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15 All Living Things Share Common Characteristics 1. Living Things are Composed of Cells: Single-cell organisms have everything they need to be self-sufficient. In multicellular organisms, some cells do only certain things.

16 All Living Things Share Common Characteristics 2. Living things move Animals are able to use legs or other special features for locomotion. Plants are able to change stem/branch angles or use the wind.

17 All Living Things Share Common Characteristics 3.Living Things Use Energy: Living things take in energy and use it for maintenance and growth

18 All Living Things Share Common Characteristics 4.Living Things Respond To Their Environment: Living things will make changes in response to their environment.

19 All Living Things Share Common Characteristics 5. Living Things Grow Cell division - formation of new cells. Cell enlargement - the increase in size of a cell. An organism gets larger as the number of its cells increases.

20 All Living Things Share Common Characteristics 6. Living Things Reproduce: All living things reproduce in one of the following ways: Asexual reproduction - Producing offspring without the use of gametes. Sexual reproduction - Producing offspring by the joining of sex cells.

21 All Living Things Share Common Characteristics 7. Living Things Adapt To Their Environment: Adaptations are traits giving an organism an advantage in a certain environment. Variation of individuals is important for a healthy species.

22 All Living Things Share Common Characteristics 8. Living Things Exchange Gases: Animals use oxygen and release carbon dioxide (cell respiration). Plants use carbon dioxide and release oxygen (photosynthesis).

23 All Organisms are made of Cells copyright cmassengale 23 6

24 Facts About Cells Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism All cells contain living material called cytoplasm All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell copyright cmassengale 24 7

25 More Cell Facts Cells are complex & highly organized Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobs e.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars copyright cmassengale 25 8

26 More Cell Facts The simplest cells are called Prokaryotes These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Bacteria are examples copyright cmassengale 26 9

27 More Cell Facts More complex cells are called Eukaryotes These cells DO have a nucleus and membranebound organelles Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples copyright cmassengale 27 10

28 Organisms are Grouped by their Number of Cells Unicellular Organisms Living Organism Made Up Of One Cell Bacteria, yeast, protozoa copyright cmassengale 28 11

29 Multicellular Organisms Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells Plants, animals, fungi 29

30 Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits copyright cmassengale 30 12

31 Two Types of Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Involves 2 parents Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE Offspring DIFFERENT from parents copyright cmassengale 31 13

32 Two Types of Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Involves a single organism or cell Cell divides Offspring IDENTICAL to parent copyright cmassengale 32 14

33 Asexual reproduction in Cuttings, grafting agriculture 33

34 Growth & Development Organisms grow by producing MORE CELLS Organisms develop as they mature into an adult organism copyright cmassengale 34 18

35 Organisms Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale 35 17

36 Cells Require Food & Energy copyright cmassengale 36 19

37 Metabolism Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism All require energy Sunlight is the ultimate energy for life on Earth copyright cmassengale 37 22

38 Metabolism Cellular Respiration Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O copyright cmassengale 38 23

39 Life is Organized on Several Levels copyright cmassengale 39 27

40 Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells life starts here Tissues Organs System Organism Levels

41 Levels Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere

42 Homeostasis Keeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For Life Stable internal conditions of ph, temperature, water balance, etc. copyright cmassengale 42 25

43 copyright cmassengale 43 30

44 Food Requirements Autotrophs can make their own food Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis) Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy 44 20

45 Food Requirements Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food They must consume other organisms Herbivores eat plants Carnivores eat meat Omnivores eat plants & animals copyright cmassengale 45 21

46 Organisms Respond to Stimuli Organisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & Reproduce copyright cmassengale 46 24

47 Living Things Evolve Groups Of Organisms (Not Individuals) Change Over Time In Order To Survive Within Changing Environments. Fossil records show changes in groups of organisms copyright cmassengale 47 26

48 Living Things Exchange Animals need to exchange carbon dioxide in order to create ATP for energy Gases Plants need to exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide in order to create glucose

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