Cells. Modified by the MHJHS SD. [Adopted from James Holden & Clint Tucker]

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1 Cells Modified by the MHJHS SD [Adopted from James Holden & Clint Tucker]

2 The Cell Theory In 1855, a number of scientists put together a theory about cells 1) All living things are composed of Cells. 2) Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. 3) New cells are produced from existing cells. Who were these scientists?

3 Robert Hooke (1665) Hooked on Cells English physicist Used one of the first light microscopes to look at thin slices of plant tissues a slice of CORK Called thousands of tiny chambers cells, because they reminded him of a monastery s tiny rooms. This discovery motivated scientists to search for cells in other living things.

4 Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1674) Anton in the Pond Dutch businessman One of the first people to use a simple microscope to study nature. Observed living things in pond water and made detailed drawings of each kind of organism. He called these organisms animalcules.

5 The Final Three 1838 Mathias Schlieden found that all Plants are made of cells Theodore Schwann found that Animals are also made up of cells 1855 Rudolf Virchow found that Where a cell exists, there must have been a preexisting cell. or cells come from cells

6 Basic Cell Structures Cell Membrane thin, flexible semi permeable membrane around the cell; monitors what enters and exits the cell Nucleus- a large structure that contains the cell s genetic material and controls the cell s activities Cytoplasm- material inside the cell membrane but not including the nucleus The semi-fluid substance that fills the cytoplasm is called the cytosol

7 Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Prokaryote - have cell membranes and cytoplasm but NO NUCLEI!!!. Simple Cells All bacteria are prokaryotes. Eukaryote- Contain NUCLEI. Also have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and specialized organelles. Complex Cells All plants, animals, fungi, and many microorganisms, are eukaryotes. Eukaryote cells are much larger than prokaryote cells

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9 Prokaryote Test your knowledge Eukaryote

10 Prokaryote No nucleus Simple Cells Bacteria Test your knowledge Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Complex Cells Specialized Organelles Plants/Animals/Fungi Eukaryote

11 Cell Structure & Organelles Organelles- specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell

12 Cell Structure Cell Walls provide extra support & protection Plants, bacteria, algae, and fungi have Cell Walls * In plants, cell walls are composed of cellulose * Animal Cells have NO CELL WALLS

13 CYTO =CELL

14 Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments that helps the cell maintain shape and is involved in cell movement. Contains 2 parts: Microfilaments long, thin strands that help a cell move and provide a tough framework for the cell Microtubules hollow tubes by which organelles can move from one part of a cell to another

15 Nucleus The Control Center Nucleus is the control center because it has DNA Stores hereditary info in the form of DNA DNA is inside chromatin, a granular material that condenses into chromosomes during cell division Houses a nucleolus small, dense region within responsible for the assembly of ribosomes Surrounded by a nuclear envelope

16 The Nucleus

17 Centrioles tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of ONLY animal cells near the nuclear envelope. Play a role in cell division.

18 Make proteins Ribosomes Ribs have proteins Made up of rrna (ribosomal RNA) and protein Can be free-roaming in cytoplasm or located on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

19 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) The fastest way to the ER is the highway Organelle where components of cell membrane are made and proteins are modified (factory or factory line) Rough E.R. studded with ribosomes Either exports proteins from cell or sends them to the cytoplasm Smooth E.R. No ribosomes Helps in lipid production and breakdown of toxic substances

20 The Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)

21 Golgi Apparatus (Transporter) Golgi Locks works at UPS Vesicles (small transport sacs) carry proteins from Rough E.R. to Golgi for processing/ modification. Attaches carbohydrates and lipids to proteins, and the new proteins are packaged in new vesicles.

22 Lysosomes (Suicidal Garbageman) Lysol cleans and breaks down parts Small organelles filled with digestive enzymes They can break down needed materials, used cell parts, pathogens, and even play a role in development They destroy tissue to create fingers because our hands begin as solid structures! Lysosome Animation

23 Who am I? cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

24 Vacuole Vacuum stores water waste and nutrients

25 Vacuole Plants vacuole is much larger.

26 Chloroplasts=endosymbiosis Found in plants, some algae, and some bacteria Converts the sun s light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis Contains chlorophyll (green pigment)

27 Mitochondria=endosymbiosis cell organelle that releases energy from stored food molecules. Involved in cellular respiration- turning carbohydrates into energy. Cells that need more energy have more mitochondria

28 Other Cell Structures Can move the cell around Cilia (cilium): short hair-like projection; produces movement in many cells Cilia Flagella (flagellum): whip-like structure on some cells that is used for movement Flagella

29 Example II: The Cell Factory Factory Part Central Office Assembly Line Packaging & Shipping Conveyer Belt Generator Storage area Collection center Door Bricks and Steel Trucks/ 18 Wheelers Function Manages activities, initiates production, controls activities of factory Assembles raw materials to manufacture items Packs products for distribution Moves product within the factory Produces energy for the factory Stores materials for later use Breaks down and recycles used parts Allows for things to enter and leave the factory Construction materials that keep the factory from collapsing Move the factory when it needs to relocate Organelle