Unicellular Marine Organisms. Chapter 4

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1 Unicellular Marine Organisms Chapter 4

2 The Cellular Structure of Life: Review Cell wall: firm, fairly rigid structure located outside the plasma membrane of plants, fungi, most bacteria, and some protists; provides support and protection. Plasma membrane: serves as boundary between the cell and its environment; allows materials such as water and nutrients to enter and waste products to leave.

3 The Cellular Structure of Life: Review Cytoplasm: clear, gelatinous fluid in eukaryotic cells that suspends the cell s organelles and is the site of numerous chemical reactions. Flagellum Flagella: long, hairlike projections composed of pairs of microtubules; found on some cell surfaces; they help propel cells and organisms by a whiplike motion.

4 The Cellular Structure of Life: Review Chromosome: a subcellular structure that contains the genetic information of the cell Nuclear membrane: the membrane surrounding the nucleus of eukaryotic cells

5 The Cellular Structure of Life: Review Nucleus: the membranebound central structure of eukaryotic cells that contains the chromosomes Mitochondria: eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles that transform energy stored in food molecules into ATP has a highly folded inner membrane that produces energy-storing molecules.

6 The Cellular Structure of Life: Review Endoplasmic reticulum: : organelle in eukaryotic cells with a series of highly folded membranes surrounded in cytoplasm; site of cellular chemical reactions; can either be rough (with ribosomes) or smooth (without ribosomes). Vacuoles: membrane-bond fluid filled space in the cytoplasm of plant cells used for the temporary storage of materials.

7 The Cellular Structure of Life: Review Lysosomes: attached to the vacuole and produce chemicals that digest the food stored inside it Golgi apparatus: releases or secretes important chemicals needed by the cells to carry out life functions.

8 The Cellular Structure of Life: Review Chloroplasts: a subcellular structure containing chlorophyll, found in photosynthetic organisms

9 4.1 Classification: Taxonomy: the process of classifying organisms according to their evolutionary relationships Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genius, Species Mnemonic Device to remember: King Philip came over for grape soda.

10 The Five-Kingdom System: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia 4.1 Classification:

11 The Five-Kingdom System: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Monera: Single-celled; lack nuclear membrane (bacteria, blue-green bacteria) Bacteria: Single-celled; lack nuclear membrane Prokaryotes: unicellular organisms, such as bacteria composed of prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells lack internal membrane-bond structures. 4.1 Classification:

12 The Five-Kingdom System: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Protista: mostly single-celled, some multicelled; have nuclear membrane (algae and protozoa Unicellular: describes single-celled organisms Eukaryote: unicellular or multicellular organisms, such as yeast, plants, and animals, composed of eukaryotic cells, which contain a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Protozoa: animal-like organisms Algae: plant like organisms 4.1 Classification:

13 The Five-Kingdom System: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Fungi: single-celled and multicelled; have nuclei; absorb food from living and dead organisms 4.1 Classification:

14 The Five-Kingdom System: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Plantae: Multicelled; have nuclei; make their own food through photosynthesis Chlorophyll: lightabsorbing pigment in plants and some protista that is required for photosynthesis; absorbs most wavelengths of light except for green. 4.1 Classification:

15 The Five-Kingdom System: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Animalia: Multicelled; have nuclei; eat other organisms 4.1 Classification:

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