CELL THEORY, STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

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1 CELL THEORY, STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

2

3 History of Cells Robert Hooke (1665) observed cork under a microscope Thought they looked like the rooms monks lived in called cells.

4 History of Cells Antony Van Leeuwenhoek (1683) first recorded observations of single-celled, animal-like creatures(animalcules) Courtesy of:

5 Early Cell Theories Redi: spontaneous generation

6 Pasture: theory of biogenesis

7 Oparin Haldane: primordial Soup and the Miller Urey experiment

8 Cell Theory 1) All living things are composed of cells. (Schleiden and Schwan 1838) 2) Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. (Schleiden and Schwan 1838) 3) New cells are produced from existing cells. (Virchow 1855)

9 Microscope Technology Compound Light Microscope: 100x Electron Microscope: 500,000x Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM): 3-D images

10 What do all cells have in common? Genetic material Ribosomes Cytoplasm Plasma membrane

11 Pro=NO Prokaryotes= NO nucleus Eu=TRUE Eukaryotes= Have a TRUE nucleus

12 With your partner, make a list of the similarities and difference of these two cells.

13 2 Cell Types 1. PROKARYOTES before nucleus = NO NUCLEUS! Small and simple No membrane bound organelles Unicellular Ex: Eubacteria and archaea 2. EUKARYOTES true nucleus = Has a nucleus! Large and complex (greater adaptability) Yes! membrane bound Organelles Unicellular or multicellular Ex: animals, plants, fungi, protists

14 Turn to your shoulder partner and tell them: Partner 1: Prokaryotic cells are different from Eukaryotic cells because. Partner 2: I agree/disagree with you because.

15 Complexity of Cells and the Endosymbiotic Theory Endo- in Symbiosis- interaction of two organisms living together Therefore the theory states that organelles found in eukaryotic cells came from preexisting prokaryotic cells. One prokaryotic cell engulfed another smaller prokaryotic cell

16 Thumbs Down - prokaryotic Thumbs Up - eukaryotic

17 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

18 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

19 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

20 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

21 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

22 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

23

24 Membrane Bound Organelles A science-y way of saying that eukaryotic cells have organs just like the human body has organs! Each organelle has a separate function.

25 Organelle #1: Cell Membrane = phospholipid bilayer = Plasma Membrane Seen in all cells! isolates the cell contents from the environment regulates movement of materials into and out of the cell (semipermeable or selectively permeable membrane) Far away Up close

26

27 #2 Nucleus control center for cells contains DNA and chromosomes only in eukaryotes

28 #3 Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis: the creation of proteins. What monomers are these Ribosomes linking together to create these proteins?!

29 #4 Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER Protein Synthesis Covered in ribosomes In all eukaryotic cells Smooth ER Lipid production In all eukaryotic cells

30 #5 Golgi Body/Apparatus Packaging and transport of proteins made by the ribosomes In all eukaryotic cells

31 #6 Vacuole

32 Produce ATP (energy) by cellular respiration #7 Mitochondria Powerhouse of the cell

33 #8 Chloroplast Essential for photosynthesis Plants use sunlight energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to glucose & oxygen contains Chlorophyll (pigment that absorbs sunlight) PLANTS only Has its own DNA

34 Purpose: digestion for the cell. A membrane bound organelle (only in animals) containing various enzymes. The lysosome is created by the endoplasmic reticulum. It then floats in the cytoplasm of a cell until it is needed. #9 Lysosomes

35 #10 Cell Wall Protects and supports the cell Absent in animal cells (present in all other types of cells) Made of cellulose (carbohydrate) Courtesy of:

36 Plants vs. Animals

37 Comparing Cells pg. 199 Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Chromatin & Chromosomes Ribosomes Rough Endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER) Cilia flagella Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Vacuole Mitochondria Chloroplasts Cytoskeleton Cell membrane Cell Wall Centrioles

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