The Cell Theory. Prokaryotic (Pre) ( Nucleus) Cells 10/28/2013. Types of Cells. All living things have cells. Always single- celled lacks organelles

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1 Types of Cells Cells 1. I can explain the cell theory The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function. 3. Cells are produced only from existing cells. Biogenesis: Life arises from life, and cannot arise from something non-living 2. I can explain the differences between living cells and viruses. All living things have cells Unicellular creatures have 1 cell Multicellular creatures have 2 or more cells Prokaryotic (Pre) ( Nucleus) Always single- celled lacks organelles Few specialized functions Bacteria are the only group of organisms that are prokaryotic!!! 1

2 Eukaryotic (True) ( Nucleus) Single-celled or multi-celled Has many organelles Specialized functions EX: (nerve cells, bone cells) All other living things EX: (Plants, Animals, Fungi) Cell Organelles: little organs that have specific jobs in a cell 3. I can compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Viruses - Made up of proteins NOT cells - Contains DNA - Needs a host cell to reproduce. Discuss with your group if you think Viruses are living or non living. Viruses need a host cell. 2

3 VIRUSES!!! 3

4 For understanding *Make a double bubble for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. *Make a bubble for viruses Types of Cells 4. I can compare and contrast plant and animal cells. Make the following table in your notes: For Understanding Differences Plant Animal Which of the following is not found in animal cells? A) Cell Membrane Shape Structures Squarish Chloroplast & Cell Wall Roundish B) Cytoplasm C) Nucleus D) Chloroplasts A) Animal B) Plant What type of cell is this? C) Bacteria What type of cell is this? A) Animal B) Plant C) Bacteria 4

5 Which of the following is found in plant cells but not in animal cells? A) Nucleus B) Cell Wall C) Cell Membrane D) Cytoplasm Cell Organelles little organs that have specific jobs in a cell A cell is like a cell phone factory Organelles 5. I can explain the role of the ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in protein secretion. MAKING PROTEINS 1. Ribosomes Function: makes proteins using the information from DNA -found on rough ER Analogy: factory workers who build the cell phones 5

6 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Function: helps move supplies around the cell Analogy: Assembly line 3. Golgi apparatus Function: packages & ships proteins outside of the cell Analogy: packaging center for the cell phones What organelle makes proteins? A) Endoplasmic Reticulum B) Ribosomes C) Golgi Apparatus What organelle ships & packages proteins out of the cell? A) Endoplasmic Reticulum B) Ribosomes C) Golgi Apparatus Organelles What organelle transports supplies around the cell? 5. I can state the function of the mitochondria and chloroplasts. A) Endoplasmic Reticulum B) Ribosomes C) Nucleus 6

7 Making ENERGY 4. Mitochondria Function: With Oxygen, Glucose changes from food into energy (ATP) for the cell Analogy: generator for factory 5. Chloroplast Function: uses sunlight to change water and Carbon Dioxide into Glucose and Oxygen (photosynthesis) Analogy: solar panel True or False Animals produce their own food in the mitochondria. FALSE: Animals CAN NOT produce their own food, they have to eat it. The mitochondria is where our food is turned into energy for the cell. True or False Plants produce their own food in the chloroplasts. Structure TRUE 7

8 6. NUCLEUS Function: Stores genetic information (DNA) Analogy: CEO/Boss of the factory 7. Chromatin: Unorganized form of DNA 8. Chromosomes: Organized form of DNA Function: DNA contains the information to make proteins!) Analogy: Blueprints for the cell phones 9. CELL MEMBRANE Function: Selectively Permeable controls what goes in & out of cells Analogy: Main gate/security booth cell membrane 10. CELL WALL Function: Gives structure to plant cells - allows plant to grow upright (stiff) Analogy: Factory building wall phospholipid True or False What is FALSE of the Cell Membrane? The Cell Wall is found in both animal and plant cells A) Allows certain things to enter and leave the cell B) It s semipermeable C) Is found only in animal cells D) Is found in animal and plant cells 8

9 11. Lysosomes Maintenance Function: has enzymes that break down large molecules - like old cell parts Analogy: Janitors (think Lysol cleaner) 12. VACUOLE Function: Stores water and nutrients for the cell helps plants from drying out. Analogy: Kitchen/break room Refrigerator Vacoule OTHER STRUCTURES 13. Centrioles FUNCTION: moves the chromosomes within a cell for reproduction Analogy: file cabinet for blueprints 14. CYTOPLASM Function: Nutrient filled fluid that hold the shape of the cell. Analogy: Floor of the Factory 9

10 What are the main differences between a plant and animal cell? Plant Animal Shape squarish roundish Structures Chloroplast, central vacuole, cell wall Centriole. Lysosomes ANIMAL CELL Roundish Lysosomes Centrioles The Differences Small vacuoles PLANT CELL Squarish Chloroplast Cell Wall Central Vacuole 10

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