Biology Exam #1 Study Guide. True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. F 1. All living things are composed of many cells.

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1 Biology Exam #1 Study Guide True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. F 1. All living things are composed of many cells. T 2. Membranes are selectively permeable if they allow only certain substances to diffuse across them. F 3. The only difference between a plant cell and an animal cell is that plant cells have chloroplasts. F 4. Diffusion is an active process that requires a cell to expend a great deal of energy. F 5. A cell placed in a strong salt solution would probably burst because of an increase in osmotic pressure. T 6. When the concentration of solutes outside the cell is equal to the concentration of solutes inside the cell, the cell solution is isotonic relative to its environment. F_ 7. Diffusion occurs only in living systems. T 8. Exocytosis helps the cell rid itself of wastes. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. A 9. The smallest units of life in all living things are a. cells. c. cytoplasm. b. mitochondria. d. Golgi apparatus. D 10. One difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that a. nucleic acids are found only in prokaryotes. b. mitochondria are found in larger quantities in eukaryotes. c. Golgi vesicles are found only in prokaryotes. d. prokaryotes have no nuclear membrane. B 11. Which of the following is characteristic of prokaryotes? a. They have a nucleus. b. They were found on Earth before eukaryotes. c. The organelles in their cytoplasm are surrounded by membranes. d. None of the above C 12. Which of the following is an example of a prokaryotic cell? a. amoeba c. bacterium b. virus d. liver cell B 13. Only eukaryotic cells have a. DNA. c. ribosomes. b. membrane-bound organelles. d. cytoplasm. C 14. Studying a picture of a cell taken with an electron microscope, you find that the cell has no nucleus and no mitochondria, but it does have a cell membrane and a cell wall. You conclude that the cell is probably from a(n) a. animal. c. prokaryote. b. plant. d. now extinct organism.

2 D 15. Cell membranes a. are only found on a small number of cells. b. contain genes. c. are made of DNA. d. are thin coverings that surround cells. D 16. The structure that regulates what enters and leaves the cell is called a. the nucleus. c. the nuclear membrane. b. the cell wall. d. the cell membrane. D 17. Cell membranes a. are only found on a small number of cells. b. contain genes. c. are made of DNA. d. are thin coverings that surround cells. D 18. The cell membrane a. encloses the contents of a cell. b. allows material to enter and leave the cell. c. is selectively permeable. A 19. A structure within a cell that performs a specific function is called a(n) a. organelle. c. tissue. b. organ tissue. d. biocenter. C 20. A particularly active cell might contain large numbers of a. chromosomes. c. mitochondria. b. vacuoles. d. walls. D 21. Golgi apparatus are organelles that a. receive proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum. b. label the molecules made in the endoplasmic reticulum with tags that specify their destination. c. release molecules in vesicles. _A 22. In which of the following organelles is a cell s ATP produced? a. mitochondrion c. Golgi apparatus b. endoplasmic reticulum d. lysosome D 23. Numerous threadlike organelles that protrude from the surface of a cell and are packed in tight rows are called a. flagella. c. actin filaments. b. microtubules. d. cilia. _B 24. Proteins are made in cells on the a. mitochondria. c. nucleus. b. ribosomes. d. cell membrane. B 25. The packaging and distribution center of the cell is the a. nucleus. c. central vacuole. b. Golgi apparatus. d. nuclear envelope. D 26. The double membrane surrounding the nucleus is called the a. nucleolus. c. nucleoplasm. b. nuclear wall. d. nuclear envelope.

3 B 27. Refer to the illustration above. Which structure immediately identifies this cell as a eukaryote? a. structure 1 c. structure 3 b. structure 2 d. structure 4 D 28. Refer to the illustration above. The cell uses structure 3 a. to transport material from one part of the cell to the other. b. to package proteins so they can be stored by the cell. c. as a receptor. d. to produce energy. A 29. Refer to the illustration above. Structure 1 is a. the endoplasmic reticulum. c. a mitochondrion. b. a Golgi apparatus. d. the nucleus. B 30. Refer to the illustration above. In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are found in a. structure 1. c. structure 3. b. structure 2. d. structure 5. B 31. Refer to the illustration above. The cell shown is probably an animal cell because a. it has mitochondria. c. it has a cell membrane. b. it does not have a cell wall. d. it does not have a nucleus. D 32. All cells have a. a covering called a membrane that surrounds the cell and controls what information and materials enter and leave it. b. an internal fluid that gives shape to the cell and supports the other things within it. c. a central zone or nucleus that contains the cell's genes. D 33. Which of the following is not one of the three plant tissue systems? a. vascular b. dermal c. ground d. epithelial 34. a. only through a lipid bilayer membrane. b. from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. c. only in liquids. d. from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

4 A 35. Which of the following associations between a type of animal tissue and its primary function is incorrect? a. Connective tissue transport substances c. Muscle tissue contraction b. Epithelial tissue protective covering d. Nervous tissue Receive and transmit messages B 36. Which of the following associations between a type of plant tissue and its primary function is incorrect? a. Vascular tissue transport substances c. Dermal tissue protection b. Ground tissue absorb water D 37. Plant cells have large membrane-bound spaces in which water, waste products, and nutrients are stored. These places are known as a. mitochondria. c. Golgi apparatus. b. chloroplasts. d. vacuoles. C 38. Which of the following pairs contains unrelated items? a. eukaryote amoeba c. cell wall animal cell b. ribosomes protein d. mitochondria energy D 39. Plant cells a. do not contain mitochondria. b. have a cell wall instead of a cell membrane. c. have a large vacuole instead of a Golgi apparatus. d. have chloroplasts and a cell wall. D 40. Which of the following is the correct order of organization of structures in living things, from simplest to most complex? a. organ systems, organs, tissues, cells b. tissues, cells, organs, organ systems c. cells, tissues, organ systems, organs d. cells, tissues, organs, organ systems B 41. As a result of diffusion, the concentration of many types of substances a. always remains greater inside a membrane. b. eventually becomes balanced on both sides of a membrane. c. always remains greater on the outside of a membrane. d. becomes imbalanced on both sides of a membrane. D 42. Diffusion takes place a. only through a lipid bilayer membrane. b. from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. c. only in liquids. d. from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Completion Complete each statement. 43. The specialized cells that surround the stomata on a leaf are called Guard Cells.

5 44. The statement that cells are produced only from existing cells is part of the Cell Theory. 45. A cell with a well-defined nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane is called a(n) Eukaryotic cell. 46. A cell membrane is said to be Semi/Selectively permeable because it allows the passage of some solutes and not others. 47. The spherical organelles that are the site of protein synthesis in a cell are the Ribosomes. 48. The fluid portion of the cytoplasm is called the Cytosol. 49. Photosynthesis takes place in the Chloroplast of plant cells. Short Answer 50. Explain how guard cells maintain homeostasis in plants. When plants are fully hydrated guard cells fill up with water and swell (fill up with water) and open the stomata. When plants are low in water, guard cells shrink (dehydrate) and close the stomata. 51. Explain in detail the difference between a hypertonic solution and a hypotonic solution. Hypertonic Higher solute concentration/ lower water concentration Hypotonic Lower solute concentration/ higher water concentration 52. What would happen (both molecularly and visually) if you put a cell into a hypertonic solution? Plant cell stay the same size, but the cytoplasm and cell membrane would shrink Animal cell the cell would shrivel and shrink in size 54. What are the two vascular tissues in plants? What do each of them do? Xylem Transports water Phloem Transports food (sugars)

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