1 Mid- Study Guide Lessons 1, 3, & Essential Questions: What are living things made of? What term describes the smallest unit that can perform all of the functions necessary for life? Eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells have some parts in common. Identify the parts common to both cell types. According to the cell theory, all parts of organisms are made up of what? What instrument is most often used to observe cells? What did Robert Virchow observe about cell division? 1.1 Learning Goals and Concepts THE CELL Describe the relationship between cells and organisms. Explain why most cells are small in terms of their surface-area-to-volume ratio. A cell is the smallest functional and structural unit of all organisms. An organism is a living thing that is made up of one or more cells. Most cells are small, which means that there is more surface area per cell volume. THE CELL THEORY Summarize the cell theory. Summarize the contributions to cell theory of Robert Hooke, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Theodor Schwann, and Rudolf Virchow. Compare unicellular and multicellular organisms. The cell theory states that organisms are made up of one or more cells, that cells are the basic unit of life, and that all cells come from other cells. Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed cells using a microscope. Theodor Schwann proposed that all organisms are made of cells and that cells are the basic unit of life. Rudolf Virchow proposed that all cells come from other cells. Unicellular organisms are made up of a single cell; multicellular organisms are made up of multiple cells. TWO TYPES OF CELLS Identify the parts that all cells have in common Compare prokaryotes and eukaryotes All cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and DNA. A prokaryote is single-celled with no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, and is generally smaller than a eukaryote. A eukaryote is an organism made up of cells that contain their DNA in a nucleus and have membrane-bound organelles. Many eukaryotes are multicellular, and all multicellular organisms are eukaryotes. 1.1 Vocabulary: Cell Organism Cell membrane Cytoplasm Organelle Nucleus Prokaryote Eukaryote
2 1.3 Essential Questions: What are the different parts that make up a cell? Describe the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organelles found in cells. Explain the function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organelles found in cells. Distinguish between the organelles found in plant and animal cells. Identify from a diagram the organelles found in all cells. 1.3 Learning Goals and Concepts EUKARYOTIC CELLS Identify general characteristics of eukaryotic cells. Recognize how prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes. All eukaryotic cells have cell membranes; cytoplasm, which includes membrane-bound organelles; and genetic material contained in the nucleus. Prokaryotic cells also have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and genetic material, but no nucleus. Eukaryotic cells can differ from each other in the quantity and types of their organelles. PARTS OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS Describe the cell membrane, cytoskeleton, and nucleus. Describe the structure and function of organelles found in eukaryotic cells, including mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complex. All eukaryotes (and prokaryotes) have a cell membrane that separates their cytoplasm from surrounding material. Both also have a cytoskeleton that gives shape and support. Eukaryotic cells have DNA within a nucleus. Mitochondria produce energy for the cell. Ribosomes make proteins. The endoplasmic reticulum is a system of folded membranes in which proteins, lipids, and other materials are made. The Golgi complex packages and distributes proteins. PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS Compare and contrast organelles found in plant and animal cells. Plant cells have cell walls, central vacuoles, and chloroplasts. Cell walls provide structure and protection. The large central vacuole in a plant cell stores water, waste, and dissolved salts. Chloroplasts are organelles in which photosynthesis takes place. Animal cells contain lysosomes. Plant cells usually do not contain lysosomes. Lysosomes are responsible for digestion inside a cell. 1.3 Vocabulary: Cytoskeleton Mitochondrion Ribosome Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Complex Cell Wall Vacuole Chloroplast Lysosome
3 1.4 Essential Questions: How are living things organized? What is the relationship between structure and function in an organism? Explain the function of the different tissue types found in plants and animals. Distinguish between the tissues found in plants and animals. Using a diagram distinguish between cells, tissues, organs and organ systems. 1.4 Learning Goals and Concepts CELLS TO ORGANISMS Define organism. Identify that living things are unicellular and multicellular, and list characteristics of multicellular organisms. List levels of structural organization. Define specialization. Define tissue, organ, and organ system. Compare types of animal and plant tissues, organs, and organ systems. An organism is made up of one or more cells and carries out its own life functions. Unicellular organisms are a single cell. Multicellular organisms are more than one cell. The levels of structural organization are cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism. Specialization is the adaptation of a cell, tissue, or organ for a specific function. A tissue is a group of cells that work together; an organ is a structure made up of two or more tissues; and an organ system is a group of organs working together. Animal tissues are nerve, muscle, connective, and epithelial tissue. Plant tissues are protective, transport, and ground tissue. CELLULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Define structure and function. Explain the basic relationship between the structure and function of tissues, organs and organ systems. Structure is the arrangement of parts in an organism. Function is the activity of an organ or part. The structure and function of tissues, organs, and organ systems allow organisms to carry out life processes. SYSTEMS WORK TOGETHER Compare and contrast organelles found in plant and animal cells. Body systems in multicellular organisms work together to maintain healthy cells. Xylem and phloem are tissues that make up a plant s vascular system, which transports water and nutrients to and from cells. The circulatory system works with the respiratory, excretory, and digestive systems in supplying oxygen and nutrients to the body and removing wastes from the body. 1.4 Vocabulary: Organism Tissue Organ Organ System Structure Function
4 Vocabulary Check the box to show whether each statement is true or false. T F 1. Mitochondria are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 2. A microscope makes small items appear larger by magnifying them. 3. A eukaryote has cells that do not contain a nucleus, whereas a prokaryote has cells that have a nucleus. 4. A cell organelle that is found in animal cells but usually not in plant cells is a lysosome. 5. A tissue is a group of similar cells that perform a common function. Key Concepts Read each question below, and circle the best answer. 6. Alex finds an unusual object on the forest floor. After he examines it under a microscope and performs several lab tests, he concludes that the object is a living thing. Which of the following observations most likely led to Alex s conclusion? A. The object contained carbon. B. Alex saw cells in the object. C. The object had a green color. D. Alex saw minerals inside the object. 7. Which of the following is part of the cell theory? A. All cells come from other cells. B. All cells are Eukaryotic. C. All cells have a nucleus. D. All cells are animal cells.
5 8. Juana made the following table. Organelle Mitochondrion Ribosome Chloroplast Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex Function Cellular respiration DNA synthesis Photosynthesis Makes proteins and lipids Packages proteins Juana s table lists several cell organelles and their functions, but she made an error. Which of the organelles shown in the table is listed with the wrong function? A. mitochondrion C. cell membrane B. ribosome D. Golgi complex 9. What is the name of the genetic material found in the nucleus of Eukaryotic cells? A. lipid C. nucleic acid B. DNA D. carbohydrate 10. Which of the human body systems functions is to remove waste? A. excretory C. cardiovascular B. respiratory D. nervous 11. The following diagram shows a common cell organelle. What is this organelle s function? A. making food C. making energy B. releasing wastes D. packaging of proteins
6 12. Plants contain xylem and phloem tissue. Xylem and Phloem makes up the vascular system of plants. Their job is to transport water and nutrients throughout the plant. What organ system in animals performs a similar function as the xylem and phloem of plants? A. digestive system B. excretory system C. respiratory system D. circulatory system 13. Which statement correctly tells why the cells of unicellular and multicellular organisms divide? A. The cells of unicellular organisms divide to reproduce; those of multicellular organisms divide to replace cells and to grow. B. The cells of unicellular organisms divide to replace cells and to grow; those of multicellular organisms divide to reproduce. C. The cells of both kinds of organisms divide to reproduce. D. The cells of both kinds of organisms divide to replace cells and to grow. 14. The following picture shows Escherichia coli cells, a species of bacterium. Which of the following statements correctly compares the cells shown in the picture with a human cell? A. Both types of cells are eukaryotic. B. Human cells contain proteins but E. coli cells do not. C. Both cells contain ribosomes and a cell membrane. D. Human cells contain DNA but E. coli cells do not. 15. A plant leaf is an organ that traps light energy to make food. In what way is an animal stomach similar to a plant leaf? A. Both organs make food. B. Both organs are made up of only one kind of cell. C. Both organs are made up of several kinds of tissues. D. Both organs take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.
7 16. The following table shows the surface area-to-volume ratio of four cube-shaped cell models. Cell Model Surface Area Volume Surface Area-to Volume Ratio A 6 cm 2 1 cm 3 6 : 1 = 6 : 1 B 24 cm 2 8 cm 3 24 : 8 = 3 : 1 C 54 cm 2 27 cm 3 54 : 27 = 2 : 1 D 96 cm 2 64 cm 3 96 : 64 = 1.5 : 1 Cells are small, and their surface area is large in relation to their volume. This is an important feature for the proper transport of nutrients and water in to and out of the cell. Which of the four model cells do you think will be best able to supply nutrients and water to its cell parts? A. cell model A B. cell model B C. cell model C D. cell model D 17. Cells of a multicellular organism are specialized. What does this statement mean? A. Cells of a multicellular organism are adapted to perform specific functions. B. Cells of a multicellular organism perform all life functions but not at the same time. C. Cells of a multicellular organism are specialized because they have a complex structure. D. Cells of a multicellular organism can perform all the life functions the organism needs to survive.
8 Critical Thinking Answer the following questions in the space provided. 18. The following diagram shows a cell that Dimitri saw on his microscope slide. Dimitri s teacher gave him an unlabeled slide of some cells and asked him to identify whether the cells were plant cells or animal cells. Dimitri examined the slide under a microscope and concluded that the cells were plant cells. How did Dimitri reach his conclusion? Is his conclusion correct? What life process can these cells carry out that a cell from another kind of multicellular organism cannot? 19. One of the characteristics of multicellular organisms is that they have specialized cells. Give an example of a specialized cell in humans. Why do specialized cells benefit multicellular organisms? Explain how your example cell is specialized and why it s important.
9 20. Practice labeling the plant and animal cells below Please label the numbered parts of the cell. The animal and plant cell numbers MATCH. (#1 on the animal cell is the same as #1 on the plant cell.)