Honors Biology summer assignment. Review the notes and study them. There will be a test on this information the 1 st week of class

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1 Honors Biology summer assignment Review the notes and study them. There will be a test on this information the 1 st week of class

2 Biomolecules Molecules that make up living things. There are 4 molecules that make up life! All of them are organic molecules They contain the atom carbon. Contain carbon-to-carbon bonds Molecules that do not have carbon in them are considered inorganic. Lipids, Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Nucleic Acids are all organic molecules.

3 Carbohydrates These are sugars. They provide cells with energy. They also have structural roles- for example they make up the cell walls of plants and the exoskeletons of insects.

4 Carbohydrates The subunits of carbohydrates are called simple sugars or monosaccharides.

5 Lipids These are fats. They store energy, provide protection and insulate organisms. A special kind called a phospholipid also makes up the membrane that surrounds all cells. Many kinds have subunits called fatty acid tails

6 Proteins Make up the structural components of organisms such as hair, nails, horns, fur, feathers, and scales. Also are enzymes that make reactions happen in an organism, such as digesting your food in your stomach. Help to fight infections (antibodies). Help to transport stuff into and out of cells. Proteins are made of subunits called amino acids.

7 Nucleic Acids Are molecules that store information for cells. Examples include DNA and RNA (which helps the DNA tell the cell what to do)

8 Nucleic Acids The subunits of nucleic acids are called nucleotides. Nucleotides have three parts: a sugar a phosphate a nitrogenous base.

9 Nucleic Acids

10 Ecology Organization levels of biology. We ll finish at the top end with ecology. We started the course here. The middle was skipped. Or we will get to it at the end

11 Modern Cell Theory The cells are the smallest working unit of living things. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. All cells come from preexisting cells through division.

12 5 traits of life All living things are made of cells. All living things respond to their environment. All living organisms use energy (from food or light). All living organisms have DNA. All living organisms grow and reproduce. Are viruses alive?

13 Cell Diversity Not all cells are the same We have over 200 types of cells in our body Cells come in a variety of shapes dependent on their function

14 Organism Biggest Organ System Organ Tissue Cell Organelles Molecules Atoms Smallest

15 Organs Only 2 divisions of cells Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic

16 Types of Cells Prokaryotic the most primitive forms of life on earth. 1 st living organism (evolutionarily oldest & less sophisticated)

17 Types of Cells Prokaryotic these organisms lack membranebound organelles. Do not contain a nucleus but has DNA Usually small Usually Single celled Ex. Bacteria

18 Types of Cells Eukaryotic: plants, animals, and fungi which contain membrane bound organelles.

19 Types of Cells Eukaryotic Organisms that have a nucleus Usually larger cells Organisms are usually multicellular

20 Prokaryote v. Eukaryote Prokaryote No nucleus No true organelles Unicellular Small cells Bacteria simple Eukaryote Has nucleus Has organelles Multicellular Large cells Plants and animals complex

21 Organelles Tiny structures (organs) within the cell that carry on the functions necessary for the cell to survive. Animal cell plant cell

22 Nucleus Is where DNA is located. The brain of the cell, controls all cell activity

23 Cell Membrane separates the cell from its surroundings controls what enters and exits the cell, selectively permeable. helps to protect and support the cell Made of lipids

24 Cytoplasm the area between the nucleus and the cell membrane, filling the interior of the cell Is gel-like jello It suspends all other organelles

25 Mitochondria converts chemical energy from food into useful compounds more easy for the cell to use as energy powerhouse of the cell!

26 Mitochondria Converts glucose into more usable forms of energy for the cell (ATP) Site of cellular respiration Has own DNA

27 Ribosomes roughly spherical main function is to synthesize (make) proteins Found in ER and in cytoplasm

28 Endoplasmic reticulum Packaging there are two types: Rough has ribosomes Smooth makes lipids (fats)

29 Types of E.R Rough ER has many ribosome's attached Smooth ER is free of ribosome's

30 Golgi Apparatus Shipping Packages and transports wastes and nutrients into and out of the cell

31 Lysosomes small sacs filled with chemicals and enzymes required for the digestion of materials in the cell involved in the breakdown of old organelles/molecules that are no longer useful and foreign matter Recycles the parts for other uses

32 Centrioles Found only in animal cells Function in cell division by attaching fibers that pull apart chromosomes 2 in each cell

33 Cytoskeleton cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained within the cytoplasm present in all cells maintains cell shape, protects the cell, enables cellular motion Flagella and cilia

34 Cilia and Flagella Extensions of the plasma membranes Both used for movement Cilia: hair like structures Respiratory epithelium in the lungs Cilia can be used for capturing food for bacteria Flagella: Tail like structures Found on sperm cells

35 Vacuole saclike structures store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates Central Vacuole in plants, stores water.

36 Plant cells Organelles specific to plants Chloroplasts Cell wall Central Vacuole

37 Chloroplasts found in leaves and other green organisms main function is to trap solar energy and to use it to form carbohydrates the site of photosynthesis, which is the basic food source for the organism

38 Cell wall The rigid structure yet flexible found surrounding plant cells Provide support for the plant, gives the plant shape Located outside the cell membrane

39 Cell Specialization In multicellular organisms, such as animals and plants cells within the organisms body become specialized to do different jobs. The cell s DNA stores the information that tells the cell what kind of a cell to become.