BASIC BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES

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1 BASIC BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES A1

2 A1. Basic Biological Principles 1. Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms 2. Compare cellular structures and their function in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms 3. Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at the various levels of biological organization (organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organisms) 4. Define, describe and give examples of the various types of cells prokaryotic vs eukaryotic, plant vs animal

3 A1. Vocabulary Cell organelle Golgi apparatus Cell theory vacuole chloroplasts Cell membrane lysosome mitochondria Nucleus cytoskeleton cell wall Eukaryote centriole lipid bilayer Prokaryote ribosome selectively permeable Cytoplasm endoplasmic reticulum Tissue Organ organism Organ system vesicle

4 Characteristics of Life Grow and Reproduce Obtain and use materials for energy Maintain a stable internal environment (homeostasis) Respond to the environment

5 Characteristics of Life 1. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things 2. All living things are made of cells 3. New cells are produced from existing cells

6 Characteristics of Life Have DNA (genetic material) Have a cell membrane (barrier) Have cytoplasm (fluid) Have ribosomes which make proteins Proteins are essential for the function of ALL cells Grow, reproduce, obtain and use materials, maintain homeostasis and respond to the environment

7 Characteristics of Life

8 Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes NO nucleus NO specialized cell structure (organelles) DNA found in cytoplasm Small and simple cells All prokaryotes are UNICELLULAR (single-celled) a.k.a. bacteria

9 Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes Notice Ribosomes DNA not contained in nucleus Pili and flagellum for movement

10 Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes DNA in nucleus Specialized cell structures (organelles) Larger and more complex cells Eukaryotes can be uni- or multi-cellular a.k.a. plants, animals, fungi, protists

11 Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes Notice Increased complexity Bigger in size DNA in nucleus Cellular structures

12 Cell Structure and Function Also called the plasma membrane Phospholipid bilayer Selectively permeable boundary Regulates the movement of material into and out of the cell

13 Cell Structure and Function

14 Cell Structure and Function Manufacture proteins Found in all cells Evidence of the importance of proteins to ALL cells

15 Cell Structure and Function Fluid component of cells Provide structure, support and stability Aids in movement of material throughout cell Found in all cells

16 Cell Structure and Function Contains the DNA in eukaryotic cells

17 Cell Structure and Function Found alongside nucleus Rough ER contains ribosomes; protein synthesis Smooth ER does not contain ribosomes; membrane lipid synthesis and drug detoxification

18 Cell Structure and Function Receives proteins from ER Modifies, sorts and packages proteins for delivery

19 Cell Structure and Function Transport material such as proteins throughout cell

20 Cell Structure and Function Storage facilities In plants, a LARGE CENTRAL VACUOLE fills with water to maintain structure When a plant goes without water, the central vacuole empties and plant wilts In animals, several smaller vesicles In freshwater protists, a contractile vacuole helps pump water out of cell

21 Cell Structure and Function

22 Cell Structure and Function Contain enzymes Digest large molecules, old cell parts, things that DO NOT belong in the cell recycling center

23 Cell Structure and Function Found only in animal cells Help organize cell division (???)

24 Cell Structure and Function Maintains shape of cell Aids in movement of cell and movement of organelles

25 Cell Structure and Function Found in plant cells and some photosynthetic protists Convert light energy into chemical energy (glucose)

26 Cell Structure and Function Converts chemical energy (food) into useful cellular energy (ATP)

27 Cell Structure and Function Plant cells and prokaryotes Rigid support and protection for cell

28 Organization of Multicellular Life Organelles (cell structures with specialized functions Cell (basic unit of life) Tissue (a group of cells) Organ (a group of tissues) Organ system (a group of organs) Organism

29 Organization of Multicellular Life Cells develop in different ways to perform different functions Ex: pancreatic cells produce proteins and are therefore loaded with ribosomes and rough ER Ex: liver cells remove toxins from blood and are loaded with smooth ER Ex: muscle cells require a lot of energy and are loaded with mitochondria

30 Keystone Prep Questions Structure Nucleus? Genetic Material? Cell wall? Cell membrane? Organelles? Ribosomes? Prokaryotes Eukaryotes

31 Keystone Prep Questions 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control cell processes c. Use of cellular respiration for energy release d. Ability to move in response to environmental stimuli

32 Keystone Prep Questions 2. Living things can be classified as either prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Which two structures are common to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? a. Cell wall and nucleus b. Cell wall and chloroplast c. Plasma membrane and nucleus d. Plasma membrane and cytoplasm

33 Keystone Prep Questions 3. If a cell of an organism contains a nucleus, the organism is a(n) a. Plant b. Eukaryote c. Animal d. prokaryotes

34 Keystone Prep Questions 4. Alveoli are microscopic air sacs in the lungs of mammals. Which statement best describes how the structure of the alveoli allows the lungs to function properly? a. They increase the amount of energy transferred from the lungs to the blood b. They increase the flexibility of the lungs as they expand during inhalation c. They increase the volume of the lungs allowing more oxygen to be inhaled d. They increase the surface area of the lungs allowing efficient gas exchange

35 Keystone Prep Questions 5. Some human body cells are shown in the diagrams below. These groups of cells represent different a. Tissues in which similar cells function together b. Organs that help to carry out a specific life activity c. Systems that are responsible for a specific life activity d. Organelles that carry out different functions

36 Keystone Prep Questions 6. Which cell parts are found in plants but not animals? a. Nucleus and cell membrane b. Cell wall and nucleus c. Mitochondria d. Cell wall and chloroplasts

37 Keystone Prep Questions 7. Which of the following is NOT a principle of the cell theory? a. Cells are the basic unit of life b. All living things are made of cells c. Very few cells reproduce d. All cells are produced by existing cells

38 Keystone Prep Questions 8. Which order describes the organization of multicellular organisms from smallest to largest? a. Cells, organs, tissues, organ systems, organism b. Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism c. Organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cell d. Cells, tissue, organ, organism

39 Keystone Prep Questions 9. The diagram below represents a cell of a green plant. Solar energy is used to produce energyrich compound sin structure a. A b. B c. C d. D

40 Keystone Prep Questions 10.Which cell structure is correctly paired with its function? a. Ribosome protein synthesis b. Vacuole production of genetic information c. Nucleus carbohydrate synthesis d. Mitochondrion waste disposal

41 Keystone Prep Questions 11.A pesticide that kills an insect by interfering with the production of proteins in the insect would most likely affect the activity of a. Ribosomes b. Minerals c. Chloroplasts d. mitochondria

42 Keystone Prep Questions 12.The diagram below represents two cells, X and Y. Which statement is correct concerning the structure labeled A? a. It regulates movement of material into/out of both cells b. It is involved in communication in cell X but not cell Y c. It prevents absorption of CO 2 in cell X and O 2 in cell Y d. It represents the cell wall in cell X and the cell membrane in cell Y