion can occur, and the amount of surface area at its disposal.

45

46 Surface Area/Volume = As Large As Possible

47 All cells are surrounded by a thin, flexible barrier known as the cell membrane. Many cells also produce a strong supporting layer around the membrane known as a cell wall.

48 Cell Membrane Cell Membrane The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support.

49 Cell Membrane

50 Cell Walls What is the main function of the cell wall?

51 Cell Wall Cell walls are found in plants, algae, fungi, and many prokaryotes.

52 Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Measuring Concentration A solution is a mixture of two or more substances. The substances dissolved in the solution are called solutes. The concentration of a solution is the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume.

53 Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries What happens during diffusion?

54 Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Diffusion Particles in a solution tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated. This process is called diffusion. When the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system, the system has reached equilibrium.

55 When equilibrium is reached, solute particles continue to diffuse across the membrane in both directions. Diffusion depends upon random particle movements. Therefore, substances diffuse across membranes without requiring the cell to use energy.

56 Osmosis What is osmosis?

57 Osmosis Osmosis Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

58 How Osmosis Works

59 Water tends to diffuse from a highly concentrated region to a less concentrated region. If you compare two solutions, three terms can be used to describe the concentrations: hypertonic ( above strength ). hypotonic ( below strength ). isotonic ( same strength ) ent_view0/chapter2/animation how_osmosis_works.ht ml

60 Osmotic Pressure Osmosis exerts a pressure known as osmotic pressure on the hypertonic side of a selectively permeable membrane.

61 Glucose molecules Facilitated Diffusion student_view0/chapter2/animation how_facilitate d_diffusion_works.htmlhttp://highered.mheducatio n.com/sites/ /student_view0/chapter2/an imation how_facilitated_diffusion_works.html Protein channel

62 Active Transport Active Transport Sometimes cells move materials in the opposite direction from which the materials would normally move that is against a concentration difference. This process is known as active transport. Active transport requires energy.

63 Active Transport Molecular Transport In active transport, small molecules and ions are carried across membranes by proteins in the membrane. Energy use in these systems enables cells to concentrate substances in a particular location, even when diffusion might move them in the opposite direction.

64 Active Transport Molecular Transport Molecule to be carried

65

66 Endocytosis and Exocytosis Endocytosis is the process of taking material into the cell. Two examples of endocytosis are: phagocytosis pinocytosis During exocytosis, materials are forced out of the cell.

67 7-3

68 7-3 Unlike a cell wall, a cell membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer. provides rigid support for the surrounding cell. allows most small molecules and ions to pass through easily. is found only in plants, fungi, algae, and many prokaryotes.

69 7-3 The concentration of a solution is defined as the volume of solute in a given mass of solution. mass of solute in a given volume of solution. mass of solution in a given volume of solute. volume of solution in a given mass of solute.

70 7-3 If a substance is more highly concentrated outside the cell than inside the cell and the substance can move through the cell membrane, the substance will move by diffusion from inside the cell to outside. remain in high concentration outside the cell. move by diffusion from outside to inside the cell. cause water to enter the cell by osmosis.

71 7-3 The movement of materials in a cell against a concentration difference is called facilitated diffusion. active transport. osmosis. diffusion.

72 7-3 The process by which molecules diffuse across a membrane through protein channels is called active transport. endocytosis. facilitated diffusion. osmosis.

73 END OF SECTION

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