Cell Theory and Structure. Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles

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1 Cell Theory and Structure Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles

2 Discoveries In 1665 Robert Hooke observed a thin slice of cork from an oak tree What he saw reminded him of the rooms in a monastery, so he called what he saw under the microscope a cell (Latin for room )

3 Discoveries In 1670 Anton van Leeuwenhoek used the first real microscope to view pond water He saw living creatures that we now call single celled organisms

4 What are cells? Cells are the smallest unit of life that can carry out all the functions of a living organism Cells were not discovered until the invention of the microscope

5 What are cells? Some living organisms are unicellular (only made of only 1 cell) They are the smallest of all living organisms Examples: some bacteria, many protists These are what Leeuwenhoek noticed under the microscope in 1670

6 What are cells? Some living organisms are multicellular (made of many cells) Examples: Plants, Animals, Fungi

7 What are cells? Shape is related to Function Blood Cell-hemocyte; round to move through vessels Nerve-neuron; long to carry message to spinal cord

8 Cell Theory M. Schleiden 1838, botanist, all plants are made of cells T. Schwann 1839, zoologist, all animals/organisms are made of cells R. Virchow 1855, physician, all new cells come from existing cells (biogenesis)

9 Cell Theory 1. Cells are the basic units of all life 2. All organisms are made of one or more cells 3. All new cells come from existing cells

10 Cell Structure Many components make up a cell and carry out specific activities Each component works together with the others to keep the cell functioning These components are called organelles Just as many organs work together to make your body function, organelles work together to make a cell function

11 Common features in cells All cells have cell membranes All cells have genetic material: DNA and ribosomes All cells have cytoplasm: the interior portion of the cell

12 Types of cells: Prokaryotic have genetic material but no nucleus. NO membrane bound organelles except ribosomes Simplest cellular organisms. Example: bacteria

13 Types of cells: Eukaryotic More complex, organized cells Has a true nucleus and other organelles About 10X bigger than prokaryotic cells Ex. - plant and animal cells The cells in your body are eukaryotic!

14 Types of Cells: Plant

15 Types of Cells: Animal

16 Organelles: Cell Membrane Structure: Made of phospholipids and proteins Phospholipid bi-layer Semipermeable (selectively permeable) Hydrophilic (H 2 O loving) head Hydrophobic (H 2 O fearing) tail

17

18 Organelles: Cell Membrane Function: maintain homeostasis Controls what enters and leaves Boundary separating the cell from its environment

19 Organelles: Cell Wall Structure: Found only in plant cells composed of proteins and cellulose Function: Provides support and protection Helps maintain square shape

20 Organelles: Cell Wall

21 Organelles: Cytoplasm Structure: Jelly like base throughout the cell consists of mainly water and cytosol (an organic compound) contains the cytoskeleton Function: Contains or suspends organelles inside the cell

22

23 Organelles: Cytoskeleton Structure composed of protein fibers Actin fibers: contract and expand to give the cell flexibility Microtubules: transport information from nucleus to other parts of the cell (like neurons) Intermediate fibers: framework of metabolic pathways for ribosomes/enzymes

24 Organelles: Cytoskeleton Function provides support and a place to anchor other structures

25

26 Organelles: Nucleus Structure: Found in the cytoplasm Contains the genetic material (chromosomes made of DNA & proteins) Surrounded by a nuclear envelope (double membrane) Contains the nucleolus that makes ribosomes Function: Control headquarters for the cell (brain)

27 Organelles: Nucleolus Located inside the nucleus Structure Knot of chromatin Function Produces ribosomes

28

29 Organelles: Ribosomes Structure spheres composed of RNA and protein Function site of protein synthesis Free ribosomes make proteins that remain inside the cell Attached ribosomes make proteins that become part of the cell or are exported from the cell (usually attached to the ER)

30 Attached to the ER Free Floating

31 Organelles: Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER: has ribosomes attached Smooth ER: does NOT have ribosomes

32 Organelles: Rough ER Structure: Network of folded membranes near nucleus Contains ribosomes on surface Function: Transports proteins that were made by the attached ribosomes through the cell to the golgi

33

34 Ribosomesmake proteins Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

35 Organelles: Smooth ER Structure: Network of folded membranes throughout cell Contains NO ribosomes on surface Function: Makes lipids and breaks down toxic substances

36

37 Organelles: Golgi Structure Closely stacked, flattened membrane sacs Found in the cytoplasm near nucleus Function Stores, packages, and transports products inside for use outside Releases vesicles (a bit of the golgi pinched off) for transport of stored materials.

38

39 Golgi Apparatuspackaging and distribution center of the cell.

40 Organelles: Vesicles Structure bits of membrane from the plasma membrane or from the golgi found inside or outside of the plasma/cell membrane

41 Organelles: Vesicles Function Vesicles fuse with the cell membrane may be used to release or transport chemicals in or out of the cells: Exocytosis out of the cell Endocytosis into the cell Transports chemicals to lysosomes or vacuole

42

43 Organelles: Lysosomes Structure found only in animal cells sac-like contain digestive enzymes Function digests food particles and old organelles

44 Organelles: Vacuole Structure Located in cytoplasm Sac of fluid surrounded by a membrane Plant cells have one large central vacuole Animal cells have many small vacuoles

45 Plants have one large central vacuole

46 Organelles: Vacuole Function Stores water, ions and some nutrients Help plant cells maintain turgor pressure

47 Organelles: Mitochondria Found in plant and animal cells Structure A complex matrix of folded membranes to increase surface area Chemical processes in organisms occur across membrane surfaces

48 Organelles: Mitochondria Function Powerhouse of the cell Converts stored energy (glucose) into useable energy (ATP) Glucose is a product of photosynthesis ATP is a product of cellular respiration

49

50 Organelles: Chloroplast Structure Found only in plant cells (and some protists) Double phospholipid bilayer Stacks = grana Non stacked area = stroma

51

52 Organelles: Chloroplast Function Capturing radiant energy and converting it to chemical energy during photosynthesis Chlorophyll is the green pigment that traps the energy from the sun

53 Organelles: Flagella Structure long whip-like tail Function Locomotion (movement) one big wave motion will cause a large movement

54 Organelles: Cilia Structure Surrounds outside of the cell short hair-like Function locomotion (movement) tiny flutters of movement

55 Organelles: Centrioles Structure Found only in animal cells Made of protein fibers Function Aid in the division of chromosomes during mitosis

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