2 The Discovery of the Cell What is the cell theory?
3 The Discovery of the Cell The cell theory states: All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. New cells are produced from existing cells.
4 Exploring the Cell Electron Microscopes Electron microscopes reveal details 1000 times smaller than those visible in light microscopes. Electron microscopy can be used to visualize only nonliving, preserved cells and tissues.
5 Exploring the Cell Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) Used to study cell structures and large protein molecules Specimens must be cut into ultra-thin slices
6 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes. All cells: are surrounded by a barrier called a cell membrane. at some point contain DNA.
7 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cells are classified into two categories, depending on whether they contain a nucleus. The nucleus is a large membrane-enclosed structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA. The nucleus controls many of the cell's activities.
8 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Eukaryotes are cells that contain nuclei. Prokaryotes are cells that do not contain nuclei.
9 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes What are the characteristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
10 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Prokaryotic cells have genetic material that is not contained in a nucleus. Prokaryotes do not have membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells are generally smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells. Bacteria are prokaryotes.
11 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell.
12 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells generally contain dozens of structures and internal membranes. Many eukaryotic cells are highly specialized. Plants, animals, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes.
14 7-1 The cell theory states that new cells are produced from a. nonliving material. b. existing cells. c. cytoplasm. d. animals.
15 7-1 The person who first used the term cell was a. Matthias Schleiden. b. Lynn Margulis. c. Anton van Leeuwenhoek. d. Robert Hooke.
16 7-1 Electron microscopes are capable of revealing more details than light microscopes because a. electron microscopes can be used with live organisms. b. light microscopes cannot be used to examine thin tissues. c. the wavelengths of electrons are longer than those of light. d. the wavelengths of electrons are shorter than those of light.
17 7-1 Which organism listed is a prokaryote? a. protist b. bacterium c. fungus d. plant
18 7-1 One way prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes is that they a. contain DNA, which carries biological information. b. have a surrounding barrier called a cell membrane. c. do not have a membrane separating DNA from the rest of the cell. d. are usually larger and more complex.
19 END OF SECTION
20 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
21 Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic cell into two major parts: the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The Cytoplasm is the portion of the cell outside the nucleus.
25 Nucleus The nucleus is the control center of the cell. The nucleus contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules.
26 Nucleus The Nucleus Chromatin Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Nuclear pores
27 Ribosomes What is the function of the ribosomes?
28 Ribosomes One of the most important jobs carried out in the cell is making proteins. Proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Ribosomes are small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm.
29 Endoplasmic Reticulum What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
30 Endoplasmic Reticulum There are two types of ER rough and smooth. Ribosomes
31 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts What is the function of the mitochondria?
32 Mitochondria Nearly all eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria. Mitochondria convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use. Mitochondrion
33 What is the function of chloroplasts?
34 Chloroplasts Plants and some other organisms contain chloroplasts. Chloroplasts capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis. Chloroplast
35 Cytoskeleton Centrioles are located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division. Cell Organelle Interactive Plant and Animal Model Interactive
37 7-2 In the nucleus of a cell, the DNA is usually visible as a dense region called the nucleolus. the nuclear envelope. granular material called chromatin. condensed bodies called chloroplasts.
38 7-2 Two functions of vacuoles are storing materials and helping to break down organelles. assemble proteins. maintain homeostasis. make new organelles.
39 7-2 Chloroplasts are found in the cells of plants only. plants and some other organisms. all eukaryotes. most prokaryotes.
40 7-2 Which of the following is NOT a function of the Golgi apparatus? synthesize proteins. modify proteins. sort proteins. package proteins.
41 7-2 Which of the following is a function of the cytoskeleton? manufactures new cell organelles assists in movement of some cells from one place to another releases energy in cells modifies, sorts, and packages proteins
42 END OF SECTION
43 7-3 Cell Boundaries 7-3 Cell Boundaries
44 Why are cells so small? 1. Nutrients must get into the cell and wastes must be removed; what limits this exchange is the cell's surface area-to-volume ratio. 2. Therefore, the smaller the cell the larger the surface area this means more materials can be exchanged with the environment. By minimizing its size, a cell is maximizing the speed at which it can communicate, the rate at which diffusion can occur, and the amount of surface area at its disposal.
46 Surface Area/Volume = As Large As Possible
47 All cells are surrounded by a thin, flexible barrier known as the cell membrane. Many cells also produce a strong supporting layer around the membrane known as a cell wall.
48 Cell Membrane Cell Membrane The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support.
49 Cell Membrane
50 Cell Walls What is the main function of the cell wall?
51 Cell Wall Cell walls are found in plants, algae, fungi, and many prokaryotes.
52 Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Measuring Concentration A solution is a mixture of two or more substances. The substances dissolved in the solution are called solutes. The concentration of a solution is the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume.
53 Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries What happens during diffusion?
54 Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Diffusion Particles in a solution tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated. This process is called diffusion. When the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system, the system has reached equilibrium.
55 When equilibrium is reached, solute particles continue to diffuse across the membrane in both directions. Diffusion depends upon random particle movements. Therefore, substances diffuse across membranes without requiring the cell to use energy.
56 Osmosis What is osmosis?
57 Osmosis Osmosis Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
58 How Osmosis Works
59 Water tends to diffuse from a highly concentrated region to a less concentrated region. If you compare two solutions, three terms can be used to describe the concentrations: hypertonic ( above strength ). hypotonic ( below strength ). isotonic ( same strength ) ent_view0/chapter2/animation how_osmosis_works.ht ml
60 Osmotic Pressure Osmosis exerts a pressure known as osmotic pressure on the hypertonic side of a selectively permeable membrane.
62 Active Transport Active Transport Sometimes cells move materials in the opposite direction from which the materials would normally move that is against a concentration difference. This process is known as active transport. Active transport requires energy.
63 Active Transport Molecular Transport In active transport, small molecules and ions are carried across membranes by proteins in the membrane. Energy use in these systems enables cells to concentrate substances in a particular location, even when diffusion might move them in the opposite direction.
64 Active Transport Molecular Transport Molecule to be carried
66 Endocytosis and Exocytosis Endocytosis is the process of taking material into the cell. Two examples of endocytosis are: phagocytosis pinocytosis During exocytosis, materials are forced out of the cell.
68 7-3 Unlike a cell wall, a cell membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer. provides rigid support for the surrounding cell. allows most small molecules and ions to pass through easily. is found only in plants, fungi, algae, and many prokaryotes.
69 7-3 The concentration of a solution is defined as the volume of solute in a given mass of solution. mass of solute in a given volume of solution. mass of solution in a given volume of solute. volume of solution in a given mass of solute.
70 7-3 If a substance is more highly concentrated outside the cell than inside the cell and the substance can move through the cell membrane, the substance will move by diffusion from inside the cell to outside. remain in high concentration outside the cell. move by diffusion from outside to inside the cell. cause water to enter the cell by osmosis.
71 7-3 The movement of materials in a cell against a concentration difference is called facilitated diffusion. active transport. osmosis. diffusion.
72 7-3 The process by which molecules diffuse across a membrane through protein channels is called active transport. endocytosis. facilitated diffusion. osmosis.
Chapter 7 7-1 Life Is Cellular The Discovery of the Cell Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a single-lens microscope to observe tiny little organisms in pond water. The Discovery of the Cell In 1665, Robert Hooke
chapter 7 Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Who was one of the first people to identify and see cork cells? a. Anton van
Chapter 7 Cell Structure & Function Scientists & Discoveries Early 1600 s (Holland): 1st microscope was constructed Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1600 s) used single lens as a microscope to study and very carefully
Name Hour Section 7-1 Life Is Cellular (pages 169-173) Introduction (page 169) 1. What is the structure that makes up every living thing? The Discovery of the Cell (pages 169-170) 2. What was Anton van
Class: Date: Ch 7 Review Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Researchers use fluorescent labels and light microscopy to a. follow
Biology 1 of 31 2 of 31 The Discovery of the Cell The Discovery of the Cell Because there were no instruments to make cells visible, the existence of cells was unknown for most of human history. This changed
Chapter 7.2 Cell Structure Daily Objectives Describe the structure and function of the cell nucleus. Describe the function and structure of membrane bound organelles found within the cell. Describe the
1 of 49 Comparing the Cell to a Factory Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic
7-1 Life Is Cellular CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Discovery of the Cell 1665: Robert Hooke used an early compound microscope to look at a thin slice of cork. Cork looked
Which organelle provides a cell with protection? A. Mitochondria B. Cell membrane C. Nucleus D. Chloroplast This organelle uses sunlight in order to make glucose. A. Chloroplast B. Mitochondria C. Golgi
All cells must generate proteins. Cells make protein through a process called protein synthesis All living things are made of cells, Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms,
BIO.A.1 Basic Biological Principles Bio.A.1.1 - Explain the characteristics common to all organisms Bio.A.1.2 Describe relationships between the structure & function at biological levels of organization
Class: Date: Honors Biology-CW/HW Cell Biology 2018 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Hooke s discovery of cells was made observing a. living
Class: Date: Biology Cell Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1, Who. wasone of the first people to-identify and seecorkeells? -,- ; -...
Biology I Chapter 7 Interest Grabber NOTEBOOK #1 Are All Cells Alike? All living things are made up of cells. Some organisms are composed of only one cell. Other organisms are made up of many cells. 1.
Biology Biology 1of 49 2of 49 Eukaryotic Cell Structures Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists
UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure Page CP: CHAPTER 3, Sections 1-3; HN: CHAPTER 7, Sections 1-2 Standard B-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells and their
Unit 3: Cells Objective: To be able to compare and contrast the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells (unicellular or multicellular).
Cell Structure Discovery of the Cell Who discovered cells? 1665 Robert Hooke used a compound microscope to examine a piece of cork (20X magnification) He saw little boxes in the cork and called them cells
1 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CELL It was not until the mid-1600 s that scientists began to use microscopes to observe cells. In 1665, Englishman Robert Hooke used an early compound microscope to look at a slice
Chapter 3 The Cell: Module Hyperlinks 3.1 Cells are the fundamental units of life 3.2 Plant vs. animal cells 3.3 Membranes: structure 3.4 Membranes: function 3.5 The nucleus 3.6 Organelles in protein production
CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location is the material that contains the Carry genetic ALL CELLS information that determines material inherited characteristics.
The Discovery of Cells Microscope observations! General Cell & Organelle Discovery 1600s Observations made by scientists using more powerful microscopes in the 1800s led to the formation of the cell theory.
Life is Cellular Cell Structure and Function Life is Cellular, Eukaryotic Cell Structure, Cell Boundaries, The Diversity of Cellular Life Early microscopes allowed scientists to view life on a cellular
Cells Chapter 4 Discovery of the Cell 1665 Robert Hooke used a microscope to examine a piece of cork. He saw little boxes in the cork and called them cells. 1673 Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first person
7.L.1.2 Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells Clarifying Objective: 7.L.1.2 Compare the structures and functions of plant and animal cells; include major organelles (cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus,
Cell Structure: What cells are made of Can you pick out the cells from this picture? Review of the cell theory Microscope was developed 1610. Anton van Leeuwenhoek saw living things in pond water. 1677
Can You Identify This Object? CELLS Day 1: CELLULAR COMPONENTS & PROCESES What is a cell? Collection of living material enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from it s surroundings Basic Unit of
Cell Structure and Function Table of Contents Section 1 The History of Cell Biology Section 2 Introduction to Cells Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Section
Eukaryotic Cell Structure 7.2 Biology Mr. Hines Comparing the cell to a factory In order for a cell to maintain its internal environment (homeostasis), many things must go on. This is similar to a factory.
The Discovery of the Cell The Discovery of the Cell Because there were no instruments to make cells visible, the existence of cells was unknown for most of human history. This changed with the invention
BASIC BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES A1 A1. Basic Biological Principles 1. Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms 2. Compare cellular structures and their function
Organelle DNA (page 181) 28. Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genetic information in the form of. 29. Biologist Lynn Margulis has suggested that mitochondria and chloroplasts are descendants
CELL PART/ ORGANELLE FUNCTION (what it does) PICTURE Plant, Animal, or Both Cell Membrane controls what goes in & out of the cell protects the cell Nucleus directs all the cell s activities contains cell
Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function Ask yourself If you were a scientist living in the 1500s, what kind of questions would you ask yourself if you were the one to discover cells? Let me think. Cell Video
Cell Structure and Function Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Cell Structure Section 1: The History of Cell Biology Section 2: Introduction to Cells Section 3: Cell Organelles and Features Section 4: Unique Features
and their organelles Discovery Video: Cells REVIEW!!!! The Cell Theory 1. Every living organism is made of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function. It is the smallest
The cell Chapter 3 The cell theory all living organisms are made up of one or more cells, and all cells arise from other, pre-existing cells So what is a cell? The most basic unit of any organism The smallest
Introduction to Cells- Stations Lab Station 1: Microscopes allow scientists to study cells. Microscopes: How do light microscopes differ from electron microscopes? (How does each work? How much can each
Cells Cytology = the study of cells What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms? 1. Made of CELLS 2. Require ENERGY (food) 3. REPRODUCE (species) 4. Maintain HOMEOSTASIS 5. ORGANIZED 6. RESPOND to environment
Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Key learnings: Chapter Notes 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. 2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all
I. History of the cell theory A. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1600s) - dutch lens maker could see things with his lenses that were invisible to the naked eye - developed the simple microscope B. Robert Hooke
Cell Structure and Function Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live Gas exchange CO 2 & O 2 Eat (take in & digest food) Make energy ATP Build
Cells Modified by the MHJHS SD [Adopted from James Holden & Clint Tucker] The Cell Theory In 1855, a number of scientists put together a theory about cells 1) All living things are composed of Cells. 2)
Table of Contents Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Section 1: Living Things 1- What is an organism? Any living thing is called an organism. Organisms vary in size: 1)one-celled or unicellular
Biology 1 Notebook Review Answers Pages 17 -? The History of Cell Studies 1. Robert Hook (1665) used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork. The little boxes he observed reminded him of the small
1 Name: Cell Organelles Tutorial TEK 7.12D: Differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles, including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast,
Biology Exam #1 Study Guide True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. F 1. All living things are composed of many cells. T 2. Membranes are selectively permeable if they allow only certain
Cell Structure, Function & Ultrastructure Learning Objectives 2.1.2 Components of the cell as seen under the light microscope and their functions. Cell Structure and Function 1. Plant cells: cell wall,
Cell Structure and Function Unit 4 Definition of Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. RECALL... Levels of Organization! Why do we call them cells? In 1665, Robert
7 Characteristics of Life 1. Interdependence 2. Metabolism 3. Homeostasis 4. Cellular Structure and Function 5. Reproduction 6. Heredity 7. Evolution The Cell Theory All living things are composed of one
Life is Cellular At the cellular level, what is the difference between animal cells and bacterial cells? How do microscopes work? Objectives 8a) I can state the cell theory and distinguish between prokaryotes
Chapter 4 Cells: The Basic Units of Life The Big Idea All organisms are composed of one or more cells. Section 1 The Characteristics of Cells Key Concept Cells function similarly in all living organisms.
Cell Notes Cell Theory All living organisms are made of. cells The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century! In 1665,
LIFE SCIENCE CHAPTER 3 FLASHCARDS Human beings are A. machines. B. organisms. C. systems. D. protists. One benefit of being a large organism is that you have A. larger cells. B. simpler functions. C. fewer
http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html 4A: Students will compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Robert Hooke (1665) Used a compound microscope to look at thin slices of cork (oak
Cell Types Prokaryotes before nucleus no membrane-bound nucleus only organelle present is the ribosome all other reactions occur in the cytoplasm not very efficient Ex.: bacteria 1 Cell Types Eukaryotes
Anaphase Third phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. Animal Cell Antony Van Leevwenhoek 1643- Dutch microscope maker and merchant, observed and described
Semester Review Identify the cause of molecular movement Identify the three factors that are required for there to be competition Passive transport mechanisms always move molecules in what direction along
Directions for Plant Cell 3-Part Cards 1. Print out copy of 3 part cards and control cards Laminate for durability. Cut apart description and labels from 3 part cards. 2. As an introductory lesson, students
Bio-CP Chapter 7 Cell Notes I. Cell = Building block of all living organisms A. Robert Hooke (1665) observed cork under a crude microscope 1. He called the boxes cells because they looked like little rooms
CELL THEORY, STRUCTURE & FUNCTION History of Cells Robert Hooke (1665) observed cork under a microscope Thought they looked like the rooms monks lived in called cells. History of Cells Antony Van Leeuwenhoek
What in the Cell is Going On? Robert Hooke naturalist, philosopher, inventor, architect... (July 18, 1635 - March 3, 1703) In 1665 Robert Hooke publishes his book, Micrographia, which contains his drawings
STATION 1 1. Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have the capacity to a. assemble into multicellular organisms b. establish symbiotic relationships with other organisms c. obtain energy from the
8.1 Life is cellular Early Microscopes In 1665, Englishman Robert Hooke used a microscope to look at a slice of cork. Cork was made of tiny, empty chambers that Hooke called cells. Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Exam 1 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The smallest units of life in all living things are a. cells. c. cytoplasm. b. mitochondria.
Essential Question How do cell structures enable a cell to carry out basic life processes? Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells can be divided into two parts: 1. Nucleus 2. Cytoplasm-the portion of the cell
The Cell The basic unit of all living things 1 Robert Hooke was the first to name the cell (1665) 2 The Cell Theory The cell is the unit of Structure of all living things. The cell is the unit of Function
Intro to Cells Key Concept: Cells are the basic unit of life. Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of cells: 1 Animal Cell
The Cell History of Cells In 1665, English scientist Robert Hooke used the first compound light microscope to see plant tissues He viewed several thin slices of cork He called the small chambers within
NAME: PERIOD: DATE: A View of the Cell Use Chapter 8 of your book to complete the chart of eukaryotic cell components. Cell Part Cell Wall Centriole Chloroplast Cilia Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Endoplasmic
1 Microscope History Robert Hooke First described cells in 1665. He viewed thin slices of cork and compared the boxy partitions he observed to the cells (small rooms) in a monastery. (1635 1702) 2 Microscope
The Cell Cell Is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life and are often called the "building blocks of life". The study of
Overview of Cells Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes The Cell Organelles The Endosymbiotic Theory Prokaryotic Cells Archaea Bacteria Come in many different shapes and sizes.5 µm 2 µm, up to 60 µm long Have large
Basic Structure of a Cell Prokaryotic Cells No nucleus Archaea & Eubacteria One circular chromosome Extremely small Eukaryotic Cells Has a nucleus!!! Membrane-bound organelles Plants, Animals, Fungi, &
Cell Organelles a review of structure and function TEKS and Student Expectations (SE s) B.4 Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized
CELLS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Jhia Anjela D. Rivera Department of Biological Sciences School of Science and Technology Centro Escolar University DISCOVERY OF CELLS Robert Hooke (1665): Observed a thin slice
Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell The cell is the basic unit of life Although cells differ substantially from one another, they all share certain characteristics that reflect a common ancestry and remind us
CELLS NOTES All living things are made of! THE DISCOVERY OF CELLS The Scientist Who? When? What was discovered? Robert Hooke Anton van Leeuwenhoek Looked through a very simple at a thin slice of and saw
Unit #4: Cell Structure & Func2on Classifica(on, Endosymbiosis, Cell Type, Cell Organelles How are prokaryo(c cells and eukaryo(c cells similar? different? CELL TYPE Cell Theory Many scientists were involved
Chemistry of Life Cells & Bioprocesses CRT Review Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life macromolecules - The four types of macromolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins Types of Macromolecules
Eukaryotes Class Work 1. What does the word eukaryote mean? 2. What is the one major difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes? 3. List the different kingdoms of the eukaryote domain in the order in
Chapter 7 practice 1. What scientist originally came up with the term "cell"? a. von Leeuwenhoek d. Watson b. Hooke e. Virchow c. van der Waals 2. When you wish to look at the coat of a virus on the surface