BIO 2 GO! 3216a The Cell Organelles and Nucleus Function

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1 BIO 2 GO! 3216a The Cell Organelles and Nucleus Function The cell is the smallest unit of life. Each living cell has a nucleus which functions to control the actions of the rest of the cell. Upon successful completion of this unit, you should be able to do the following: 1. Explain and describe the structure and function of a cell and the nucleus of a cell. 2. Explain and describe the role of DNA in the nucleus. 3. List and describe the function of 10 cellular organelles. 4. Be able to use the following words in their correct context: Cell Nucleus DNA RNA Ribosome Chromosome Chloroplast Mitochondrion Cell wall Cell membrane Cilia Flagella Pseudopodia Organelle

2 The Cell Organelles and Nucleus Function a Cell Classification The smallest and simplest basic unit of life is the cell. A cell is the smallest unit of matter that can be considered alive. All living things, both plant and animals, are made of cells. There are two major types of cells, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. Prokaryotes: Cells with NO Nucleus ( Pro means No nucleus) and NO membranebound organelles (cell parts). Very simply cells, because they only contain DNA, ribosomes, a membrane, and maybe a cell wall and a flagella All Prokaryotic Cells are Unicellular (single-celled) organisms, which means they are made of only one cell, like bacteria. Eukaryotes: Cells that have a nucleus and many membrane bound organelles. ( Eu means Do have a nucleus) More complex because they contain everything prokaryotes have PLUS a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles. Some Eukaryotes are unicellular. Most Eukaryotic cells are part of multicellular organisms. Multicellular organisms are further divided into Animals and Plants. Plants are made of Plant cells. Animals are made of Animal Cells. Eukaryotic animal cells are the kinds of cells YOU are made of (Hint YOU Karyotic Cells!!!!) The nucleus is a membrane-covered organelle that serves 2 functions: 1) The nucleus contains the cell s DNA and 2) The nucleus serves as a control center for the cell. 1. DNA As you recall, DNA is the code, or blueprint for making a new organism. Every cell with a nucleus contains DNA in the nucleus. The DNA is organized into chromosomes. Every organism has a certain number of chromosomes that come in pairs. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosome, or a total of 46 chromosomes. Whenever a cell wants to reproduce, it must make new DNA for the offspring by copying each chromosome.

3 2. Control Center The nucleus of the cell tells the rest of the cell what to do. The nucleus is the brains of the cell. The nucleus is in charge of all of the cell s functions. If something happens to the nucleus, the cell dies. REMEMBER THIS!!! All living things are made of cells. Each EUKARYOTIC cell contains a nucleus that controls the activities of the cell and stores the DNA for the cell. Interesting Scientific Fact: Not all cells look alike. Those cells with a similar function usually look alike. Those cells with a different function do not look alike. All skin cells tend to look the same. However, a skin cell is different from a muscle cell. The longest cells in the human body are nerve cells. Nerve cells can be more than 1 meter long! Question 1. What are the two major divisions of cells and how do they differ? Questions 2: What two groups are Eukaryotic cells further divided into? Question 3. What are the 2 functions for the nucleus? Question 4. What are chromosomes made out of? So what would the function of a chromosome be?

4 Cellular Organelles A cellular organelle is a special structure located in a cell. The following organelles are found in almost every Eukaryotic cell. They are under the control of the nucleus. They each contribute to the well being of the cell. It is important that you are able to list and explain the function of each of these cellular organelles. Also note that plant and animal cells have some key differences. While many of these parts can be found in plant and animal cells, a few can only be found in just plant cells or just animal cells. 1. nucleus contains the cell s DNA and is the control center of the cell 2. Chromosome- Made of DNA and located in the nucleus, these parts store the genetic information that acts as the blueprints for an organism to reproduce and pass traits onto their offspring. 3. ribosomes the site where amino acids are hooked together to make proteins 4. mitochondria the site where food molecules (glucose) are broken down and energy is released to make ATP molecules (energy). This chemical process is called Cellular Respiration Glucose(C6H12O6) + Oxygen (O2) ATP energy + Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water 5. chloroplasts found in green plant cells only; the site where food (glucose) is made for the plant by capturing the solar energy of sunlight. This chemical process is called Photosynthesis: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water + Solar Energy Glucose(C6H12O6) + Oxygen (O2) 6. cell wall found in plants only; rigid structure made of the carbohydrate cellulose that surrounds and provides support and protection for each plant cell. This is the reason plants can stand up without drooping over.

5 7. cell membrane a phospholipid bilayer that surrounds every cell and acts as a barrier between the inside and outside of a cell, regulating the nutrient and waste materials that enter and exit the cell. This helps the cell maintain homeostasis (constant ph, temperature, and water balance) 8. Cilia- tiny hair-like structures that some animal cells have for movement (eg. Paramecium) 9. Flagella- single tail-like structure that some animal cells have for movement (eg. Euglena) 10. Pseudopodia- a method of movement some animal cells use in which they will extend their membrane in the direction of movement (eg. Amoeba)

6 Question 5: Which cell parts are involved in energy capture and release? Question 6: Which cell parts are involved in storage of excess material? Question 7: Which organelles are involved in waste removal Question 8: Which organelles are involved in cell movement? Question 9: Which organelles are involved in protecting the cells and regulated movement of materials in and out of the cell? Questions 10: What do all of the cell parts float around in? Summary The Cell Organelles and Nucleus Function 3216 a The cell is the basic unit of life. Some organisms are made of only one cell (unicellular), while others are made of billions of cells (multicellular). Organisms are very different yet the cells they are made of are very similar. A cell s job is to make molecules and to eventually reproduce itself. The cell makes molecules for its own use, or to be used elsewhere outside of the cell. The cells make proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Most cells have a nucleus. In the nucleus is DNA, a material that holds the genetic code for all of the proteins that the cell needs to make. The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane. It has large pores to let RNA in and out, but DNA is so large, it cannot get out of the nucleus.

7 Matching The Cell Organelles and Nucleus Function TEST YOURSELF 1. cell 2. nucleus 3. DNA;chromsome 4. ribosome 5. chloroplast 6. mitochondrion 7. cell wall 8. pseudopodia 9. prokaryote 10. Cilia; flagella 11. Eukaryotes 12. cell membrane a. joins amino acids to make a protein b. organelle that can carry out photosynthesis c. organelle that can carry out cellular respiration d. the smallest unit of living matter e. store DNA and directs cell activity f. a molecule that holds the code for all of the proteins that a cell needs to make g. extension of cell membrane for cell movement h. hard covering that surrounds plant cells made of cellulose i. hair-like and tail-like movement structures for cells j. Simple cell that lacks nucleus and membrane bound organelles k. Complex cell with a nucleus and organelles; divided into plant and animal cells l. protective covering surrounding all cells that regulates what enters/exits cell True or False 1. Some organisms are made of only one cell. 2. Some organisms are made of billions of cells. 3. The nucleus can make glucose using the light from the sun. 4. The nucleus can join amino acids to make a protein. 5. The nucleus stores DNA. 6. The nucleus stores molecules that hold the code for all of the proteins that a cell needs to make. 7. The ribosomes can make glucose using the light from the sun. 8. The ribosomes can join amino acids to make a protein. 9. The chloroplasts can make glucose using the light from the sun.

8 10. The chloroplasts can join amino acids to make a protein. 11. The mitochondria can make glucose. 12. The mitochondria can break apart glucose. 13. A cell only needs its nucleus to be able to make its proteins. 14. Only plants have a cell wall. Fill in the Blank cells nucleus DNA ribosomes proteins amino acid chloroplasts photosynthesis mitochondria cellular respiration 1. There are several similar structures within the of different organisms. 2. The organelles within a cell must work together to make a cell s. 3. The code for the sequence of a protein is stored in the molecules. 4. The is the organelle that holds the DNA molecules. 5. The join together the amino acids to make a protein. 6. The provide the energy needed to build proteins by breaking glucose apart to release its stored energy. 7. is the name of the process in which glucose is broken down. 8. are the organelles that are capable of using light energy to make glucose. 9. is the name of the process in which glucose is made.

9 Answer the Following 1. Why are cells called the basic unit of life? 2. What is in the nucleus of a cell? What does it do? 3. What is the function of ribosomes? 4. What is the function of chloroplasts? 5. What is the function of mitochondria?

10 The Cell Organelles and Nucleus Function Answer Sheet Question 1. What are the two major divisions of cells and how do they differ? Questions 2: What two groups are Eukaryotic cells further divided into? Question 3. What are the 2 functions for the nucleus? Question 4. What are chromosomes made out of? So what would the function of a chromosome be? Question 5: Which cell parts are involved in energy capture and release?

11 Question 6: Which cell parts are involved in storage of excess material? Question 7: Which organelles are involved in waste removal Question 8: Which organelles are involved in cell movement? Question 9: Which organelles are involved in protecting the cells and regulated movement of materials in and out of the cell? Questions 10: What do all of the cell parts float around in?

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