Cells & Cell Organelles. Doing Life s Work

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1 Cells & Cell Organelles Doing Life s Work

2 Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote Eukaryotes animal cells plant cells

3 Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell most bacteria 1-10 microns eukaryotic cells microns micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter diameter of human hair = ~20 microns

4 Why study cells? Cells Tissues Organs Bodies

5 The Work of Life What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live breathe take in & digest food ATP proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids ATP growth, repair, reproduction & development

6 The Jobs of Cells Cells have 3 main jobs need energy for all activities need to clean up waste produced while making energy proteins do all the work in a cell, so we need lots of them for growth to replace damaged or diseased cells Our organelles do all these jobs!

7 Model Animal Cell Organelles Organelles do the work of cells each structure has a job to do keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive They re like mini-organs!

8 1. Cells need power! Making energy to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must take in food & digest it take in oxygen (O 2 ) ATP make ATP remove waste organelles that do this work

9 Cell membrane Function O 2,CO 2, food, H 2 O, nutrients, waste allows communication between cells Structure double layer of fat phosphate head lipid tail

10 Vacuoles & vesicles small food particle vesicle Function Structure membrane sac vacuole filled w/ digestive enzymes vesicle filled w/ digested nutrients

11 Food & water storage plant cells central vacuole food vacuole animal cells contractile vacuole

12 Lysosomes small food particle vacuole Function used to make energy digest broken organelles Structure membrane sac of digestive enzymes digesting broken organelles digesting food

13 A Job for Lysosomes 6 weeks 15 weeks

14 Mitochondria Function sugar + O2 ATP fuels the work of life Structure double membrane ATP in both animal & plant cells

15 Plants make energy two ways! make energy from sugar sugar ATP make energy + sugar from sunlight sunlight ATP & sugar ATP = active energy sugar = stored energy build leaves & roots & fruit out of sugars sugar ATP ATP

16 Mitochondria are in both cells!! animal cells plant cells mitochondria chloroplast

17 2. Cells need workers = proteins! Making proteins to run daily life & growth, the cell must read genes (DNA) build proteins structural proteins (muscle fibers) enzymes (speed up chemical reactions) signals (hormones) & receptors organelles that do this work

18 Proteins do all the work! one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because proteins do all the work! structural enzymes signals receptors DNA proteins cells

19 Nucleus Function control center of cell protects DNA instructions for building proteins Structure ribosome factory DNA

20 Ribosomes Function read instructions to build proteins from DNA Structure some free in cytoplasm some attached to ER Ribosomes on ER

21 Endoplasmic Reticulum Function helps complete the proteins after ribosome builds them Structure ribosomes attached works on proteins makes membranes

22 Golgi Apparatus Function like UPS headquarters shipping & receiving department UPS trucks Structure membrane sacs vesicles carrying proteins transport vesicles

23 protein on its way! TO: TO: TO: vesicle Making Proteins TO: finished protein

24 Cells need to make more cells! Making more cells to repair & reproduce, the cell must copy their DNA make extra organelles divide the new DNA & new organelles between 2 new daughter cells organelles that do this work

25 Centrioles Function Structure one pair in each cell

26 Cell Summary Cells have 3 main jobs need food + O 2 cellular respiration & photosynthesis need to remove wastes need instructions from DNA need to chain together amino acids & finish & ship the protein Our organelles do all those jobs! need to copy DNA & divide it up to daughter cells

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