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1 Cell Basics

2 Two Basic Cell Types All cells are either prokaryotic or eukaryotic

3 Prokaryotic Cells a.k.a. Bacteria

4 Prokaryotes, which includes all bacteria. They are the simplest cellular organisms. They have genetic material but no nucleus. Typical bacteria cell

5 Prokaryotic cells Unicellular No membrane bound organelles therefore, not many specialized functions. Bacteria!

6 Cell Membrane Regulates what goes in and out of the cell (selective). Composed of lipids and proteins.

7 DNA Genetic Material of the cell Generally small and circular Made of monomers called nucleotides.

8 Cytoplasm Cytoplasm is a clear, jelly-like fluid that fills the cell

9 Make proteins. Ribosomes

10 A network of protein structures that determines cell shape Cytoskeleton

11 Cell wall Helps support, protect and maintain the shape of the cell

12 Flagella Tail-like structure that helps bacteria move (MOTILITY) Flagella are also found on some eukaryotic cells. For example, some protists have flagella. So do sperm cells!

13 Pilli Hair-like structure that helps bacteria stick to surfaces

14 Capsule A sticky outer protective covering that allows bacteria to adhere to surfaces Increases their ability to cause disease

15 Name the structures of this bacterium

16 Eukaryotic Cells a.k.a. Plant, Animal, Fungi, Protista

17 Eukaryotic cells Complex cells that contain a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles with specialized functions. Animal or plant cells. (also includes fungi and protists)

18 Nucleus Controls activities of the cell and holds the genetic information (DNA) Surrounded by the nuclear membrane/envelope the control center of the cell

19 DNA Genetic Material of the cell Contained within the Nucleus Made of monomers called nucleotides.

20 Nucleolus Located in the center of the nucleus. Site of ribosome production.

21 Plasma or Cell Membrane Regulates what goes in and out of the cell (selective). Composed of lipids and proteins.

22 Lets quickly examine the structure and function of the cell membrane: Which of the following animals do you think can pass easily through this opening? Why?

23 Cytoplasm Cytoplasm is a clear, jelly-like fluid that fills the cell

24 Ribosomes Make proteins. Found throughout the cell and on rough ER.

25 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) System of internal membranes that transport proteins and other substances through the cell. 2 Kinds: Rough ER: transports proteins that are made by ribosomes attached to it Smooth ER: helps make new lipids and helps to break down toxic substances such as alcohol Has no ribosomes attached to it

26 Which picture best depicts the function of the ER? The ER is referred to as the highway of the cell since it transports molecules, such as proteins, throughout the cell.

27 Golgi Apparatus Flattened, membrane-bound sacs that serve as the packaging and distribution center of the cell. They modify the proteins that travel from the ER in vesicles (small, membrane-bound sacs) before they are released to serve their function.

28 Which picture best depicts the function of the golgi apparatus? The Golgi is sometimes referred to as the post office since it modifies and packages proteins before they are shipped to their rightful destination

29 Mitochondria Releases energy from organic compounds to make ATP (energy) Powerhouse of the cell Fact: Mitochondria contain their own DNA and ribosomes to make their own proteins. Who do you inherit your mitochondrial DNA from? Your mother it s found within the egg and the father only donates his DNA (23 chromosomes)

30 Mitochondria Look at the mitochondrial DNA and determine whether it looks like picture a or b.

31 Mitochondrial DNA similar to Prokaryotic (bacterial) DNA? This fact supports the widely accepted theory that mitochondria were once primitive prokaryotes!

32 Which picture best depicts the function of the Mitochondria? TXU supplies electricity to many houses and businesses in Dallas just as the mitochondria supplies energy for it s cell

33 Based on your knowledge of mitochondria, which of the following cells would contain a greater number of mitochondria? Muscle cells require large amounts of energy in order to perform functions and therefore require a larger number of mitochondria

34 Mitochondria Quick Write

35 Lysosomes Specialized vesicles that contain digestive enzymes Function by digesting and recycling the cell s used components (carbs, proteins, lipids and old organelles)

36 Which picture best depicts the function of the lysosome? Both contain digestive enzymes and both help to breakdown particles

37 Lysosomes Quick Write

38 Cytoskeleton A network of protein structures that determines cell shape Provides support for organelles and pathways for cell movement.

39 Some structures are found in plant cells but not animal cells

40 Cell wall Helps support, protect and maintain the shape of the cell

41 Chloroplasts Use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water (photosynthesis).

42 Just like mitochondria, chloroplasts contain their own DNA and are also thought to be descendents of ancient prokaryotic cells

43 Large Central Vacuole Stores water and may contain many substances, including ions, nutrients, and wastes Largest organelle found in plants When full of water, the cell becomes rigid (turgor pressure) FYI: Small vacuoles are found in animal cells.

44 Flagella Tail-like structure that helps cells move (MOTILITY) Sponges and flagella Flagella are also found on some eukaryotic cells. For example, some protists have flagella. So do sperm cells!

45 Cell Organelles Cell Membrane Mitochondria Chloroplast Endoplasmic Reticulum Lysosome Nucleus Golgi Body Vacuole Animal Ribosome Cell Wall Plant

46 Different Types of Cells Prokaryotic no nucleus small ribosomes no organelles very small 1-10µm no nucleus larger small ribosomes no organelles very small Eukaryotic nucleus larger ribosomes organelles small µm only in bacteria protists, fungi, plants, animals only in bacteria protists, fungi, plants, animals

47 Homework on pages 23-24

48 Watch ME!!!Watch ME!!! Watch ME!!!Watch ME!!! Watch Me Whip!! Watch Me NAE-NAE!!

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