2 The Cell What is a cell? Structure which makes up living organisms.
3 The Cell Theory l All living things are composed of cells. l Cells are the basic unit of life. l Cells come only from preexisting cells.
4 Cellular Respiration The process that takes place within cells to convert nutrients into ATP ATP Energy molecule created in all living things
5 Cell Types l Prokaryote VS Eukaryote l Plant VS Animal l Unicellular VS Multicellular
6 Cell Type Prokaryote VS Eukaryote Organelles? Prokaryote No membrane bound organelles; no nucleus Eukaryote Have membrane bound organelles
7 Cell Type Plant VS Animal Cell Wall l Plant Has cell wall l Animal Lacks cell wall
8 Cell Type Plant VS Animal Plastids l Plant Has plastid responsible for photosynthesis l Animal Lacks plastids
9 Cell Type Plant VS Animal Cell Division l Plants Have cell wall l Animals NO cell wall
10 Cell Type Plant VS Animal Similarity l Both plant cells and animal cells are classified as eukaryotes. l What does that mean?
11 Cell Type Plant VS Animal Similarity l Both plant cells and animal cells are classified as eukaryotes. l What does that mean? They have a true nucleus. They have membrane bound organelles.
12 Cell Type Unicellular VS. Multicellular Number of Cells l Unicellular organisms are composed of one cell. l Multicellular organisms are composed of many cells.
13 Solutions Uniform mixtures of 2 or more substances
14 Solutions Uniform mixtures of 2 or more substances Solute and Solvent
15 Solutions Uniform mixtures of 2 or more substances Solute and Solvent Solute the dissolved substance Solvent the substance that the solute is dissolved into
16 Solutions Isotonic Solution where solutes outside the cell = solutes inside the cell Hypertonic solute concentration outside cell > solute concentration inside cell Hypotonic solute concentration outside cell is < solute concentration inside cell
17 Homeostasis Staying the same The state of steady internal conditions maintained by living things
18 Diffusion The movement of atoms or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
19 Osmosis The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane to a region of higher solute concentration This will equalize the solute concentration on the two sides
20 Multicellular Organisms l In multicellular organisms all cells work together to form the organisms. l Multicellular level of organization? Cell -Tissue Organ -Organ System
21 The Cell l What is it? The smallest portion of living organisms that can still retain life.
22 The Tissue l What is it? Group of cells that have the same function.
23 The Organ l What is it? Group of tissues which work together.
24 The Organ System l What is it? Group of organs which work together.
25 The Eukaryotic Cell and the Parts l Major Components common to all Eukaryotes l Organelles
26 Major Components of ALL Eukaryotes l Cell Membrane l Nucleus l Cytoplasm
27 Cell Membrane Permeable membrane allows the exchange of contents
28 Plasma Membrane l Barrier for cell contents l Double phospholipid layer Hydrophilic heads Hydrophobic tails
30 Cellular Transport l What is it? Movement of substances into and out of a cell through the cell membrane l 2 types of cellular transport: I. Passive transport II. Active transport
31 Passive Transport l NO energy required l Movement from area of high concentration to area of low concentration (moving down the concentration gradient) l Examples: 1. diffusion 2. osmosis
32 Passive Transport - Diffusion l Movement of particles from high to low
34 Passive Transport - Osmosis l Movement of water from high to low l Directions of osmosis: A. Hypotonic solution B. Hypertonic solution C. Isotonic solution
35 Passive Transport Osmosis Hypotonic Solution l Cell will swell l The water concentration was high outside the cell, so the water goes from outside (hi) to inside (low)
36 Passive Transport Osmosis Hypertonic Solution l Cell will shrink l The water concentration was high inside the cell, so the water goes from inside (hi) to outside (low)
37 Passive Transport Osmosis Isotonic Solution l Water level is equal both inside and outside l The water moves in and outs but the cell size does not change
38 Plasmolysis The shrinking of the cytoplasm of a plant cell in response to diffusion of water out of the plant cell and into a hypertonic solution
39 Active Transport l Requires energy l Movement of substances form an area of low concentration to and area of high concentration l 2 types: 1. Exocytosis 2. Endocytosis
40 Active Transport - Exocytosis l Substances leave the cell using a vesicle
41 Active Transport - Endocytosis l Substances enter the cell through a vesicle
42 Major Components of ALL Eukaryotes Cell Membrane l Function? Surrounds the cell and controls what enters and leaves the cell the gatekeeper
43 Major Components of ALL Eukaryotes Nucleus l Nucleus (Singular) Nuclei (Plural) l Description? Surrounded by nuclear envelope which has pores contains Nucleolus
44 Major Components of ALL Eukaryotes Nucleus l Function? Control center of the cell Contains genetic information or DNA in the form of chromatin
45 Major Components of ALL Eukaryotes Cytoplasm l Description? Everything between the cell membrane and the nucleus. l 2 parts: Cytosol Organelles
46 Major Components of ALL Eukaryotes Cytoplasm - Cytosol l Description? Jellylike mixtures of water, proteins, carbs, and other substances. l Function? Suspend organelles & provide site for chemical reactions to occur.
47 Major Components of ALL Eukaryotes Cytoplasm - Organelles l Description? mini organs which are generally surrounded by a membrane l Function? Carry out functions of the cell.
48 Eukaryotic Organelle Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) l Description? Folded membranes with or without ribosomes l With ribosomes Rough ER l Without ribosomes Smooth ER
49 Eukaryotic Organelle Endoplasmic Reticulum - Continued l Function? Detoxification of the cell Connects the nuclear envelope to the cell membrane Transportation of cell products
50 Eukaryotic Organelle Ribosome l Description? Structure found on endoplasmic reticulum and in cytosol l Function? Site of protein synthesis
51 Eukaryotic Organelle Mitochondria l Mitochondria (plural) Mitochondrion (singular) l Description? Bean shaped structure
52 Eukaryotic Organelle Mitochondria - Continued l Function? Site of cellular respiration; production of ATP Power house of the cell
53 Eukaryotic Organelle Golgi Apparatus l Description? Flattened membrane sacs l Function? Package & secrete cell products
54 Eukaryotic Organelle Vacuole l Description? Spherical vesicle l Function? Storage of food & water
55 Eukaryotic Organelle Cilia l Cilia (plural) Cilium (singular) l Description? Hair like projections on the surface of the cell l Function? Moves substances across the surface of the cell
56 Eukaryotic Organelle Flagella l Flagella (plural) Flagellum (singular) l Description? Tail like projections on the surface of th cell l Function? Allows cell to move and gather food
57 Eukaryotic Organelle Nucleolus l Description? Dense body found in nucleus l Function? Production of ribosomes
58 Eukaryotic Organelle Plastid l PLANT CELLS ONLY! l Description? Structures including chloroplast, leucoplast, and chromoplast l Function? Photosynthesis, food storage, color
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