Unit 3: Cells. Objective: To be able to compare and contrast the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells.

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1 Unit 3: Cells Objective: To be able to compare and contrast the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells.

2 The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells (unicellular or multicellular). Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. New cells are produced from existing cells.

3 Types of Cells Two kinds of cells depending on whether they have a nucleus Prokaryote Eukaryote

4 Prokaryotes The ONLY prokaryotes in the world are BACTERIA.

5 Prokaryotes Genetic material (DNA) is not contained in a nucleus, it is free floating PRO = No Nucleus Usually small and simple

6 Eukaryotes Includes protists, fungi, plants and animals. Eu = You Usually larger and more complex than prokaryotes. May be unicellular like an amoeba or multicellular like a plant or human.

7 Eukaryotes Contains a NUCLEUS, to hold genetic information Contains dozens of specialized structures called organelles.

8 You have 3 minutes to complete your Venn Diagram on Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells, then check your answers with your neighbor.

9 Eukaryotic Cell Structure (a.k.a organelles) Objective : To be able to identify organelles within a Eukaryotic cells and their function.

10 What is an organelle? An organelle is a membrane bound structure that carries out specific activities for the cell (think of them as little organs with certain jobs to do). All organelles reside (live and float around in) the cytoplasm.

11 You need to know the following Organelles associated with Animals Cells Cell Membrane Nucleus Cytoplasm Mitochondria Golgi Complex Ribosomes Smooth ER Rough ER Vacuole Lysosome

12 Every cell is enclosed by a Cell Membrane Function: o Regulates what enters and leaves the cell o Provides protection and support

13 Nucleus The control center Function: o Contains almost all of the cells DNA for coding proteins and other molecules o DNA is found on chromosomes which contain genetic information.

14 Nucleus-The control center Structure: Surrounded by a double membrane called a nuclear envelope. It allows materials (RNA, proteins, etc) in and out of the nucleus. Small internal region called a nucleolus where ribosomes are made.

15 Ribosomes (not an organelle, but important) Function: Site of protein assembly (synthesizes proteins) Structure: Small pieces of RNA and protein found throughout the cell, and on the Rough E.R. No membrane present.

16 Endoplasmic Reticulum Function: Site where lipid parts of cell membrane are made, along with proteins. Transports materials throughout the cell. Sends ribosomes to the Golgi Complex. Structure: Rough ER-has ribosomes on surface to assemble proteins (attached to the nucleus) Smooth ER-NO ribosomes on surface

17 Mitochondria The Power House Function: Convert chemical energy in food into materials easier for the cell to use. ATP = Energy More active cells contain more mitochondria

18 Function: Modify (makes molecules more complex), sort, and package proteins and other materials from the ER and distributes them throughout the cell. Material can also be temporarily stored here. Structure: Stack of closely packed membranes Golgi Complex (shipping and receiving)

19 Lysosomes - the clean up crew Function: Breakdown of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins into small molecules to be used by the rest of the cell Breakdown used up organelles Get rid of all stuff in the cell Structure: Small, filled with enzymes

20 Vacuoles - Storage Function: Stores water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates Mostly associated with plants Structure: Sac-like Plant cells have one large central vacuole Animal cells have many small vacuoles

21 Cytoskeleton ( internal structure) Function: Helps maintain cell shape Helps with movement of the cell (i.e. flagella and cilia) Structure: Two types: o microfilaments o Microtubules - movement - important in cell division, centrioles, help organize this process.

22 Other organelles NOT ASSOCAITED with Cell Wall (structural support for plants) animal cells, but plant cells Chloroplasts (photosynthesis) Larger Vacuoles (store water)