7 Characteristics of Life

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1 7 Characteristics of Life 1. Interdependence 2. Metabolism 3. Homeostasis 4. Cellular Structure and Function 5. Reproduction 6. Heredity 7. Evolution

2 The Cell Theory All living things are composed of one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms. All cells come from preexisting cells by cell division.

3 Organism Organization Cell æ Tissue group of cells functioning together æ Organ group of tissues functioning together æorgan System group of organs functioning together æorganism group of organ systems functioning together

4 Common Cell Features Cells share common structural features, including: an outer boundary called the cell membrane, interior substance called cytoplasm, structural support called the cytoskeleton, genetic material in the form of DNA cellular structures that make proteins, called ribosomes

5 Structures in ALL Cells

6 1. CELL MEMBRANE Encloses the cell, and regulates movement of materials in and out. Made of phospholipids and proteins

7 2. CYTOPLASM Material where organelles are suspended, fills in the empty space of the cell

8 3. CYTOSKELETON Provides support for organelles and helps maintain cell shape Made of: MICROTUBULUES and MICROFILAMENTS

9 4. RIBOSOMES Sites where proteins are made Float free or are attached to the ER

10 5. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Holds the hereditary information

11 Types of Cells

12 Prokaryotic v. Eukaryotic cells PROKARYOTES No defined nucleus No membrane bound organelles Free floating DNA, RNA, and ribsomes Ex: Bacteria

13 Prokaryotic v. Eukaryotic cells EUKARYOTES true cells True nucleus Have membrane bound organelles Protist & Fungus Animal & Plant

14 Cytoskeleton Provides support for organelles and helps maintain cell shape Made of: MICROTUBULUES and MICROFILAMENTS

15 Structures in Eukaryotic Cells

16 Nucleus 1. Houses DNA 2. Nucleus controls most functions of cell 3. Double membrane called nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus. 4. Ribosomes and RNA are made in the nucleus.

17 ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) has ribosomes Assembles and transports proteins

18 SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) SMOOTH ER Doesn t have ribosomes Makes fats and carbohydrates(in plant cells)

19 GOLGI APPARATUS Forms stacks of flat tubes Packages and secretes proteins made by the cell at one location, and used at another Makes cellulose in plants

20 Vesicle Transports substances throughout the cell Short lived and recycled Formed from E.R. membrane

21

22 MITOCHONDRIA Mitochondria are organelles that harvest energy from organic compounds to make ATP. ATP is the main energy currency of cells. Most ATP is made inside the mitochondria.

23 Vacuole Stores materials in cells Water, food, ions, enzymes are stored in vacuoles

24 LYSOSOMES Produced by Golgi Body Contain digestive materials that break down materials: Foreign material (Bacteria and viruses): white blood cells Dead cells Aging tissues Food Malfunctions can lead to cancer and death of a cell

25 Centrioles Cylinder shaped; made of microtubules Help cells divide

26 Plant Cells Plants have three unique structures that are not found in animal cells: Cell Wall Chloroplasts Central Vacuole

27 Cell Wall The cell membrane of plant cells is surrounded by a thick cell wall, composed of proteins and carbohydrates. 1. helps support and maintain the shape of the cell 2. protects the cell from damage 3. connects the cell with adjacent cells

28 CHLOROPLAST Chloroplasts are organelles that use light energy to make carbohydrates Use light energy to make carbohydrates. Filled with a pigment, chlorophyll to make them green

29 CENTRAL VACUOLE Most of a plant cell s volume is taken up by a large, membrane-bound space called the central vacuole. The central vacuole stores water and may contain ions, nutrients, and wastes.

30 Comparison of Plant & Animal Cells

31

32 STRUCTURES FOR MOVEMENT CILIA: short hair like structures all over cell FLAGELLA: long, whip like structure Mostly for Prokaryotes

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