Chapter 4. Table of Contents. Section 1 The History of Cell Biology. Section 2 Introduction to Cells. Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

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1 Cell Structure and Function Table of Contents Section 1 The History of Cell Biology Section 2 Introduction to Cells Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells

2 Section 1 The History of Cell Biology Objectives Name the scientists who first observed living and nonliving cells. Summarize the research that led to the development of the cell theory. State the three principles of the cell theory. Explain why the cell is considered to be the basic unit of life.

3 Section 1 The History of Cell Biology The Discovery of Cells All living things are made up of one or more cells. A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life.

4 Section 1 The History of Cell Biology The Discovery of Cells, continued Hooke Robert Hooke discovered cells in slices of cork. Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe living cells in microorganisms.

5 Section 1 The History of Cell Biology The Cell Theory The cell theory states that all living organisms are made of one or more cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function, and cells come only from preexisting cells.

6 Section 1 The History of Cell Biology Cell Theory

7 Section 1 The History of Cell Biology The Cell Theory, continued Cellular Basis of Life All living things are made of organized parts, obtain energy from their surroundings, perform chemical reactions, change with time, respond to their environment, and reproduce.

8 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Objectives Explain the relationship between cell shape and cell function. Identify the factor that limits cell size. Describe the three basic parts of a cell. Compare prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Analyze the relationship among cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms.

9 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Cell Diversity Cell Shape A cell s shape reflects its function.

10 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Cell Diversity, Continued Cell Size Cell size is limited by a cell s surface area tovolume ratio.

11 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Basic Parts of a Cell The three basic parts of a cell are the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus.

12 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Internal Organization of a Cell

13 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Basic Parts of a Cell, continued Plasma Membrane The cell s outer boundary, called the plasma membrane (or the cell membrane), covers a cell s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and the outside of a cell.

14 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Basic Parts of a Cell, continued Cytoplasm The region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus is called the cytoplasm.

15 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Basic Parts of a Cell, continued Nucleus The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains a cell s DNA.

16 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Two Basic Types of Cells Prokaryotes Prokaryote cells lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

17 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Two Basic Types of Cells, continued Eukaryotes Eukaryote cells have a nucleus and membranebound organelles.

18 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Comparing Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

19 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Cellular Organization In multicellular eukaryotes, cells organize into tissues, organs, organ systems, and finally organisms.

20 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Objectives Describe the structure and function of a cell s plasma membrane. Summarize the role of the nucleus. List the major organelles found in the cytosol, and describe their roles. Identify the characteristics of mitochondria. Describe the structure and function of the cytoskeleton.

21 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Plasma Membrane Membrane Lipids Cell membranes consist of a phospholipid bilayer.

22 Chapter 3 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Structure of Lipid Bilayer

23 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Cell Membrane

24 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Plasma Membrane, continued Membrane Proteins Cell membranes often contain proteins embedded within the phospholipid bilayer.

25 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Plasma Membrane, continued Fluid Mosaic Model The fluid mosaic model states that the phospholipid bilayer behaves like a fluid more than it behaves like a solid.

26 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Nucleus The nucleus directs the cell s activities and stores DNA.

27 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Nucleus of a Cell

28 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Nucleus, continued Nuclear Envelope The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope.

29 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Nucleus, continued Nucleolus The nucleolus is the place where DNA is concentrated when it is in the process of making ribosomal RNA.

30 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Mitochondria Mitochondria harvest energy from organic compounds and transfer it to ATP.

31 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Mitochondrion

32 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Ribosomes Ribosomes are either free or attached to the rough ER and play a role in protein synthesis.

33 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Ribosomes

34 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Endoplasmic Reticulum The rough ER prepares proteins for export or insertion into the cell membrane.

35 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Endoplasmic Reticulum, continued The smooth ER builds lipids and participates in detoxification of toxins.

36 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Ribosomes

37 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Golgi Apparatus The Golgi apparatus processes and packages proteins.

38 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Vesicles Vesicles, including lysosomes (digestive enzymes) and peroxisomes (detoxification enzymes), are classified by their contents.

39 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Vesicles, continued Protein Synthesis The rough ER, Golgi apparatus, and vesicles work together to transport proteins to their destinations inside and outside the cell.

40 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Processing of Proteins

41 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton is made of protein fibers that help cells move and maintain their shape. The cytoskeleton includes microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.

42 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Cytoskeleton

43 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Cytoskeleton, continued Cilia and Flagella Cilia and flagella are hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement.

44 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Structure of Cilia and Flagella

45 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Cytoskeleton, continued Centrioles Centrioles consist of two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles to each other and are involved in cell division.

46 Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Objectives List three structures that are present in plant cells but not in animal cells. Compare the plasma membrane,the primary cell wall, and the secondary cell wall. Explain the role of the central vacuole. Describe the roles of plastids in the life of a plant. Identify features that distinguish prokaryotes, eukaryotes, plant cells, and animal cells.

47 Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Plant Cells Plant cells have cell walls, central vacuoles, and plastids.

48 Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Cell Wall In plant cells, a rigid cell wall covers the cell membrane and provides support and protection.

49 Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Parts of a Cell Wall

50 Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Central Vacuole Large central vacuoles store water, enzymes, and waste products and provide support for plant tissue.

51 Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Plastids Plastids store starch and pigments. The chloroplast converts light energy into chemical energy by photosynthesis.

52 Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Chloroplasts

53 Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Comparing Cells Prokaryotes, animal cells, and plant cells can be distinguished from each other by their unique features.

54 Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Comparing Plant and Animal Cells

55 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice 1. The eukaryotic nucleus houses all of the following except the A. RNA B. DNA C. nucleolus D. endoplasmic reticulum

56 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 1. The eukaryotic nucleus houses all of the following except the A. RNA B. DNA C. nucleolus D. endoplasmic reticulum

57 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which structure contributes to support and movement within a cell? F. crista G. cell wall H. ribosome J. microfilament

58 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which structure contributes to support and movement within a cell? F. crista G. cell wall H. ribosome J. microfilament

59 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following statements about RNA is true? A. RNA is found only in proteins. B. RNA is found only in the nucleus. C. RNA is found only in the cytoplasm. D. RNA is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm.

60 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following statements about RNA is true? A. RNA is found only in proteins. B. RNA is found only in the nucleus. C. RNA is found only in the cytoplasm. D. RNA is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm.

61 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The graph below shows the relationship between cell size and surface area to volume ratio. Use the graph below to answer the questions that follow. 4. By what percentage does the surface area to volume ratio change when a cell grows from 1 to 2 µm in diameter? F. 10 percent G. 20 percent H. 50 percent J. 90 percent

62 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The graph below shows the relationship between cell size and surface area to volume ratio. Use the graph below to answer the questions that follow. 4. By what percentage does the surface area to volume ratio change when a cell grows from 1 to 2 µm in diameter? F. 10 percent G. 20 percent H. 50 percent J. 90 percent

63 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The graph below shows the relationship between cell size and surface area to volume ratio. Use the graph below to answer the questions that follow. 5. What is the maximum diameter that this cell could attain before the surface area to-volume ratio would fall below 1? A. 2 µm B. 5 µm C. 10 µm D. 15 µm

64 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The graph below shows the relationship between cell size and surface area to volume ratio. Use the graph below to answer the questions that follow. 5. What is the maximum diameter that this cell could attain before the surface area to-volume ratio would fall below 1? A. 2 µm B. 5 µm C. 10 µm D. 15 µm

65 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 6. mitochondria : energy release :: ribosome : F. cell support G. protein synthesis H. cellular digestion J. cellular transport

66 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 6. mitochondria : energy release :: ribosome : F. cell support G. protein synthesis H. cellular digestion J. cellular transport

67 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The figure below shows a diagram of a cell. Use the figure to answer the question that follows. 7. What is the function of the structure labeled 1? A. to make ATP B. to make proteins C. to make carbohydrates D. to move proteins through the cell

68 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The figure below shows a diagram of a cell. Use the figure to answer the question that follows. 7. What is the function of the structure labeled 1? A. to make ATP B. to make proteins C. to make carbohydrates D. to move proteins through the cell

69 Standardized Test Prep Short Response A cell s shape is generally related to its function. Skin cells are flat and platelike. Nerve cells have long extensions. Explain the relationship between the shape of skin and nerve cells and their function in the body.

70 Standardized Test Prep Short Response, continued Answer: Cell shape reflects the different functions of cells. For example, the long extensions of nerve cells allow these cells to receive and transmit nerve impulses in many directions. Also, the flat shape of skin cells suits their function of covering and protecting the surface of the body.

71 Standardized Test Prep Extended Response Despite the diversity among cells, eukaryotic cells share many common features. Part A Describe the structure and function of the organelles found in an animal cell. Part B Summarize the differences that distinguish animal cells from bacteria and plant cells.

72 Standardized Test Prep Extended Response, continued Answer: Part A Answers may include the following: The nucleus holds and protects DNA; Mitochondria transfer energy to ATP; Ribosomes manufacture proteins; The ER functions as an intracellular highway; The Golgi apparatus directs proteins to other parts of the cell; Vesicles digest materials, break down old cells, and play a role in protein synthesis. Part B Plant and bacterial cells, unlike animal cells, have a cell wall. Bacterial cells, unlike plant and animal cells, lack a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles. Some bacterial cells and all plant cells have plastids.

73 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Cell Diversity

74 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Cell Diversity

75 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Basic Parts of a Cell

76 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Two Basic Types of Cells

77 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Cellular Organization

78 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Plasma Membrane

79 Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Mitochondria

80 Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Plant Cells

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