NAME: PERIOD: DATE: A View of the Cell. Use Chapter 8 of your book to complete the chart of eukaryotic cell components.

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1 NAME: PERIOD: DATE: A View of the Cell Use Chapter 8 of your book to complete the chart of eukaryotic cell components. Cell Part Cell Wall Centriole Chloroplast Cilia Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER) Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth ER) Flagella Golgi Apparatus Lysosome Mitochondria Nucleolus Nuclear Envelope Nucleus Plasma Membrane Ribosome Vacuole Function A rough, rigid structure outside the plasma membrane of plants, fungi, plant-like protists, and some bacteria; give support and protection Pair of structures in animal cells that duplicate to aid in cell reproduction Organelle that holds chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis Short, hair-like structures on the surface of some cells; help with movement of organism and fluids/materials along the surface of the cell Clear fluid surrounding the nucleus and organelles of cells; site of many chemical reactions Fibers and filaments in eukaryotic cells that provide support for the cell and organelles Folded network of membranes that create a transport system in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells; rough is lined with ribosomes Same as rough except not lined with ribosomes Long, thread-like structures used to propel an organism with a whipping motion Membrane sacs in the cell that receive, modify, and package proteins for the cell to use or store Organelle that contains enzymes digesting food particles, viruses, bacteria, worn out cells, and sometimes the cell itself; cleans the cell Breaks food particles down to produce ATP molecules or energy/power Area in the nucleus that produces ribosomes Membrane around the nucleus controlling what enters and leaves the nucleus Largest membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells; contains DNA and controls all of the cell s functions Boundary between the cell and its environment; allows certain materials to pass through Organelles that put together long chains of proteins Membrane-bound, fluid filled space within the cytoplasm that stores water, food, enzymes, and wastes In Plant or Animal Cells?

2 Fill in the following sentences and then color that cell structure the appropriate color. 1. The (A) is the barrier between the cell and its surroundings. Color it pink. 2. The (Q) is the intracellular fluid that fills the cell. Color it light green. 3. The (G) of the cell provide POWER. Color them orange. 4. The (O) are responsible for protein synthesis. Color them red. 5. The (B) is the membrane that surrounds the nucleus. Color it blue. 6. The (H) is responsible for packaging proteins. Color it purple. 7. The (P) is the transport system in a cell. Color it yellow. 8. The (K) store water and food particles for the cell. Color them green. 9. The (D) is the portion of the nucleus that makes ribosomes. Color it black. 10. The (I) are two structures that aid in animal cell reproduction. Color them gray. 11. The (L) are full of digestive enzymes that break down damaged cell parts. Color them brown. 12. The (E) is the material in the cell that contains genetic information and the instructions for making proteins. Color it blue. Is this a plant or animal cell?

3 Fill in the following sentences and then color that cell structure the appropriate color. 1. The (Q) is where chemical reactions in the cell occur. Color it light green. 2. The (L) breaks down food particles to release energy. Color them orange. 3. The (B) is a rigid structure that provides shape for the cell. Color it gray. 4. The (A) allows materials to pass into and out of the cell. Color it pink. 5. The (I) receives new proteins and then repackages them. Color it purple. 6. The (O) digest damaged cell parts, food and bacteria. Color them brown. 7. The (J) follow the DNA instructions to put together proteins. Color them red. 8. The (D) is responsible for storing water and other substances. Color it blue. 9. The (K) are folded membranes that are the cell s delivery system. Color them yellow. 10. The (F) are organelles that hold chlorophyll. (Site of photosynthesis.) Color them green. 11. The (R) regulates what enters and leaves the nucleus through its pores. Color it light blue. Is this a plant or animal cell?

4 Analysis: 1. Compare and contrast a cell wall and a plasma membrane. 2. Complete the Venn diagram of plant and animal cells. There should be at least 5 phrases in each area. PLANT CELL ONLY ANIMAL CELL ONLY PLANT & ANIMAL CELLS 3. Which cell components are responsible for the following tasks? a. Assembly: b. Boundaries: c. Controlling the Cell: d. Energy Transformation: e. Locomotion: f. Storage: g. Support:

5 Biology students were working on a class project. They received a picture of a bacterium, a plant cell and an animal cell, only the pictures were not labeled. Help the students correctly identify the cells and cell structures. Use the figures below to answer questions Identify the Cells & Cell Parts: a. Cell 1: A. B. C. b. Cell 2: D. E. F. c. Cell 3: G. H. I. 5. Are these cells prokaryotic or eukaryotic? a. Cell 1: b. Cell 2: c. Cell 3: 6. How are these cells the same? How are these cells different?

6 7. Investigate the pictures below. What is the advantage of having folded membranes in a cell? (hint: estimate the length of the surface area of each membrane.) 8. Why must plant cells have chloroplasts and mitochondrion? 9. We talked last unit about the six kingdoms of living things. Which kingdoms have cells containing cell walls? 10. In plants, the cells that have to transport water up, or against the force of gravity are found to contain many more mitochondria than other plant cells. What do you think is the reason for this? 11. What do you predict would have more mitochondria, muscle cells or fat cells? Why? 12. A student said, The cell of a unicellular organism is more complex than cells in multicellular organisms. Using your knowledge of cells, describe why you agree or disagree with this statement. 13. Which cell types are more different? A.) plant & animal cells or B.) prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells Explain your answer.

7 Critical Thinking: In the past, biologists have looked for clues to aging and human disease by studying organs, tissues and cultures of cells. With more powerful microscopes and more advanced types of chemical analysis, biologists can focus on smaller components of living things: the organelles within the cell. Use your knowledge of cell organelles and their functions to answer the questions about some of the current research that links cell organelles with certain conditions of aging and disease. 1. Scientists studied DNA molecules taken from mitochondria in the cells of older people. These mitochondrial DNA molecules were different from the mitochondrial DNA taken from the cells of younger people. a. What is the function of mitochondria in the normal, healthy cell? b. Considering the function of mitochondria, why does it make sense that mitochondria might be different in the cells of older people? 2. There are more mitochondria in cells that need a lot of energy, such as heart muscle cells. Some researchers are studying mitochondrial DNA in the heart cells of different age groups. What do you think researchers discovered in the mitochondrial DNA taken from the heart cells of older adults? 3. Researchers have found mutated (changed) mitochondrial DNA in people suffering from Kearns-Sayre syndrome. The syndrome causes paralysis of the eye muscles, difficulty in walking, and heart problems. What is the connection between the symptoms of Kearns-Sayre syndrome and the role of mitochondria in cell function? 4. Some researchers now believe that Alzheimer s disease is caused by the release of destructive enzymes. These destructive enzymes are released into the cytoplasm of nerve cells. Scientists think that these enzymes are released by organelles whose plasma membrane broke as they were trying to digest harmful substances. Which organelles do you think are responsible for releasing the destructive enzymes? Why? 5. In the liver cells of a person who died from alcoholism, an extremely dense network of endoplasmic reticulum was found. Why do you think this was so? HINT: Smooth ER has enzymes that break down harmful enzymes that break down harmful substances, or toxins, in the liver.

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