Cell Theory. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century!

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2 Cell Notes

3 Cell Theory All living organisms are made of. cells The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century! In 1665, Robert Hooke used a microscope to look at thin slices of. cork (Dead plant cell walls.) He named them cells because they looked like the rooms that monks lived in!

4 Cell Theory In 1673, a Dutch scientist, Anton von Leeuwenhoek looked at pond water and scrapings from his. teeth He was the first person to observe living organisms with a microscope!

5 Cell Theory In 1838, a German botanist named Matthias Schleiden stated that all plants are made of cells. In 1839, a German zoologist named Theodore Schwann stated that all animals are made of cells. Both scientists are credited as co-founders of the cell theory!

6 Cell Theory In 1855, a German doctor named Rudolf Virchow saw cells dividing under a microscope. He reasoned that all cells come from existing cells by cell. division *The work of all these scientists is combined in the Unified Cell Theory.

7 Cell Theory Principles of the Cell Theory: 1. All living things are made of one or more. cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. 3. New cells come from existing cells.

8 Simple vs. Complex Cells contain structures that perform different life functions. These structures are called, organelles and are separated from the cell by a. membrane

9 Simple vs. Complex Simple cells called prokaryotes do NOT have. organelles They are always unicellular (made of only one cell) and include. bacteria They have no nucleus -- only a single chromosome containing their genetic material.

10 Simple vs. Complex Complex cells called eukaryotes do have organelles and a true. nucleus Their organelles have either a single or a double membrane that separates the activities metabolic from the rest of the cell. Eukaryotes can be unicellular or. multicellular

11 Cell Organelles Cell : membrane separates the cell from the. environment Controls what enters or the leaves cell. : Nucleus Located in the, center it contains the DNA and RNA that direct the activities of the cell. : Nucleolus inside the nucleus, made of RNA and -- protein makes ribosomes

12 Cell Organelles : Chromosome Made of DNA and, protein located inside the nucleus. Contains all the genetic material of the cell. : Ribosomes Tiny particles of RNA and, protein they are NOT surrounded by a. membrane Ribosomes are the cell s protein factories!

13 Cell Organelles : Endoplasmic reticulum ( ) ER Membrane used to transport material within a cell. (Usually proteins made at the.) ribosomes Rough ER has ribosomes attached. Smooth ER has no ribosomes and is used to break down, lipids, carbohydrates wastes and. toxins

14 Cell Organelles : Golgi Apparatus, modifies packages and helps secrete cell products. It receives products from the ER and packages them in vesicles for transport within or out of the cell. : Vacuole membrane-bound structure for storage of, water, food minerals or. waste

15 Cell Organelles : Lysosome contains digestive enzymes. The membrane surrounding the lysosome protects the rest of the cell by keeping the enzymes from digesting the cell itself! : Cytoplasm the semi-liquid material that makes up the body of the cell. It contains, sugars, minerals enzymes and amino acids

16 Cell Organelles : Mitochondria Site of. cellular respiration This is where organic molecules are broken down to release energy in the form of. ATP The folds inside the mitochondria are called, cristae and serve to increase surface area to increase the number of reactions and therefore the energy produced!

17 Cell Organelles : Microtubules Part of the internal structure of the cell. Provides structural support for the cell and allows the cell to move organelles within the cell. : Centrioles Found only in ANIMAL cells and ; fungi there are 2 pairs in each cell. They are important for cell. reproduction

18 Plants ONLY! : Chloroplasts Found only in PLANT cells, they contain chlorophyll that is necessary for photosynthesis to produce food for the plant s use. : Cell wall Found only in PLANT cells, it is a rigid structure found outside the cell membrane. It is made of cellulose and is used for plant. support

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20 Exceptions to the Cell Theory There are two exceptions to the Cell Theory: Viruses are composed of 2 chemicals: DNA or RNA and a protein coat. They have no organelles and cannot reproduce by themselves. A virus must infect a cell and hijack the cell s organelles in order to make new copies of itself.

21 Exceptions to the Cell Theory This has sparked a debate over whether or not viruses are actually alive at all but most scientists consider them an exception to the Cell Theory. In addition to viruses, there are 2 organelles in the cell that contain their own DNA and reproduce independently of the rest of the cell s organelles! When a cell undergoes mitosis (cell ), division these organelles will reproduce without influence from the cell.

22 Organelle DNA Mitochondria and Chloroplasts possess their own DNA, and evidence suggests that they were once free living cells!

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