2 I. Cell = Building block of all living organisms A. Robert Hooke (1665) observed cork under a crude microscope 1. He called the boxes cells because they looked like little rooms that priests lived in.
3 B. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1673) was the first to observe living cells.
4 II. Cell Theory (Schleiden 1838, Schwann 1839, & Virchow 1855) A. Cell Theory States: 1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
5 3. New cells come from division of preexisting cells.
6 Who was one of the first people to identify and see cork cells? 1. Anton van Leeuwenhoek 2. Robert Hooke 3. Matthias Schleiden 4. Rudolf Virchow 0% 0% 0% 0% Answer Now Anton van Leeuwenhoek Robert Hooke Matthias Schleiden Rudolf Virchow 20
7 The work of Schleiden and Schwann can be summarized by saying that 1. all plants are made of cells. 2. all animals are made of cells. 3. plants and animals have specialized cells. 4. all plants and animals are made of cells. Answer Now all plants are made of cells. 0% 0% 0% 0% all animals are made of ce... plants and animals have... all plants and animals ar... 20
8 B. The cell contains inherited information that is used as instructions for growth & development. -DNA
9 III. Classification of cells (Not all cells are alike 200 different kinds in the human body) according to complexity
10 A. Prokaryotic cells 1. Most ancient and simplest (unicellular). Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria)
11 2. Do not have an organized nucleus (i.e. naked DNA).
12 3. Do not have any membrane bound organelles, but they have ribosomes, cell membranes, and usually cell walls. See no nucleus!!! See Cell Wall!!!
13 4. Bacteria 5. Unicellular Organisms Only 6. Relatively small in size
14 7. Bad Bacteria -Bacteria that cause illness and disease a. Bacterial diseases examples: tuberculosis, tetanus, syphilis, cholera, bubonic plague
15 b. How do you treat a Bacterial Infection? i. If prevention fails, take antibiotics ii. Antibiotics kill bacteria without harming the cells of humans or animals
16 iii. Many antibiotics are produced naturally by living organisms Ex: penicillin
18 B. Eukaryotic cells (Have a Nucleus) 1. Relatively younger (evolutionary scale) 2. Have DNA organized into chromosomes in a nucleus.
19 3. Have membrane bound organelles.
20 4. Most cells are in this group. a. Plants, Animals, Protists, fungi
21 3. Have membrane bound organelles.
22 5. Unicellular (amoeba) or multicellular (spider)
23 6. Relatively large in size 7. Divides duties among the different organelles.
24 Cells fall into two broad categories, depending on whether they 1. have a cell wall. 2. contain genetic material. 3. have a nucleus. 4. contain chloroplasts. 0% 0% 0% 0% Answer Now have a cell wall. contain genetic material. have a nucleus. contain chloroplasts. 20
25 Which cell structure contains the cell s genetic material and controls many of the cell s activities? 1. organelle 2. nucleus 3. cell envelope 4. cytoplasm 0% 0% 0% 0% Answer Now organelle nucleus cell envelope cytoplasm 20
28 Which of the following contain a nucleus? 1. prokaryotes 2. bacteria 3. eukaryotes 4. organelles 0% 0% 0% 0% Answer Now prokaryotes bacteria eukaryotes organelles 20
29 Eukaryotes usually contain 1. a nucleus. 2. specialized organelles. 3. genetic material. 4. all of the above 0% 0% 0% 0% Answer Now a nucleus. specialized organelles. genetic material. all of the above 20
30 C. Viruses (neither prokaryotic nor eukaryotic) 1. Viruses are non-cellular particles made up of genetic material (DNA) and protein 2. Viruses invade living cells Influenza Virus Bacteriophage HIV Virus
31 3. Are Viruses Alive? a. Like living things, viruses have genetic material and they can pass this on to future generations b. BUT, unlike living things, viruses are not made of cells
32 c. Outside of a cell, they don't reproduce, feed, or grow d. Therefore, most biologists consider viruses nonliving
34 IV. Endosymbiote Theory A. Single-celled organisms engulfed other one-celled organisms. 1. Digestion did not occur.
35 2. The two organisms lived symbiotically. 3. Over millions of generations, these engulfed organisms became organelles.
36 B. Evidence: 1. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have their own DNA 2. They also divide independent of the cell.
38 V. Why are most cells about the same (tiny) size? A. To maximize the surface area to volume ratio.
39 What is the surface area and volume of the 4 cm cube below? Volume = 64 cm 3 ; V= l w h = = 16 4 = 64 cm 3 Surface Area = cm 2 SA = 6 s 2 96 = 6 (4 4) = 6 (16) = 96 cm 2 4 cm 4 cm 4 cm
40 What if we cut the cube into eight 2 cm squares? V= l w h = = 4 2 = 8 (8 squares) = 64 cm 3 SA = 6 s 2 = 6 (2 2) = 6 (4) = 24 (8 squares) = 192 cm 2
42 Plasma membrane Figure 7-12 The Structure of the Cell Membrane Controls what comes in and out Section 7-3 (semi-permeable); Made of a phospholipid bilayer Outside of cell Cell membrane Proteins Carbohydrate chains Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Protein channel Lipid bilayer
44 Cell wall (animal cells lack cell wall) Found in some cells, including plants, algae, fungi and nearly all prokaryotes
45 Provides support & protection Surrounds the cell membrane (allows water and gases to pass through)
47 Nucleus (pl. Nuclei) Controls cell functions by controlling protein synthesis, contains the genetic information (DNA)
49 Nucleolus Dense region within nucleus; produces ribosomes (ribosome assembly begins here)
50 Which of the following is a function of the nucleus? 1. stores DNA 2. controls most of the cell s processes 3. contains the information needed to make proteins 4. all of the above Answer Now stores DNA 0% 0% 0% 0% controls most of the cell... contains the information... all of the above 20
51 Which of the following statements explains why the nucleus is important to cells? 1. Only eukaryotes have nuclei. 2. Only prokaryotes have nuclei. 3. The nucleus contains coded instructions for making proteins. 4. The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope. 25% 25% 25% 25% Answer Now 25
52 Nuclear Envelope Double membrane layer which surrounds the nucleus; thousands of pores allow material into and out of the nucleus
53 Chromatin/Chromosomes Chromatin = loose DNA Chromosome = condensed DNA (wound tightly around proteins and coiled up), Visible under microscope (Seen during cell division)
55 Cytoplasm Material surrounding nucleus includes the fluid & organelles, site of important chemical reactions; Cytosol-fluid portion
57 Ribosomes Made of RNA and proteins; Sites of protein synthesis (proteins are made here);
58 Ribosomes Instructions on how to make the specific protein come from the DNA; Found free in the cytosol or associated with ER
61 Which of the following is NOT found in the nucleus? 1. cytoplasm 2. nucleolus 3. chromatin 4. DNA 0% 0% 0% 0% Answer Now cytoplasm nucleolus chromatin DNA 20
62 Which organelle makes proteins using coded instructions that come from the nucleus? 1. Golgi apparatus 2. mitochondrion 3. vacuole 4. ribosome 0% 0% 0% 0% Answer Now Golgi apparatus mitochondrion vacuole ribosome 20
63 Endoplasmic reticulum (Rough- ribosomes) (Smooth- no ribosomes) Rough: Assembles, Prepares & Transports proteins for export via the Golgi apparatus Smooth: Lipid (steroids) synthesis site; Breaks down toxic substances; parts of the cell membrane are made here
66 Golgi apparatus Membrane sacs that receive, chemically modify, and repackage proteins into forms the cell can use, expel, or store.
70 Which sequence correctly traces the path of a protein in the cell? 1. rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, released from the cell 2. ribosome, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplast 3. smooth endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, Golgi apparatus 4. mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, 25% 25% 25% 25% cell membrane 25 Answer Now
71 Vacuole Temporary stores water, nutrients (proteins & carbs), salts, or wastes; enlarged in plant cells; provides support and structure in plants (turgor pressure-rigid)
73 Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes that break down food particles (carbs, lipids, & proteins), viruses, bacteria, and worn out cell parts (Cellular stomach)
79 Mitochondria Breaks down food (organic) molecules releasing the energy stored in chemical bonds to produce ATP (energy currency) Adenosine Triphosphate Power House Bound by a double membrane
81 Which organelle breaks down compounds into small particles that the cell can use? 1. Golgi apparatus 2. lysosome 3. endoplasmic reticulum 4. mitochondrion 0% 0% 0% 0% Answer Now Golgi apparatus lysosome endoplasmic reticulum mitochondrion 20
82 Which organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use? 1. chloroplast 2. Golgi apparatus 3. endoplasmic reticulum 4. mitochondrion 0% 0% 0% 0% Answer Now chloroplast Golgi apparatus endoplasmic reticulum mitochondrion 20
83 Chloroplasts (Autotrophs)(Heterotrophs organisms that cannot produce its own food lack chloroplasts) Contain green pigment-chlorophyll which traps the sun s light energy.
84 Photosynthesis: transforms light energy into chemical energy and stores that energy in food molecules (sugars & starches- carbohydrates).
85 Bound by a double membrane
86 Which organelles help provide cells with 1. mitochondria and chloroplasts energy? 2. rough endoplasmic reticulum 3. smooth endoplasmic reticulum 4. Golgi apparatus and ribosomes Answer Now mitochondria and chloro... 0% 0% 0% 0% rough endoplasmic reti... smooth endoplasmic ret... Golgi apparatus and rib... 20
87 Which organelle would you expect to find in plant cells but not animal cells? 1. mitochondrion 2. ribosome 3. chloroplast 4. smooth endoplasmic reticulum Answer Now mitochondrion 0% 0% 0% 0% ribosome chloroplast smooth endoplasmic ret... 20
88 Cytoskeleton Figure 7-11 Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments that helps the cell Section 7-2 maintain shape and move around; Includes Microfilaments, Microtubules, and Intermediate Filaments
90 Cilia (microtubules) Hair-like projections; Propel unicellular organisms & helps fluids to move over the cell surface in multicellular organisms
96 Which structures carry out cell movement? 1. cytoplasm and ribosomes 2. nucleolus and nucleus 3. microtubules and microfilaments 4. chromosomes Answer Now cytoplasm and ribosomes 0% 0% 0% 0% nucleolus and nucleus microtubules and micro... chromosomes 20
105 VI. Organization A. Cell Tissue Organ Organ System
106 B. Tissue = Group of cells that perform the same function 1. Examples: nerve tissue, muscle tissue
107 C. Organ = two or more tissues that function together 1. Examples: Brain, leaf, heart
108 D. Organ System = group of organs that work together 1. Examples: Nervous system, circulatory system
110 Which of the following is a logical organization? 1. cell, tissue, organ system, organ, 25% organism 2. tissue, organ, cell, organism, organ 25% system 3. organism, cell, tissue, organ 25% system, organ 4. cell, tissue, organ, organ system, 25% organism Answer Now 20
111 A group of cells with similar structure and function, together form a(n) 1. organism. 2. organelle. 3. tissue. 4. organ. 5. organ system. 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Answer Now organism. organelle. tissue. organ. organ system. 20
112 The basic living unit of all plants and animals is the 1. cell. 2. chemical. 3. organ. 4. organelle. 5. tissue. 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Answer Now cell. chemical. organ. organelle. tissue. 20
113 Levels of Organization Section 7-4 Muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Stomach Digestive system
114 Practice Labeling Structures x.cfm?wcprefix=cbd&wcsuffix=3072&fu seaction=home.gotowebcode&x=0&y=0
115 Label (In your Head) Cell Model a specific function that contributes to cell survival.
116 A B C D
117 Leaf Cell
119 Images from: iapparatus.html
120 Are All Cells Alike? All living things are made up of cells. Some organisms are composed of only one cell. Other organisms are made up of many cells. 1. What are the advantages of a one-celled organism? 2. What are the advantages of an organism that is made up of many cells? Think of the Answers; Discuss with a partner; Write on Separate piece of paper