Function and Illustration. Nucleus. Nucleolus. Cell membrane. Cell wall. Capsule. Mitochondrion

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1 Intro to Organelles Name: Block: Organelles are small structures inside cells. They are often covered in membranes. Each organelle has a job to do in the cell. Their name means little organ. Just like each organ in your body has a job to do to keep you healthy, each organelle has a job to do to keep the cell functioning. Virus/Bacteria Humans Organelle Function and Illustration prokaryotic eukaryotic ANIMAL eukaryotic PLANT Found only in eukaryotic cells. Contains DNA and is the control center of the cell. Covered by the nuclear membrane/envelope. Nucleolus side the nucleus. Makes ribosomes. Cell membrane Phospholipid bilayer. Covers the cell s surface. Acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the outside cell s environment. Cell wall A structure that surrounds the cell membrane of some cells and provides strength and support to the cell membrane. PROTECTION Capsule A layer of polysaccharide (long carbohydrate chains) that covers prokaryotic cells outside the cell wall. Mitochondrion Powerhouse of the cell. Breaks down food molecules for ATP through cellular respiration. Made of folded membranes to increase the surface area.

2 Intro to Organelles Name: Block: Organelle Function and Illustration prokaryotic eukaryotic ANIMAL eukaryoti c PLANT Chloroplast Where photosynthesis is performed in algae and plants. Contains a pigment called chlorophyll that absorbs sunlight energy. Vacuole Permanent storage container for the cell. In plant cells, it is large. In animal cells, it is small. Holds water or food. Covered in membranes. Vesicle Temporary storage container that forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds an object and pinches off. Covered in membranes. Lysosome Digests foods, wastes, and foreign invaders in a cell. A specialized version of a vesicle. Covered in membranes. Cytoplasm Jelly-like fluid surrounding a cell s organelles. Ribosome Creates proteins using amino acids. Endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.) Produces lipids, breaks down poisons, packages proteins. Folded membranes increase surface area. Rough E.R. has ribosomes attached and embedded. Smooth E.R. does not. Golgi (complex, bodies, apparatus) Modifies, packages, and transports proteins out of the cell. Folded membranes increase surface area. UPS

3 Intro to Organelles Name: Block: Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Rough ER Smooth ER vacuole Ribosomes Mitochondria Cell Wall Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Vacuole Rough ER Smooth ER Chloroplast Ribosome Mitochondria Color Code Key: nucleus cell membrane cell wall mitochondrion chloroplast vacuole cytoplasm endoplasmic reticulum ribosome

4 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Name: Block: Observe the pictures below that show a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell. List the differences you observe about the two types of cells. Prokaryotic Small Simple Capsule * Membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic Big More complex (organelles) *Membrane bound organelles Read this! Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic (Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes) All cells can be classified as either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. The main difference is that prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles, while eukaryotic cells do. Both types of cells contain DNA and have ribosomes. Prokaryotic cells, like plant cells, contain a cell wall surrounding a cell membrane. The plant, animal, fungi, and protist cells that you will study are examples of eukaryotic cells, while bacteria and archaea are examples of prokaryotic cells. Cell organelles (tiny parts) are found in eukaryotic cells. After reading the above paragraphs, add to your observations about the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

5 Let s Compare Structures/Functions! Name: Block: Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Contain a nucleus? Contain DNA? Contain ribosomes? Has a cell wall? Plants animals Has organelles that are covered with membranes? Kingdoms of life with these kinds of cells Circle two of these Plants - Animals - Fungi - Protists Archaea - Bacteria Circle four of these Plants - Animals - Fungi - Protists Archaea - Bacteria Plant Cells Animal Cells Shape rectangle Cell wall Chloroplast - Chlorophyll 1 LARGE Vacuole EUKARYOTIC Centrioles Cell membrane Mitochondria Lysosomes Golgi ER DNA Ribosome cytoplasm Shape oval/circle Many small vacuole

6 Cell Parts and Functions Review Name: Block: Select the correct cell parts listed below to fill the blanks of the sentences or spaces that follow: cell membrane cytoplasm Golgi complex chloroplast mitochondrion nucleus nuclear membrane endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes prokaryotic cell wall nucleolus lysosomes vacuoles eukaryotic 1. The is known as the brain or control center of the cell and has genes. A cell that has this is said to be, Eukaryotic while a cell that lacks this is said to be. prokaryotic 2. It is an intracellular transport system and is made of a series of channels (from the nucleus to cell membrane) throughout the cytoplasm of the cell.. ER 3. Involved in making ribosomes in the cell, this structure is located in the nucleus. Nucleolus 4. The structure is the outer covering of a cell and is involved in regulating the movement of materials (food, gases, elements) in and out of the cell. Cell membrane 5. Cellular respiration occurs in this organelle because this produces energy (ATP) for cell activities. Sometimes it is called the powerhouse of the cell, the organelle is the. mitochondria 6. The double membrane surrounding the nucleus that controls what enters and leaves it, is called the: Nuclear membrane 7. Structures that contain digestive enzymes are. lysosome Cell wall 8. Outside the cell membrane of a plant cell is the that also serves as support and protection for the cell. 9. Enzymes are proteins, and proteins are produced in this organelle.. ribosomes 10. Sacs storing water, wastes and food are storage chambers in the cell.. vacuole 11. Structure found in plants (but not animal cells) that carries out photosynthesis is the. chloroplast 12. The cytoplasm is area outside the nuclear membrane but inside the cell membrane, and cell parts are located. 13. The structure of the cell that prepares and packages proteins for use within the cell or shipment outside the cell. golgi

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