Biology Mid-Year Review Packet This packet will be collected on the day of the exam for 2 HOMEWORK GRADES.

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1 Name: Period: Date: Biology Mid-Year Review Packet This packet will be collected on the day of the exam for 2 HOMEWORK GRADES. Topics: Observations & Inferences Making A Hypothesis Characteristics of Life Levels of Organization Ecosystems: Biotic vs. Abiotic Atoms, Elements, Chemical Bonds & Enzymes Macromolecules Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells The Parts of a Cell (Organelles) Plant vs. Animal Cells The Cell Membrane Passive and Active Transport (across the cell membrane) Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Cell Cycle & Mitosis Meiosis Intro genetics (chromosomes, traits, Punnett Squares) Observations & Inferences 1. Make 3 observations about the person sitting next to you. a. b. c. 2. Write down 3 observations and 1 inference about the following picture: Observations Inference

2 Making A Hypothesis 1. A is like an educated guess to the answer of a scientific question. Making Hypotheses For each question below, write a hypothesis (or guess to the answer of the question) as an if I. then statement. 2. How does water affect the growth of a plant? If I then 3. How does the amount of sunlight affect the growth of a plant? If I then. 4. How does the amount of oxygen affect how much energy your cells make? If I then. Characteristics of Life 1. How many characteristics of living things do you need to be considered alive? 2. What are the eight characteristics of living things?

3 3. Which characteristics of living things does soil have? 4. Is soil alive (living)? Why or why not? 5. Use the following word bank to complete the descriptions of the Characteristics of Life: Homeostasis Adaptation Reproduce Cells Growth Stimuli Development Energy DNA Response A. results in an increase in height (ex: you get taller). results in a change (ex: a caterpillar becomes a butterfly) B. All organisms keep stable internal conditions by a process called (ex: your body temperature stays at If your body temperature goes up, you start to sweat to get your temperature back down to 98.6.) C. All living things have inside their cells to give them their traits, such as hair color and eye color. D. are changes that occur over time that help a species survive. (ex: over many generations, polar bears changed to having white fur to survive in the arctic) E. All organisms are made of one or more. (ex: this is the most basic unit of life) F. Organisms to pass along their genes from one generation to the next. If they don t do this, then the species will eventually become extinct G. All organisms need to survive. (ex: we get it from food, plants get it from the sun) H. Organisms respond to their environment. For example, a plant called the Mimosa closes its leaves when something touches them. The touch is an example of a, and the plant s reaction of closing its leaves is called a

4 Levels of Organization 1. What is a species? 2. An ecosystem contains all different species of organisms and, such as water, air, temperature, and precipitation. 3. List below the levels of organization from smallest to largest AND describe what belongs in each level. 4. What level of organization are the following pictures? a. b.

5 Ecosystem: Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors 1. What is a habitat? 2. Tell me if each item is an abiotic factor using an (A) or biotic factor using a (B). Organism Soil Sun Grass Ocean Snail Precipitation Temperature Wind Fish 3. Label abiotic and biotic factors in the picture below.

6 Atoms, Elements, Chemical Bonds and Enzymes 1. What is an atom made up of (3 subatomic particles)? 2. What are the charges (+, -, neutral) for each subatomic particle? 3. Where are the protons and neutrons located? 4. Where are the electrons located? 5. How do you find the number of neutrons in an element? 6. What two things add up to the atomic mass? + 7. What does the atomic number tell you? The number of what? 8. How many electrons can fit in the 1st energy level? 9. How many electrons can fit in the rest of the energy levels? 10. Draw a Beryllium atom (use your table of elements). 11. What are the TWO types of chemical bonds? What is the difference between them? 12. What elements make up a water molecule? 13. Draw a water molecules with the elements: 14. Explain how water is polar (you can draw a picture to explain): 15. What type of bond does a water molecule have when it comes in contact with another water molecule? 16. What is cohesion? Give an example. 17. What is adhesion? Give an example.

7 Macromolecules 1. Which special element are ALL living things made of? 2. What makes this element so special? 3. Which SIX elements are found in ALMOST all living things? 4. What word do we use to remember these six elements? 5. List the four major compounds (macromolecules) found in living organisms and give one example of where you could find each compound in FOOD. Hint: Protein is one of these compounds.

8 Macromolecule Monomer Picture Function Examples Carbohydrate Lipid Protein Nucleic Acid

9 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells 1. Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells using the Venn diagram below:

10 The Parts of a Cell (Organelles) Label the organelles of a plant and animal cell below: 1. Write the name & function of each of the organelles A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P.

11 2. Match the organelles with their functions: 1. Lysosome 2. Nucleus 3. Cytoplasm 4. Golgi 5. Ribosomes 6. Centrioles 7. Chloroplasts 1. Cell Membrane 2. Cell Wall 3. Mitochondria 4. Cytoskeleton 5. Vacuole 6. Endoplasmic Reticulum 7. Cilia 8. Flagella a. Gives the cell its shape and provides support and protection; not found in animal cells b. Controls what moves into and out of the cell c. Traps light and is used to produce food for plants (photosynthesis) d. Makes proteins by using DNA instructions from the nucleus e. Involved in the break down (digestion) of food and waste within the cell f. Contains nearly all of the cell's DNA, the control center or brain of the cell g. Converts (changes) food into energy for the cell h. Works as storage centers for the products of the cell i. Works as a pathway for the transport of materials throughout the cell j. Hair-like structures that help the cell move k. Gives shape to all cells and helps organelles move within the cell l. Involved in cell division in animal cells m. A long tail-like structure that helps cells move n. Modifies, sorts, and packages materials from the endoplasmic reticulum o. Jelly-like water substance that contains all the organelles 1. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells in the table below. Write what only plants cells have below plant cells, and write what only animal cells have below animal cells. Plant Cells Animal Cells

12 The Cell Membrane 1. What are the 2 main functions of the plasma membrane? 2. The plasma membrane is selectively permeable. What does this mean? 3. Draw a phospholipid below. Label the hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail. 4. Label the 4 parts of the plasma membrane and indicate the function of each part in the diagram below. Passive and Active Transport List the 3 types of passive transport and the 3 types of active transport in the chart below: Passive Transport Active Transport

13 Diffusion 1. When molecules diffuse across the cell membrane, do they move down the concentration or against the concentration gradient? Does it need energy? 2. Draw arrows in the picture below to show which way the molecules will diffuse across the cell membrane. Facilitated Diffusion What is the difference between diffusion and facilitated diffusion? (hint: look at the picture below) Osmosis 1. What is osmosis? 2. Does water move down the concentration gradient or against the concentration gradient? 3. Look at the picture of a solution below. What type of solution is this? Which way will the solute particles move?

14 Active Transport 1. Does active transport move molecules down the concentration gradient or against the concentration gradient? 2. Does active transport require energy? 3. A B What process is shown in Figure A? What process is shown in Figure B? 4. What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis?

15 COMPARE/CONTRAST the kinds of transport Is the following solution hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic? Where is there more water? In the solution or inside the cell? Active or Passive Does it need energy? Do the molecules move down or against the concentration gradient? Which way does the water diffuse? What will happen to the cell? If the solute molecules can move, which way would they move? DIFFUSION FACILITATED DIFFUSION OSMOSIS PROTEIN PUMPS ENDOCYTOSIS (phagocytosis) ENDOCYTOSIS (pinocytosis) EXOCYTOSIS

16 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis: 1. What is the equation (in symbols and words) for photosynthesis? 2. What are the reactants? 3. What are the products? 4. What goes into a plant? 5. What does the plant make for itself, making it an autotroph? 6. What does the plant make that it gives to animals? 7. Where does photosynthesis take place? Cellular Respiration: 8. What is the equation (in symbols and words) for cellular respiration? 9. What are the reactants? 10. What are the products? 11. What is necessary for cellular respiration to occur? 12. What is anaerobic respiration? What are the 2 types? What organisms perform each? 13. What process happens in the cytoplasm? 14. Where does cellular respiration take place?

17 The Cell Cycle & Mitosis 1. What are the 3 main stages of the cell cycle? 2. Explain what happens in Interphase. What are the 3 phases of Interphase? 3. Which stage of the cell cycle lasts the longest? Why? 4. Label the chromosome below with the following terms: sister chromatids, centromere 5. What is the purpose of the spindle? 6. At the end of cytokinesis, what are the 2 cells called? 7. Are the results of mitosis and cytokinesis IDENTICAL to each other? To the original cell?

18 PHASE DRAWING MAIN EVENTS PROPHASE METAPHASE ANAPHASE TELOPHASE CYTOKINESIS (division of the cytoplasm)

19 Meiosis 1. What are homologous chromosomes? 2. What are gametes? Are they haploid or diploid? 3. What are somatic cells? Are they haploid or diploid? 4. What is the difference between haploid and diploid cells? 5. How many chromosomes do humans have in their body cells? 6. What is crossing over? When does it occur? Fill in the table to compare Meiosis to Mitosis. MITOSIS MEIOSIS Number of cell divisions Number of daughter cells Genetically identical? Chromosome # Where in body When Role in body

20 Genetics 1. Define the following terms: a. Genetics - b. Heredity - c. Trait - d. Allele - e. Gene - 2. Who was Gregor Mendel? What did he use in his experiments for genetics? 3. What is the difference between dominant and recessive allele? How is each expressed? 4. What is difference between genotype and phenotype? 5. What is the difference between homozygous and heterozygous? 6. A TT (tall) plant is crossed with a tt (short plant). What percentage of the offspring will be tall? (show your work!) 7. A Tt plant is crossed with a Tt plant. What percentage of the offspring will be short? (show your work!) 8. A heterozygous round seeded plant (Rr) is crossed with a homozygous round seeded plant (RR). What percentage of the offspring will be homozygous (RR)? (show your work!)

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