BIOLOGY Cell Review Notes (source: SW Biology 11)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "BIOLOGY Cell Review Notes (source: SW Biology 11)"

Transcription

1 BIOLOGY Cell Review Notes (source: SW Biology 11) CELL STRUCTURE, FUNCTION & PROCESS Both living and nonliving things are composed of molecules made from chemical elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. The organization of these molecules into CELLS is one feature that distinguishes living things from all other matter. The CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF MATTER THAT CAN CARRY ON ALL THE PROCESSES OF LIFE. The physical and chemical natures of the structures of the cell are directly related to their functions. This is a fundamental theme throughout the study of biology. Introduction to the Cell 1. Every living thing-from the tiniest bacterium to the largest whale-are made of one or more cells. 2. Before the seventeenth century, no one knew that cells existed. 3. Most cells are too small to be seen with the unaided eye. 4. Cells were not discovered until after the invention of the microscope in the early seventeenth century. 5. One of the First Microscopes was made by the Dutch drapery store owner Anton von Leewenhoek. With his hand-held microscope, Leewenhoek became the FIRST PERSON to observe and describe microscopic organisms and living cells. 6. In 1665, the English Scientist Robert Hooke used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork and described it as consisting of "a great many little boxes". It was after his observation that Hook called what he saw "Cells". They looked like "little boxes" and reminded him of the small rooms in which monks lived, SO HE CALLED THEM "CELLS". 7. In 1838, German Botanist Matthias Schleiden studied a variety of plants and concluded that ALL PLANTS "ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS". 8. The next year, German Zoologist Theodor Schwann reported that ANIMALS ARE ALSO MADE OF CELLS and proposed a cellular basis for all life. 9. In 1855, German Physician Rudolf Virchow induced that "THE ANIMAL ARISES ONLY FROM AN ANIMAL AND THE PLANT ONLY FROM A PLANT" OR " THAT CELLS ONLY COME FROM OTHER CELLS". The Cell Theory 1. Virchow s statement contradicted the idea that life could arise from nonliving matter or the "Theory of Spontaneous Generation". 2. The combined work of Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow make up what is now known as the modern CELL THEORY.

2 P The CELL THEORY consist of THREE Principles: A. All living things are composed of one or more cells. B. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism. C. Cells come only from reproduction of existing cells. Cell Diversity Not all cells are alike. Even cells within the same organism show enormous diversity in size, shape, and internal organization. Your body contains at least 200 different cell types. CELL SIZE 1. A few types of cells are large enough to be seen by the unaided eye. The female egg is the largest cell in the body, and can be seen without the aid of a microscope. 2. Most cells are visible only with a microscope. 3. MOST CELLS ARE SMALL FOR TWO REASONS: a. CELLS ARE LIMITED IN SIZE BY THE RATIO BETWEEN THEIR OUTER SURFACE AREA AND THEIR VOLUME. A small cell has more surface area than a large cell for a given volume of cytoplasm. This is important because the nutrients, oxygen, and other materials a cell requires must enter through it surface. As a cell grows larger at some point its surface area becomes too small to allow these materials to enter the cell quickly enough to meet the cell's need. b. THE CELL'S NUCLEUS (THE CONTROL CENTRE) CAN ONLY CONTROL A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF LIVING, ACTIVE CYTOPLASM. CELL SHAPE 1. Cells come in a variety of shapes. 2. Most cells have a specific shape. 3. THE SHAPE OF A CELL DEPENDS ON ITS FUNCTION. Cells of the nervous system that carry information from your toes to your brain are long and threadlike. Blood Cells are shaped like round disk that can squeeze through tiny blood vessels. INTERNAL ORGANIZATION 1. Cells contain a variety of internal structures called ORGANELLES. 2. An organelle is a cell component that PERFORMS SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS for the cell. 3. Just as the organs of a multicellular organism carry out the organism's life functions, the organelles of a cell maintain the life of the cell.

3 P There are many different cells. However, there are certain features common to all, or most cells. 5. The entire cell is surrounded by a thin membrane, called the CELL MEMBRANE. 6. Inside the cell are a variety of organelles, most of which are surrounded by their own membrane. 7. A large organelle near the center of the cell is the NUCLEUS. It contains the cell's genetic information and controls the activities of the cell. THE CELL MEMBRANE 1. A cell cannot survive if it is totally isolated from its environment. The CELL MEMBRANE is a complex barrier separating the cell from its external environment. 2. All cells, from all organisms, are surrounded by a cell membrane. 3. The cell membrane is a thin layer of LIPID (fat) and PROTEIN that separates the cell's content from the world around it. 4. The cell membrane Functions like a GATE, Controlling what ENTERS and LEAVES the Cell. This "SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE" membrane regulates what passes into and out of the cell. Some substances easily cross the membrane, while others cannot cross at all. 5. There are many kinds of proteins in membranes; they help to move material into and out of the cell. 6. The cell membrane is constantly being formed and broken down in living cells. ORGANELLES Organelles are structures that work like miniature organs. They carry out specific functions in the cell. All organelles function in HOMEOSTASIS that means they maintain a constant internal environment. CYTOPLASM: Jelly-like substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus. It contains dissolved gases and nutrients and holds organelles. NUCLEUS: Often the most prominent structure within a cell. The nucleus is the control center of the cell. The nucleus contains DNA, the hereditary material of cells and controls cellular activities NUCLEOLUS: The nucleus contains at least one nucleolus which makes or synthesizes ribosomes, which in turn, build proteins. When a cell prepares to reproduce, the nucleolus disappears. CHROMATIN: Thread-like mass that contains DNA strands (genetic info) found in nondividing cells. CHROMOSOMES: Visible form of chromatin. During cell division, chromatin strands coil and condenses into thick structures called chromosomes. The chromosomes in the nucleus contain coded "blueprints" that control all cellular activity.

4 P. 4 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER): The ER is a system of membranous tubules and sacs. The ER functions primarily as an intracellular highway of membranes that connect the nucleus to the cell membrane, a path along which molecules move from one part of the cell to another. The amount of ER inside a cell fluctuates, depending on the cell's activity. Poisons, waste, and other toxic chemicals are made harmless. Can be ROUGH or SMOOTH. A. ROUGH-ER is studded with RIBOSOMES and processes PROTEINS to be exported from the cell. B. SMOOTH-ER is NOT covered with RIBOSOMES and processes LIPIDS (fats) and CARBOHYDRATES (sugars). RIBOSOMES: Ribosomes are not surrounded by a membrane. They are the site of PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in a cell. They are most numerous organelles in almost all cells. Some are free in the cytoplasm; others line the membranes of ROUGH-ER. GOLGI APPARATUS: A system of membranes made of flattened sac like structures called cisternae. It works closely with the ER to modify and package proteins for export by the cell. LYSOSOMES: Small spherical organelles or vesicles that are formed from pieces of the golgi apparatus that break off. They enclose enzymes and. are the site of food digestion and worn out cell components. They can also cause cell destruction. Lysosomes are common in the cells of animals, fungi, and protists, but rare in plant cells. MITOCHONDRIA: Rod-shaped organelles. Known as the "Powerhouse" of the cell because they produce the cell s energy by carrying out CELLULAR RESPIRATION C 6 H 12 O 6 (sugar)+ O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + energy Mitochondria have their own DNA, and new mitochondria arise only when existing ones grow and divide. Mitochondria are usually more numerous in cells that have a high energy requirement - your muscle cells contain a large number of mitochondria. CILIA / FLAGELLA: Cilia and flagella are hair-like organelles that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement. Cilia are short hair-like projections. Flagella are long whip-like projections. Cilia are often numerous. Flagella are often singular. Unicellular organisms such as Paramecium and Euglena use cilia and flagella to move through water. Sperm use flagella to swim to the egg. In Humans, beating cilia line parts of the respiratory system, moving dust particles and bacteria away from the lungs. PLANT CELLS have three additional structures not found in animals cells. CELL WALL: Cell walls of plants contain CELLULOSE - a complex carbohydrate. A cell wall DOES NOT REPLACE the cell membrane; cells with walls also have a cell membrane. Plant cells are covered by a rigid cell wall that lies outside the cell membrane. The rigidity of cell walls helps SUPPORT and PROTECT the plant. VACUOLES: A large membrane-bound sac that takes up a large amount of space in most Plant Cells. It serves as a STORAGE AREA, and may contain stored proteins, ions, waste, or

5 P. 5 other cell products. Vacuoles of some plants contain poison that discourages animals from eating the plant's leaves. Note: VACUOLES and VESICLES are similar in that both are storage organelles. Generally, vacuoles are larger than vesicles. Plant cells generally have one large central vacuole that takes up most of the space within the cell and is used for storage of all sorts of molecules. Vesicles are small enough and mobile enough that they are often used to move chemicals to other locations in the cell where they might be needed. Lysosomes are vesicles involved in food digestion. CHLOROPLASTS: A type of PLASTID that converts sunlight into food for the cell (solar energy into chemical energy) through PHOTOSYNTHESIS solar energy + H 2 O + CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 (sugar) + O 2 chlorophyll Each chloroplast encloses a system of flattened sacs where photosynthesis occurs. Chloroplasts are green because they contain chlorophyll, a pigment that absorbs energy in sunlight. They are found only in algae, such as seaweed, and in green plants. Other PLASTIDS store reddish-orange pigments that color fruits, vegetables, flowers, and autumn leaves. TYPICAL ANIMAL & PLANT CELL DIAGRAMS

6 P. 6 CELLULAR ORGANIZATION 1. The presence or absence of a nucleus is important for classifying cells. organisms whose cell contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles are called EUKARYOTES. organisms whose cells never contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles are called PROKARYOTES. 2. Unicellular organisms such as bacteria and their relatives are PROKARYOTES. 3. All other organisms are EUKARYOTES - plants, fish, mammals, insects and humans. 4. The difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes is such an important distinction that Prokaryotes are placed in two Kingdoms, separate from Eukaryotes. 5. In Eukaryotic cells, most organelles are surrounded by a membrane. (Eukaryotic cells generally have three main components: a cell membrane, a nucleus, and other organelles.) 6. Prokaryotic cells have NO MEMBRANE-BOUND organelles. MULTICELLULAR ORGANIZATION In a unicellular organism, one cell carries out all of the functions of life. In contrast, most cells in a multicellular organism are specialized to perform one or a few functions. Because of cell specialization, the cells of multicellular organisms depend on other cells in the organism for their survival. TISSUE, ORGANS, AND ORGAN SYSTEMS 1. In most multicellular organisms, we find the following organization: CELLULAR LEVEL: The smallest unit of life capable of carrying out all the functions of living things. TISSUE LEVEL: A group of cells that performs a specific function in an organism form the tissue. ORGAN LEVEL: Several different types of tissue that function together for a specific purpose form an organ. ORGAN SYSTEM LEVEL: Several organs working together to perform a function make up an organ system. The different organ systems in a multicellular organism interact to carry out the processes of life 2. Plants also have tissue and organs, although they are arranged somewhat differently from those of animals. DERMAL TISSUE SYSTEM forms the outer layer of a plant. GROUND TISSUE SYSTEM makes up the bulk of roots and stems VASCULAR TISSUE transports water and food throughout the plant

7 P. 7 The FOUR Plant Organs are ROOTS, STEMS, LEAVES AND FLOWERS. COLONIAL ORGANIZATIONS 1. A COLONIAL ORGANIZATION is a collection of GENETICALLY IDENTICAL CELLS that live together in a closely connected group. 2. Many of the cells of the colony carry out specific functions that benefit the whole colony. 3. Colonial organisms appear to straddle the border between a collection of unicellular organisms and a true multicellular organism. They lack tissues and organs, but do exhibit the principle of cell specialization. SUMMARY: COMPARISON OF PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS PLANT CELL ANIMAL CELL - cell wall - no cell wall - vacuole: large volume (central) - numerous smaller vesicles - chloroplast - no chloroplasts - no centriole for cell division - centriole for cell division Eukaryotes Structures Prokaryotes Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell membrane Cytoplasm Cell wall Ribosomes ER Nucleus Lysosomes rare Mitochondria Chloroplast Large vacuole Vesicles Golgi complex Cilia/flagella

Discovery of the Cell

Discovery of the Cell Cell Structure Discovery of the Cell Who discovered cells? 1665 Robert Hooke used a compound microscope to examine a piece of cork (20X magnification) He saw little boxes in the cork and called them cells

More information

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE ORGANIZATION OF LIFE CELL THEORY TIMELINE

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE ORGANIZATION OF LIFE CELL THEORY TIMELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE 1. composed of cells either uni/multi 2. reproduce sexual and/or asexual 3. contain DNA in cells 4. grow and develop 5. use material/energy in metabolic reactions 6. respond to

More information

Cell Theory. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century!

Cell Theory. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century! Cell Notes Cell Theory All living organisms are made of. cells The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century! In 1665,

More information

Discovery of the Cell

Discovery of the Cell Cells Chapter 4 Discovery of the Cell 1665 Robert Hooke used a microscope to examine a piece of cork. He saw little boxes in the cork and called them cells. 1673 Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first person

More information

Cell Structure: What cells are made of. Can you pick out the cells from this picture?

Cell Structure: What cells are made of. Can you pick out the cells from this picture? Cell Structure: What cells are made of Can you pick out the cells from this picture? Review of the cell theory Microscope was developed 1610. Anton van Leeuwenhoek saw living things in pond water. 1677

More information

http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html 4A: Students will compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Robert Hooke (1665) Used a compound microscope to look at thin slices of cork (oak

More information

Cells Cytology = the study of cells. Nonliving Levels. Organization Levels of Life. Living Levels 11/14/13. More Living Levels

Cells Cytology = the study of cells. Nonliving Levels. Organization Levels of Life. Living Levels 11/14/13. More Living Levels Cells Cytology = the study of cells What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms? 1. Made of CELLS 2. Require ENERGY (food) 3. REPRODUCE (species) 4. Maintain HOMEOSTASIS 5. ORGANIZED 6. RESPOND to environment

More information

CELL HISTORY, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

CELL HISTORY, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION CELL HISTORY, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION The cell is the smallest unit of life that can carry out life processes. Chapter 4 Robert Hooke 1665 -observed cork through a light microscope. Anton Van Leewenhoek

More information

Cell Theory and Structure. Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles

Cell Theory and Structure. Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles Cell Theory and Structure Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles Discoveries In 1665 Robert Hooke observed a thin slice of cork from an oak tree What he saw reminded him of

More information

Van Leeuwenhoek. 1 st crude microscope made by the Dutchman

Van Leeuwenhoek. 1 st crude microscope made by the Dutchman The Cell History of Cells In 1665, English scientist Robert Hooke used the first compound light microscope to see plant tissues He viewed several thin slices of cork He called the small chambers within

More information

Ask yourself. Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function. Examples of Cells. A is cell the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.

Ask yourself. Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function. Examples of Cells. A is cell the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function Ask yourself If you were a scientist living in the 1500s, what kind of questions would you ask yourself if you were the one to discover cells? Let me think. Cell Video

More information

Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification

Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Table of Contents Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Section 1: Living Things 1- What is an organism? Any living thing is called an organism. Organisms vary in size: 1)one-celled or unicellular

More information

Introduction to Cells. Intro to Cells. Scientists who contributed to cell theory. Cell Theory. There are 2 types of cells: All Cells:

Introduction to Cells. Intro to Cells. Scientists who contributed to cell theory. Cell Theory. There are 2 types of cells: All Cells: Intro to Cells Key Concept: Cells are the basic unit of life. Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of cells: 1 Animal Cell

More information

protein synthesis cell theory Centrioles specialization. unicellular ribosomes. mitochondria cell interdependence prokaryotes

protein synthesis cell theory Centrioles specialization. unicellular ribosomes. mitochondria cell interdependence prokaryotes All cells must generate proteins. Cells make protein through a process called protein synthesis All living things are made of cells, Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms,

More information

II. Eukaryotic Cell Structure A. Boundaries 1. plasma membrane a. serves as a boundary b/w the cell and its environment b. controls movement of

II. Eukaryotic Cell Structure A. Boundaries 1. plasma membrane a. serves as a boundary b/w the cell and its environment b. controls movement of I. History of the cell theory A. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1600s) - dutch lens maker could see things with his lenses that were invisible to the naked eye - developed the simple microscope B. Robert Hooke

More information

Basic Structure of a Cell

Basic Structure of a Cell Basic Structure of a Cell Prokaryotic Cells No nucleus Archaea & Eubacteria One circular chromosome Extremely small Eukaryotic Cells Has a nucleus!!! Membrane-bound organelles Plants, Animals, Fungi, &

More information

Cells. Modified by the MHJHS SD. [Adopted from James Holden & Clint Tucker]

Cells. Modified by the MHJHS SD. [Adopted from James Holden & Clint Tucker] Cells Modified by the MHJHS SD [Adopted from James Holden & Clint Tucker] The Cell Theory In 1855, a number of scientists put together a theory about cells 1) All living things are composed of Cells. 2)

More information

Name Hour. Section 7-1 Life Is Cellular (pages )

Name Hour. Section 7-1 Life Is Cellular (pages ) Name Hour Section 7-1 Life Is Cellular (pages 169-173) Introduction (page 169) 1. What is the structure that makes up every living thing? The Discovery of the Cell (pages 169-170) 2. What was Anton van

More information

The Basic Unit of Life Copyright Amy Brown Science Stuff

The Basic Unit of Life Copyright Amy Brown Science Stuff Cell Structure and Function The Basic Unit of Life Copyright Amy Brown Science Stuff The Discovery of the Cell Robert Hooke looked at thin slices of cork (plant cells) under the microscope. Named it a

More information

THE DISCOVERY OF THE CELL

THE DISCOVERY OF THE CELL 1 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CELL It was not until the mid-1600 s that scientists began to use microscopes to observe cells. In 1665, Englishman Robert Hooke used an early compound microscope to look at a slice

More information

What in the Cell is Going On?

What in the Cell is Going On? What in the Cell is Going On? Robert Hooke naturalist, philosopher, inventor, architect... (July 18, 1635 - March 3, 1703) In 1665 Robert Hooke publishes his book, Micrographia, which contains his drawings

More information

Chapter 4 Cells: The Basic Units of Life The Big Idea All organisms are composed of one or more cells.

Chapter 4 Cells: The Basic Units of Life The Big Idea All organisms are composed of one or more cells. Chapter 4 Cells: The Basic Units of Life The Big Idea All organisms are composed of one or more cells. Section 1 The Characteristics of Cells Key Concept Cells function similarly in all living organisms.

More information

What is a cell? (*Know the parts of the microscope!)

What is a cell? (*Know the parts of the microscope!) Cells What is a cell? All living things have cells whether it is one or many! Therefore, a cell is the basic unit of all life. The invention of the microscope was pivotal to the study of cell biology.

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Cell Structure and Function Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Prokaryotic cells: Pro- Before, Karyot- Center or Nucleus Very Basic Cells with no membrane bound organelles. DNA is not separate from the rest of the

More information

Cell Structure and Function. Chapter 4

Cell Structure and Function. Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Cell Structure Section 1: The History of Cell Biology Section 2: Introduction to Cells Section 3: Cell Organelles and Features Section 4: Unique Features

More information

Eubacteria Archaea Eukarya

Eubacteria Archaea Eukarya Taxonomy Eubacteria Archaea Eukarya, mostly heterotrophic, live in all sorts of environments Largest group of organisms on Earth Only a small amount cause disease Most have very important roles:, such

More information

Chapter Life Is Cellular

Chapter Life Is Cellular Chapter 7 7-1 Life Is Cellular The Discovery of the Cell Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a single-lens microscope to observe tiny little organisms in pond water. The Discovery of the Cell In 1665, Robert Hooke

More information

Cell Types. Prokaryotes

Cell Types. Prokaryotes Cell Types Prokaryotes before nucleus no membrane-bound nucleus only organelle present is the ribosome all other reactions occur in the cytoplasm not very efficient Ex.: bacteria 1 Cell Types Eukaryotes

More information

Cell structure and functions

Cell structure and functions Cell structure and functions Cells: The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. All living organisms are made up of cells. Cells make tissues, tissues make organs, organs make organ systems

More information

Biology I. Chapter 7

Biology I. Chapter 7 Biology I Chapter 7 Interest Grabber NOTEBOOK #1 Are All Cells Alike? All living things are made up of cells. Some organisms are composed of only one cell. Other organisms are made up of many cells. 1.

More information

Cell Theory Essential Questions

Cell Theory Essential Questions Cells Vocab words 1. Cell 2. Cell theory 3. Nucleus 4. Eukaryote 5. Prokaryote 6. Organelle 7. Cytoplasm 8. Nuclear envelope 9. Chromatin 10. Chromosome 11. Nucleolus 12. Ribosome 13. Endoplasmic reticulum

More information

Function and Illustration. Nucleus. Nucleolus. Cell membrane. Cell wall. Capsule. Mitochondrion

Function and Illustration. Nucleus. Nucleolus. Cell membrane. Cell wall. Capsule. Mitochondrion Intro to Organelles Name: Block: Organelles are small structures inside cells. They are often covered in membranes. Each organelle has a job to do in the cell. Their name means little organ. Just like

More information

What is a cell? Recall your work yesterday. When classifying cells, what are the two groups scientists separate cells into?

What is a cell? Recall your work yesterday. When classifying cells, what are the two groups scientists separate cells into? What is a cell? Recall your work yesterday. When classifying cells, what are the two groups scientists separate cells into? Light Microscopes and Total Power Magnification We can use microscopes to observe

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. chapter 7 Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Who was one of the first people to identify and see cork cells? a. Anton van

More information

CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location ALL CELLS DNA Common in Animals Uncommon in Plants Lysosome

CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location ALL CELLS DNA Common in Animals Uncommon in Plants Lysosome CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location is the material that contains the Carry genetic ALL CELLS information that determines material inherited characteristics.

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Class: Date: Ch 7 Review Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Researchers use fluorescent labels and light microscopy to a. follow

More information

CELL THEORY & FUNCTION

CELL THEORY & FUNCTION UNIT 1- THE CELL CELL THEORY & FUNCTION A Word From Bill Record your observations about the picture to the right. What do you think you are you looking at? Describe the structure with as much detail

More information

Biology 1 Notebook. Review Answers Pages 17 -?

Biology 1 Notebook. Review Answers Pages 17 -? Biology 1 Notebook Review Answers Pages 17 -? The History of Cell Studies 1. Robert Hook (1665) used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork. The little boxes he observed reminded him of the small

More information

and their organelles

and their organelles and their organelles Discovery Video: Cells REVIEW!!!! The Cell Theory 1. Every living organism is made of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function. It is the smallest

More information

Bio-CP Chapter 7 Cell Notes

Bio-CP Chapter 7 Cell Notes Bio-CP Chapter 7 Cell Notes I. Cell = Building block of all living organisms A. Robert Hooke (1665) observed cork under a crude microscope 1. He called the boxes cells because they looked like little rooms

More information

LIFE SCIENCE CHAPTER 3 FLASHCARDS

LIFE SCIENCE CHAPTER 3 FLASHCARDS LIFE SCIENCE CHAPTER 3 FLASHCARDS Human beings are A. machines. B. organisms. C. systems. D. protists. One benefit of being a large organism is that you have A. larger cells. B. simpler functions. C. fewer

More information

What is a cell? 2 Exceptions to The Cell Theory. Famous People. Can You Identify This Object? Basic Unit of all forms of Life. 1.

What is a cell? 2 Exceptions to The Cell Theory. Famous People. Can You Identify This Object? Basic Unit of all forms of Life. 1. Can You Identify This Object? CELLS Day 1: CELLULAR COMPONENTS & PROCESES What is a cell? Collection of living material enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from it s surroundings Basic Unit of

More information

Basic Structure of a Cell

Basic Structure of a Cell Basic Structure of a Cell Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of cells: Animal Cell Plant Cell Bacterial Cell 1 2 Number

More information

CELL THEORY, STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

CELL THEORY, STRUCTURE & FUNCTION CELL THEORY, STRUCTURE & FUNCTION History of Cells Robert Hooke (1665) observed cork under a microscope Thought they looked like the rooms monks lived in called cells. History of Cells Antony Van Leeuwenhoek

More information

The Cell Notes 1 of 11

The Cell Notes 1 of 11 The Cell The basic unit of structure and function in living things The smallest units in living things The smallest units in living things that show the characteristics of life Organisms can be made of

More information

STEMscopedia: CELL STRUCTURES AND HOMEOSTASIS B1A

STEMscopedia: CELL STRUCTURES AND HOMEOSTASIS B1A Reflect B1A Have you wondered why you shiver in the cold? Or maybe why your stomach gets upset after eating something bad? These and many other reactions are ways your body is responding to a change in

More information

The diagram below represents levels of organization within a cell of a multicellular organism.

The diagram below represents levels of organization within a cell of a multicellular organism. STATION 1 1. Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have the capacity to a. assemble into multicellular organisms b. establish symbiotic relationships with other organisms c. obtain energy from the

More information

BASIC BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES

BASIC BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES BASIC BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES A1 A1. Basic Biological Principles 1. Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms 2. Compare cellular structures and their function

More information

CELL TYPE. Unit #4: Cell Structure & Func2on. Classifica(on, Endosymbiosis, Cell Type, Cell Organelles

CELL TYPE. Unit #4: Cell Structure & Func2on. Classifica(on, Endosymbiosis, Cell Type, Cell Organelles Unit #4: Cell Structure & Func2on Classifica(on, Endosymbiosis, Cell Type, Cell Organelles How are prokaryo(c cells and eukaryo(c cells similar? different? CELL TYPE Cell Theory Many scientists were involved

More information

NAME: PERIOD: DATE: A View of the Cell. Use Chapter 8 of your book to complete the chart of eukaryotic cell components.

NAME: PERIOD: DATE: A View of the Cell. Use Chapter 8 of your book to complete the chart of eukaryotic cell components. NAME: PERIOD: DATE: A View of the Cell Use Chapter 8 of your book to complete the chart of eukaryotic cell components. Cell Part Cell Wall Centriole Chloroplast Cilia Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Endoplasmic

More information

Honors Biology summer assignment. Review the notes and study them. There will be a test on this information the 1 st week of class

Honors Biology summer assignment. Review the notes and study them. There will be a test on this information the 1 st week of class Honors Biology summer assignment Review the notes and study them. There will be a test on this information the 1 st week of class Biomolecules Molecules that make up living things. There are 4 molecules

More information

T HE C ELL C H A P T E R 1 P G. 4-23

T HE C ELL C H A P T E R 1 P G. 4-23 T HE C ELL C H A P T E R 1 P G. 4-23 A CELL IS THE SMALLEST LIVING UNIT KNOWN. IT IS OFTEN CALLED THE BUILDING BLOCK OF THE BODY, AND IS THE BASIC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF AN ORGANISM. CELL THEORY

More information

Day 1. What You ll Learn. 1. Organisms are living things. 2. All organisms are made of one or more cells.

Day 1. What You ll Learn. 1. Organisms are living things. 2. All organisms are made of one or more cells. What You ll Learn Day 1 1. Organisms are living things. 2. All organisms are made of one or more cells. 3. There are two main types of cells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic A cell is the basic unit and structure

More information

Chapter 4. Table of Contents. Section 1 The History of Cell Biology. Section 2 Introduction to Cells. Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4. Table of Contents. Section 1 The History of Cell Biology. Section 2 Introduction to Cells. Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Cell Structure and Function Table of Contents Section 1 The History of Cell Biology Section 2 Introduction to Cells Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Section

More information

Anaphase. Third phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. Animal Cell

Anaphase. Third phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. Animal Cell Anaphase Third phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. Animal Cell Antony Van Leevwenhoek 1643- Dutch microscope maker and merchant, observed and described

More information

Biology. Mrs. Michaelsen. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Cell size comparison. The Cell. Doing Life s Work. Hooke first viewed cork 1600 s

Biology. Mrs. Michaelsen. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Cell size comparison. The Cell. Doing Life s Work. Hooke first viewed cork 1600 s Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Cells & Cell Organelles Doing Life s Work Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell most

More information

CELL THEORY & FUNCTION

CELL THEORY & FUNCTION CELL THEORY & FUNCTION DISCOVERY OF THE CELL Can t see cells, so who knew they existed? Discovered after the microscope was invented. Mid 1600s when scientists began using microscopes Robert Hooke

More information

It took more than years for scientists to develop that would allow them to really study.

It took more than years for scientists to develop that would allow them to really study. CELLS NOTES All living things are made of! THE DISCOVERY OF CELLS The Scientist Who? When? What was discovered? Robert Hooke Anton van Leeuwenhoek Looked through a very simple at a thin slice of and saw

More information

7-1 Life Is Cellular. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

7-1 Life Is Cellular. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 7-1 Life Is Cellular The Discovery of the Cell What is the cell theory? The Discovery of the Cell The cell theory states: All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure

More information

Biology. Introduction to Cells. Sunday, November 8, 15

Biology. Introduction to Cells. Sunday, November 8, 15 Biology Introduction to Cells Cell Theory Biology is the study of life. Ideas about cells are built on the cell theory which states: 1. All living things are made of cells and their products. 2. The cell

More information

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure 1 of 49 Comparing the Cell to a Factory Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic

More information

The Unity of Life. All living things are made up of small individual units called cells.

The Unity of Life. All living things are made up of small individual units called cells. The Unity of Life All living things are made up of small individual units called cells. Robert Hooke (1600 s) - examined slices of cork with a magnifying glass and observed box-like structures which he

More information

THE CELL THEORY (R+R+R+E+G+N+T+S) 3).

THE CELL THEORY (R+R+R+E+G+N+T+S) 3). CELL BIOLOGY All living things are made up of small individual units called cells. Cells are the smallest functioning living unit. Cells can not normally be seen with the naked eye. To usually observe

More information

Cell Structure, Function & Ultrastructure

Cell Structure, Function & Ultrastructure Cell Structure, Function & Ultrastructure Learning Objectives 2.1.2 Components of the cell as seen under the light microscope and their functions. Cell Structure and Function 1. Plant cells: cell wall,

More information

8/25/ Opening Questions: Are all living things made of cells? What are at least five things you know about cells?

8/25/ Opening Questions: Are all living things made of cells? What are at least five things you know about cells? Chapter 3 The Cell: Module Hyperlinks 3.1 Cells are the fundamental units of life 3.2 Plant vs. animal cells 3.3 Membranes: structure 3.4 Membranes: function 3.5 The nucleus 3.6 Organelles in protein production

More information

7.L.1.2 Plant and Animal Cells. Plant and Animal Cells

7.L.1.2 Plant and Animal Cells. Plant and Animal Cells 7.L.1.2 Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells Clarifying Objective: 7.L.1.2 Compare the structures and functions of plant and animal cells; include major organelles (cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus,

More information

How do we define what it means to be alive?

How do we define what it means to be alive? How do we define what it means to be alive? Defining Life-7 Characteristics of Life There is no universal definition of life. To define life in unequivocal terms is still a challenge for scientists. Conventional

More information

Some history. Now, we know that Robert Hooke was not looking at living cells, but the remains of dead cell walls.

Some history. Now, we know that Robert Hooke was not looking at living cells, but the remains of dead cell walls. The Life of a Cell Some history In 1665, Robert Hooke examined the bark of an oak tree under an early microscope. He thought he was looking at something similar to the small rooms of dormitories and prisons;

More information

Unit 3: Cells. Objective: To be able to compare and contrast the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells.

Unit 3: Cells. Objective: To be able to compare and contrast the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. Unit 3: Cells Objective: To be able to compare and contrast the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells (unicellular or multicellular).

More information

UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure

UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure Page CP: CHAPTER 3, Sections 1-3; HN: CHAPTER 7, Sections 1-2 Standard B-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells and their

More information

Life is Cellular Section 7.1

Life is Cellular Section 7.1 Life is Cellular Section 7.1 Objectives Understand Cell theory Distinguish between prokaryotes and eukaryotes Understand different types of microscopy, and how they work in more detail What is a Cell?

More information

Cells. basic structure of life

Cells. basic structure of life Cells basic structure of life Cells are the smallest unit of life Cells (the smallest unit of life)- make up all living things, including your own body. Cells can differ in shape and sizes. The different

More information

Discovering Cell/ The Cell Theory. * Cells are the basic, smallest units of structure and function of living things.

Discovering Cell/ The Cell Theory. * Cells are the basic, smallest units of structure and function of living things. Discovering Cell/ The Cell Theory * Cells are the basic, smallest units of structure and function of living things. Since they are so small, before the invention of the microscope (around 1590), no one

More information

Mid-Unit 1 Study Guide

Mid-Unit 1 Study Guide Mid- Study Guide Lessons 1, 3, & 4 1.1 Essential Questions: What are living things made of? What term describes the smallest unit that can perform all of the functions necessary for life? Eukaryotic cells

More information

All living things are made of cells

All living things are made of cells All about CELLS! 12F recognize that according to cell theory all organisms are composed of cells and cells carry on similar functions such as extracting energy from food to sustain life 12C recognize levels

More information

prokaryotic eukaryotic

prokaryotic eukaryotic Cell Basics Two Basic Cell Types All cells are either prokaryotic or eukaryotic Prokaryotic Cells a.k.a. Bacteria Prokaryotes, which includes all bacteria. They are the simplest cellular organisms. They

More information

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Chapter 3 Day 1

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Chapter 3 Day 1 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Chapter 3 Day 1 REVIEW: CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS 1. Made of CELLS 2. Require ENERGY (food) 3. REPRODUCE (species) 4. Maintain HOMEOSTASIS 5. ORGANIZED 6. RESPOND to

More information

The Cell: The smallest unit in living things that shows the characteristics of life; the basic building blocks of life.

The Cell: The smallest unit in living things that shows the characteristics of life; the basic building blocks of life. The Cell: The smallest unit in living things that shows the characteristics of life; the basic building blocks of life. What is a cell s function? Each cell contains information (DNA) that is used as instructions

More information

Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Chapter Notes. 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells.

Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Chapter Notes. 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Key learnings: Chapter Notes 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. 2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all

More information

Cell Review: Day "Pseudopodia" literally means? a) False feet b) True motion c) False motion d) True feet

Cell Review: Day Pseudopodia literally means? a) False feet b) True motion c) False motion d) True feet Cell Review: Day 1 1. "Pseudopodia" literally means? a) False feet b) True motion c) False motion d) True feet Cell Review: Day 1 2. What is the primary method of movement for Euglena? a) Flagella b) Cilia

More information

7 Characteristics of Life

7 Characteristics of Life 7 Characteristics of Life 1. Interdependence 2. Metabolism 3. Homeostasis 4. Cellular Structure and Function 5. Reproduction 6. Heredity 7. Evolution The Cell Theory All living things are composed of one

More information

Cells and Their Organelles

Cells and Their Organelles Mr. Ulrich Regents Biology Name:.. Cells and Their Organelles The cell is the basic unit of life. The following is a glossary of animal cell terms. All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. The cell

More information

Cell Organelles. 2. Cells are the basic unit of organization in an organism Cells tissues organ organ system organism

Cell Organelles. 2. Cells are the basic unit of organization in an organism Cells tissues organ organ system organism Cell Organelles What are some of the differences you see between these two cells? A. Cell Theory 1. All organisms are made up of one or more cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of organization in an organism

More information

How do we define what it means to be alive?

How do we define what it means to be alive? How do we define what it means to be alive? Defining Life There is no universal definition of life. To define life in unequivocal terms is still a challenge for scientists. Conventional definition: must

More information

Cellular basis of life History of cell Biology Year Name of the scientist Importance

Cellular basis of life History of cell Biology Year Name of the scientist Importance Cellular basis of life History of cell Biology Year Name of the scientist Importance 1590 Jansen 1650 Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1665 Robert Hooke 1831 Matthias Schleiden 1831 Theodore Schwann 1855 Rudolf Virchow

More information

Cells and Their Organelles

Cells and Their Organelles Cells and Their Organelles The cell is the basic unit of life. The following is a glossary of animal cell terms. All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing

More information

Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the diagram below which represents a typical green plant cell and on your knowledge of biology.

Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the diagram below which represents a typical green plant cell and on your knowledge of biology. Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the diagram below which represents a typical green plant cell and on your knowledge of biology. 5. Which letter corresponds to that of the endoplasmic reticulum?

More information

Cell Theory & The Scientists Involved. By: Nicole, Sharon, Keelyn, Morgan & Katie

Cell Theory & The Scientists Involved. By: Nicole, Sharon, Keelyn, Morgan & Katie http://personal.tmlp.com/jimr57/tour/cell/cell.htm Cell Theory & The Scientists Involved By: Nicole, Sharon, Keelyn, Morgan & Katie Anton Van Leeuwenhock Date: 1600 s Theory: saw living organisms in pond

More information

Cell Is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life and are often called

Cell Is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life and are often called The Cell Cell Is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life and are often called the "building blocks of life". The study of

More information

The Cell. The basic unit of all living things

The Cell. The basic unit of all living things The Cell The basic unit of all living things 1 Robert Hooke was the first to name the cell (1665) 2 The Cell Theory The cell is the unit of Structure of all living things. The cell is the unit of Function

More information

CHAPTER 7 LECTURE NOTES STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CELL. I. Discovery of the Cell. Kennedy biol. 1ab

CHAPTER 7 LECTURE NOTES STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CELL. I. Discovery of the Cell. Kennedy biol. 1ab CHAPTER 7 LECTURE NOTES Kennedy biol. 1ab STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CELL I. Discovery of the Cell Cells were discovered by scientists before electricity was in every home and horses were still the

More information

Biology: Life on Earth

Biology: Life on Earth Teresa Audesirk Gerald Audesirk Bruce E. Byers Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Lecture for Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Chapter 4 Outline 4.1 What

More information

Chapter 7. Cell Structure & Function

Chapter 7. Cell Structure & Function Chapter 7 Cell Structure & Function Scientists & Discoveries Early 1600 s (Holland): 1st microscope was constructed Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1600 s) used single lens as a microscope to study and very carefully

More information

02/02/ Living things are organized. Analyze the functional inter-relationship of cell structures. Learning Outcome B1

02/02/ Living things are organized. Analyze the functional inter-relationship of cell structures. Learning Outcome B1 Analyze the functional inter-relationship of cell structures Learning Outcome B1 Describe the following cell structures and their functions: Cell membrane Cell wall Chloroplast Cytoskeleton Cytoplasm Golgi

More information

CELLS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

CELLS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION CELLS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Jhia Anjela D. Rivera Department of Biological Sciences School of Science and Technology Centro Escolar University DISCOVERY OF CELLS Robert Hooke (1665): Observed a thin slice

More information

CELL STRUCTURE. What are the basic units of life? What are the structures within a cell and what are they capable of? How and why do cells divide?

CELL STRUCTURE. What are the basic units of life? What are the structures within a cell and what are they capable of? How and why do cells divide? CELL STRUCTURE What are the basic units of life? What are the structures within a cell and what are they capable of? How and why do cells divide? YEAR 8 BODY SYSTEMS Cells alive! Cells are the smallest

More information

Chapter 7.2. Cell Structure

Chapter 7.2. Cell Structure Chapter 7.2 Cell Structure Daily Objectives Describe the structure and function of the cell nucleus. Describe the function and structure of membrane bound organelles found within the cell. Describe the

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Cell Structure and Function Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live Gas exchange CO 2 & O 2 Eat (take in & digest food) Make energy ATP Build

More information

STUDY GUIDE SECTION 4-1 The History of Cell Biology

STUDY GUIDE SECTION 4-1 The History of Cell Biology STUDY GUIDE SECTION 4-1 The History of Cell Biology Name Period Date Multiple Choice-Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. One early piece of evidence supporting the cell theory was the observation

More information