STUDY GUIDE SECTION 4-1 The History of Cell Biology

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1 STUDY GUIDE SECTION 4-1 The History of Cell Biology Name Period Date Multiple Choice-Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. One early piece of evidence supporting the cell theory was the observation that a. only plants are composed of cells. c. cells come from other cells b. only animals are composed of cells. d. animal cell come from plant cells. 2. The scientists who described cells as many little boxes was a. Robert Hooke c. Theodor Schwann b. Anton van Leeuwenhoek d. Rudolf Virchow 3. Living and nonliving things are different in that only a. nonliving things are made of cells c. living things are made of cells b. nonliving things are made of atoms d. living things are made of atoms. 4. The advantage of van Leeuwenhoek s microscopes was that a. they were simple c. the lenses could be moved b. they had two lenses d. the lenses were ground very precisely. 5. A light microscope uses optical lenses to magnify objects by a. bending light rays. c. reflecting beams of light. b. bending electron beams. d. reflecting beams of electrons. Short Answer-Answer the following questions in complete sentences. 1. Explain the major contribution of the following scientists to cell biology. A. Hooke- B. Leeuwenhoek- C. Schleiden- D. Schwann- E. Virchow- 2. Explain why Leeuwenhoek was able to observe living cells. Page 1 of 8

2 3. State the three parts to the cell theory. A. B. C. 4. Why did Hooke s cork cells appear empty? 5. Why did it take 150 years for the cell theory to be developed after microscopes were invented? STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Page 2 of 8

3 STUDY GUIDE SECTION 4-2 Introduction to Cells Multiple Choice-Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. Cells are limited in size by the a. rate at which substances needed by the cell can enter the cell through its surface. b. rate at which the cell can manufacture genetic information. c. amount of material the cell can collect to fill itself. d. amount of cell membrane the cell can produce. 2. The diameter of most plant and animal cells is about a. 0.1 to 0.2 μm. b. 10 to 50 μm. c. 1 to 2 mm. d mm. 3. The characteristic of a nerve cell that relates directly to its function in receiving and transmitting nerve impulses is its a. long extensions c. ability to change shape. b. flat shape d. ability to engulf and destroy bacteria. 4. One difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that only a. prokaryotic cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. b. prokaryotic cells have a nucleus. c. eukaryotic cells have genetic information. d. eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles. Short Answer-Answer the following questions in complete sentences. 1. Describe the relationship between a cell s shape and its function. 2. What factor limits cell size? Explain why this is true. 3. Identify and describe three basic parts of a cell: A. - Page 3 of 8

4 B. - C List four levels of organization that combine to form and organism.,,,. 5. How is the shape of a skin cell suited to its function? 6. How are the organelles of a single cell like the organs of a multicellular organism? 7. Compare the surface area to volume ratio of a 2μm square cell to that of a 6μm square cell. (Show your work, and include the numbers in your answer.) STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Page 4 of 8

5 STUDY GUIDE SECTION 4-3 Cell Organelles and Features Multiple Choice-Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. The plasma membrane a. allows all substances to pass into and out of the cell. b. prevents all substances from passing into and out of the cell. c. is composed mainly of a protein bilayer. d. is composed mainly of a lipid bilayer. 2. Substances produced in a cell and exported outside of the cell would pass through the a. endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. b. mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. c. nucleus and lysosomes. d. vacuoles and lysosomes. 3. Cells that have a high energy requirement generally have many a. nuclei b. flagella c. mitochondria d. microfilaments 4. Viruses, bacteria, and old organelles that a cell ingests are broken down in a. ribosomes c. the rough endoplasmic reticulum b. lysosomes d. the smooth endoplasmic reticulum 5. Organelles that are surrounded by two membranes and contain DNA are the a. nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, and lysosomes. b. nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, and chloroplasts. c. nucleus and mitochondria. d. endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Short Answer-Answer the following questions in complete sentences. 1. Explain how the fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane. Page 5 of 8

6 2. What are ribosomes made of? 3. Describe the cytoskeleton, and identify three of its major components? 4. Describe the structural organization shared by cilia and flagella. 5. Describe two characteristics that make mitochondria different from other organelles. A. B. 6. Explain how scientists think that mitochondria originated. 7. Explain the function of ribosomes. STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below represents a typical animal cell. Label each part of the cell in the space provided. Page 6 of 8

7 STUDY GUIDE SECTION 4-4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Multiple Choice-Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. Which of the following organelles is found in plant cells but not animal cells? a. nucleus b. chloroplast c. mitochondrion d. Golgi apparatus 2. the end products of photosynthesis include a. carbon dioxide and water c. carbon dioxide and oxygen b. sugars d. oxygen and water 3. A cell that contains a cell wall, chloroplasts, and a central vacuole is a a. plant cell b. animal cell c. prokaryotic cell d. bacterial cell 4. Thylakoids are located a. between the two membranes of a chloroplast. b. outside the outer membrane of a chloroplast. c. inside the inner membrane of a chloroplast. d. in chromoplasts. Short Answer-Answer the following questions in complete sentences. 1. List three unique features of plant cells. A. B. C. 2. What is the main component of the cell wall? Explain the function of the cell wall. 3. Describe the structure of a chloroplast. 4. List three things that may be stored in vacuoles. A. B. C. Page 7 of 8

8 5. What is the appearance of a plant cell when water is plentiful? 6. Bacteria have a region called a nucleoid, in which their genetic material is located. Why, then, are bacteria classified as prokaryotes? STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each part of the cell in the space provided. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. Cytosketeton I. J. K. L. M. N. Page 8 of 8

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