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1 CELL BIOLOGY All living things are made up of small individual units called cells. Cells are the smallest functioning living unit. Cells can not normally be seen with the naked eye. To usually observe a cell, you need a! most bacteria THE CELL THEORY 1) (either unicellular or multicellular) 2). (R+R+R+E+G+N+T+S) 3) microns eukaryotic cells BUT microns micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter diameter of human hair = ~20 microns There are a few exceptions to the cell theory that is, things that go against it. A.? THE CHICKEN OR THE EGG? B. are NOT composed of cells. But they do contain their own genetic material ( ). They also can reproduce in the presence of a host cell. C. Some cell parts ( and contain their own genetic material (DNA and/or RNA) can reproduce independently in a cell. Why study cells? Cells Tissues Organs Bodies bodies are made up of cells cells do all the work of life!

2 How life is organized I. Atoms and Molecules the building blocks of everything in the universe II. Organelles different organelles have different jobs III. Cells all living things are made up of one (unicellular) or more (multicellular) cells there are many types ex. muscle cells, brain cells (neurons), skin cells, bone cells, blood cells How life is organized IV. Tissues ex. muscles, nerves, blood, tendons V. Organs like organelles, different organs carry out different functions ex. brain, heart, skin, liver, intestines VI. Organ Systems different systems have different jobs ex. digestive system, circulatory system, nervous system, reproductive system How life is organized VII. Organism VIII. Population a group of one type of organism (species) in a given, defined area IX. Community a group of populations in a given area X. Ecosystem a community and the physical, non-living environment that it exits in. XI. Biosphere the region of earth where life exists all ecosystems on the planet make this up As microscopes improved over the years, scientists were able to see into cells with more detail. They were able to see that there are two main types of cells

3 I. Prokaryotes only and are prokaryotes II. Eukaryotes a) nucleus contains genetic material b) other organelles Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes are basically alike BOTH ARE ALIVE! Types of cells Prokaryote - no organelles Different Cell Parts Organelles In cells, various specialized functions occur in specific places. These places are called (small organs). Here are some of the major organelles that we will study this year Eukaryotes - organelles Model Animal Cell

4 1) Plasma Membrane a.k.a. Cell Membrane separates cell from outside, made up of (fats) and regulates what enters or leaves cell is receptor molecules allows communication between cells C E L L to C E L L communication is essential for the smooth operation of any multicellular organism! 3 examples of when receptor molecules play a role in cell to cell communication in a human: 1) 2) 3) SUMMARY: A molecule is a molecule on the surface of a that can receive chemical from other cells. 2) Ctyoplasm 3) Nucleus a watery fluid where the cell organelles are located many of the surrounded by a nuclear membrane only found in contains genetic material ( ) in the form of chromosomes that BOSS OF THE CELL!

5 4) Nucleolus found in the nucleus synthesizes 5) Endoplasmic Reticulum a series of interconnecting channels associated with two types rough ER ribosomes attached works on proteins smooth ER no ribosomes attached makes membranes 6) Ribosomes read instructions from DNA to build can be attached to the ER or can be floating around the cytoplasm Ribosomes on ER large subunit small subunit 7) Mitochondria site of make ATP energy from glucose! sugar + O2 ATP fuels the work of life many in a cell double membrane ATP ATP = NRG

6 8) Vacuoles small food particle Food & water storage plant cells animal cells vacuole 9) Lysosomes 10) Golgi Apparatus cellular products a series of flattened sacs vesicles carrying proteins small food particle lysosomes digesting broken organelles vacuole digesting food transport vesicles takes products from ER and ships them to the cell membrane UPS of cell!

7 Here are some organelles that are found only is specific cell types 11) Centrioles found in ; are cyndrical structures (like cans) found in the cytoplasm that appear to function during 12) Chloroplasts found in organisms contains, a pigment that makes photosynthesis possible 13) Cell Wall found in prokaryotes, some protists, fungi, and plant cells made of, a complex carbohydrate 14) Cilia and Flagella these are hair-like organelles that extend from the surface of many different types of cells cilia are typically smaller than flagella, but they cover the outside of a cell flagella are much longer than cilia, but there are usually one or just a few on a single cell There are 3 IMPORTANT differences between plant and animal cells. A.. B.. C..

8 Mitochondria are in both cells!! animal cells plant cells Plants make energy two ways! Mitochondria make energy from sugar + O2 cellular respiration sugar + O2 ATP ATP ATP = Chloroplasts make energy + sugar from sunlight photosynthesis sunlight + CO2 ATP & sugar ATP = active energy sugar = stored energy build leaves & roots & fruit out of the sugars sugar ATP Cell Summary Cells have 3 main jobs need food + O2 cellular respiration & photosynthesis need to remove wastes need instructions from DNA need to chain together amino acids & finish & ship the protein need to copy DNA & divide it up ATP = VIRUSES! are not cells! viruses can NOT carry out most life functions, however, they can reproduction of viruses can only happen inside of a viruses, along with bacteria (cells), fungi (cells), and other parasites can infect plants and animals and interfere with normal life functions ex. influenza, HIV, chicken pox, smallpox, polio

9 BIOLOGICAL INSTUMENTATION Continuing advances in techniques and instrumentation have enabled biologists to increase their understanding of cell structures and functions. Here is a list of some of the tools biologists use: I. Compound Light Microscope can examine live organisms leaf cells II. Electron Microscope can only show the image of dead organisms; the slides must be coated in a special fashion cheek cells III. Dissecting Microscope can magnify images of a specimen to 30X IV. Ultracentrifuge (Centrifuge) used to separate material by a liquid is spun fast up to and beyond 100,000 times a minute! heavier material settles on the bottom, lighter material floats on top. paramecium

10 V. Microdissection Instruments used to perform operations on living cells can transplant or remove organelles from cells; used in nuclear transfer!

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