Organic Molecules: (All contain carbon) Inorganic Molecules: (Do NOT contain carbon)

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1 Organic Molecules: (All contain carbon) 1.) Carbohydrates: Quick source of energy 2.) Lipids: Long-term energy storage 3.) Proteins: Raw materials and enzyme action (catalysts) Inorganic Molecules: (Do NOT contain carbon) 1.) Water: able to dissolve many substances because it is polar_ Has a high heat capacity 2.) Minerals: Help the body function in many ways -Potassium, sodium, iron, and magnesium are all examples 4.) Nucleic Acids: Store DNA/RNA/Genetic Information 5.) Vitamins: Help the body function in many ways -A, C, D, and E are all examples 1

2 Water has a ph of 7. Anything below 7 is considered a (n). acid Anything above 7 is considered a base 2

3 Cell Types Include Examples Include: Prokaryotes Bacteria All cells have: cell membrane ribosomes cytoplasm DNA Eukaryotes 2 major types we studied are: Which NEVER Have: nucleus complex organelles And often DO have: flagella pseudopodia cillia Plant Which have chloroplasts and a cell wall Animal 3

4 Midterm Graphic Organizers KEY 2012.notebook Which ORGANELLE does each picture make you think of? 1.) A brick wall is like the...because... 3.) A solar panel is like the... because... cell wall rigid barrier around plant cells 2.) An assembly line is like the...because... chloroplasts takes in sunlight and converts it to glucose (energy) ER transports proteins made by cell 4.) A trash can is like the...because... 6.) A bouncer is like the...because... Lysosome it breaks down waste for the cell cell membrane it is selectively permeable 5.) A power plant is like the...because... mitochondria powerhouse where ATP is made 4

5 Organisms who perform it: plants/autotrophs/producers Organelle where it occurs: chloroplasts Photosynthesis Both Processes Occur In: plants/autotrophs/ producers Cellular Respiration (Aerobic Respiration) Organisms who perform it: autotrophs and heterotrophs (producers and consumers) Organelle where it occurs: mitochondria Uses: carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight Releases: glucose and oxygen The relationship between the two processes is: the products of one process are the reactants of the other process Chemosynthesis is different. Write its equation: happens only in complete darkness by chemotrophs water + inorganic compounds + carbon dioxide > oxygen and glucose Uses: glucose and oxygen Releases: carbon dioxide, water, and ATP Anaerobic resp produces (less/more) ATP because it does not use oxygen 5

6 Two Major Categories of Cell Transport Active (Against) Concentration Gradient (With) Concentration Gradient Passive Requires created by mitochondria as its source of energy Moves substances from low to high concentration Diffusion Movement of _particles_ across the cell membrane Examples include: food coloring in beakers, salt and sugar movement in cells Osmosis Movement of water across the cell membrane Facilitated Diffusion Think "AAA" Active Transport is Against the Gradient and requires ATP hypertonic solutions cause cells to shrink because water leaves the cell hypotonic solutions cause cells to swell because water enters the cell isotonic solutions have reached equilibrium with the cell 6

7 Minerals Needed in trace (small) amounts Ex. sodium, potassium, Prokaryotes Ex. bacteria cell membrane, DNA, ribosomes (all cells have these) Also has a cell wall and NO nucleus May have movement structures like flagella (whip tail), cilia (small hairs) or psuedopodia (false foot) Eukaryotes Ex. yeast it has single celled but has a nucleus and organelles. Biomolecules Cell membrane made up of lipids Cell wall made up of cellulose DNA store genetic information and information on making proteins Enzyme activity will decrease if ph or temperature is too low or too high. The will denature (be destroyed at high temperatures. Enzymes have an optimal temperature and ph. This is unique to each enzyme. Cell Structure Mitochondria releases energy and uses oxygen to do it (cellular respiration) It makes ATP and delivers it to cells. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Plants use light as their energy source. Cell wall is made of cellulose The bubbles produced by plants in water are oxygen The chloroplast produces oxygen gas. Aerobic respiration uses oxygen and makes the most ATP Anerobic does not use oxygen and produces MUCH less ATP Exercise causes the body to produce more carbon dioxide because your doing more cellular respiration to make ATP. Bacteria living in the ABSENCE of light makes its' food using inorganic compounds (chemosynthesis).. 7

8 Cell Structure If the mitochondria gets damaged then it can't make and release ATP. Cell membrane is directly involved in transport. All substances wither entering or exiting the cell must pass through it. Osmosis and Diffusion salt, sugar, CO2 and oxygen move through diffusion WATER moves through osmosis Freshwater organism in salt water will shrink as water will leave its' cells. Saltwater organism in freshwater will swell as water will enter its' cells. Water moves from high to low concentration. Body Systems Excretory eliminates waste ( through bowels or skin by sweating) Circulatory delivers oxygen to cells, tissue and organs. It works with the resspiratory system. Body Systems continued Hormones work with positive and negative feedback to deliver chemical messages to the body. Muscular system works with the nervous system to contract muscles. Hormones are chemical messengers Scientific method Control gets no treatment ( You compare the experimental group to it. Constant something that stays the same ( amount of light, amount of water) What is the difference between 1 x 10 5 and 1 x It would be 1 x

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