It took more than years for scientists to develop that would allow them to really study.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "It took more than years for scientists to develop that would allow them to really study."


1 CELLS NOTES All living things are made of! THE DISCOVERY OF CELLS The Scientist Who? When? What was discovered? Robert Hooke Anton van Leeuwenhoek Looked through a very simple at a thin slice of and saw little boxes and named them Discovered tiny _ swimming around in pond water using a simple microscope and named them It took more than years for scientists to develop that would allow them to really study. Matthias Schleidan Theodor Schwann Rudolph Virchow Found that all parts of a are made of _ Found that were made of _ Found that come from the division of Cell Theory All things are made of or _ cells. Cells are the basic units of and in organisms. All cells arise from cells. TWO TYPES OF CELLS and PROKARYOTES Prokaryote a _ organism that: o has one of floating in the o does not have membrane-bound o Have a that and provides and o SOME have a that allow them to to things and avoid being Very and group of cells Includes and

2 EUKARYOTES Eukaryotic cells have: o DNA in a o DNA arranged into chromosomes o Membrane-bound Can be _ or Includes:,,, and Eukaryotic cells are which allows them to be: o than prokaryotes o Allows them to carryout _ processes ( ) Organelle a structure that carries out a inside the cell o Membrane-bound organelles are by a membrane just like the Nucleus the structure that and the ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY and were once species that were ingested by a larger cell. OTHER ORGANELLES The and other developed from the. WHAT STRUCTURES ARE COMMON TO ALL CELLS? Cell Membrane - a _ between the and the _ of the cell Cytoplasm the (cytosol) and the inside the cell Ribosome cellular structures where are DNA the that provides the to make CELLS IN SIZE AND SHAPE The of a cell is a result of its _. All the _ and _ must pass through the cell! o the larger a cell gets the nutrients and waste must pass through the Surface area to ratio

3 Cell Structure & Function Notes (7:2) Eukaryotes CELL MEMBRANE bilayer embedded with o controls what or cell o recognizes from cells CYTOPLASM in the cell (contains, nutrients, and ) the cell structures CYTOSKELETON Thin and made of Helps the cell, keep its ; and its parts VACUOLES VESICLES Large sac membrane sac food, water, waste, and nutrients have a large, vacuole that fills with and pushes against the causing the plant to upright materials the cell (like proteins,, waste products, etc.) LYSOSOMES Small membrane sac filled with _ o food o waste o old cell parts MITOCHONDRIA membrane surrounding a inner membrane embedded with many Makes using the _ from (cellular respiration)

4 CHLOROPLAST membrane surrounding which contain the pigment to make CELL WALL NUCLEUS RIBOSOMES layer that lies the cell membrane o Bacteria o o Nuclear _ with nuclear Contains the (where are made) Filled with Made of _ and Some float in Some _ to ER and and _ the DNA Make _ using instructions from the ROUGH ER A system of interconnected membrane and embedded with Usually found connected to the _ the proteins made by ribosomes into to be around the cell SMOOTH ER A system of interconnected membrane (with ribosomes) Usually found with the o lipids o toxins o vesicles

5 GOLGI APPARATUS A system of membrane and Modifies,, labels, _, and proteins and lipids o Like the store CENTRIOLES short made of the parts of the that help with CILIA, hair-like structures made of covered in that extend from the of the cell o Help a cell through a environment o Or, help move and over the cell s FLAGELLA, hair-like structures made of covered in that extend from the of the cell the cell through its _ PLASMID CAPSULE PILI A, extra of covering of sticky that bind to the, thick, hair-like structures made of found on the of bacterial cells o Provides genetic information o Can be _ with other bacteria o Protects the cell from out and harsh o Keeps bacteria from being o Helps bacteria to other cells o Help bacteria to other cells and surfaces o Allow bacteria to plasmids