Introduction to Cells- Stations Lab

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1 Introduction to Cells- Stations Lab Station 1: Microscopes allow scientists to study cells. Microscopes: How do light microscopes differ from electron microscopes? (How does each work? How much can each magnify a specimen?) Complete the chart below: Light Microscope Electron Microscope Pros Cons Cell Theory: What are the three parts of the cell theory? Levels of Organization: Arrange the puzzle at your station to explain the five levels of organization. (The levels should progress from smallest to largest.) Have your teacher initial here that your puzzle is correctly arranged What are the basic features of ALL cells? Station 2: Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells While all cells share the four features above, prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in several major ways. Complete the chart below to illustrate these differences. Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Nucleus? Yes / No Yes / No Where is DNA found? Membrane-bound organelles? Yes / No Yes / No Average size of cells Organisms with each type of cell

2 Label the following cells as either eukaryotic or prokaryotic. Cell Specialization: How can cells be specialized to perform different functions? Provide specific examples. Station 3: Structural Components The cell membrane controls passage of materials in and out of the cell. The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures in the cell. Cell Membrane: What other names do we use to refer to the cell membrane? In your own word, what does selective permeability mean? Describe the function of each of the following in the plasma membrane: Phospholipids- Proteins- Carbohydrates- Cell Size: Why do cells have to be so small? Cytoskeleton: What is the cytoskeleton made of? What three functions does the cytoskeleton help with? How are cilia and flagella similar? How do they differ?

3 What is a pseudopod? What part of the cytoskeleton functions in cell division? How do cytoplasm and cytosol differ? Eukaryotic cells genetic instructions are stored in the nucleus and carried out by ribosomes. Nucleus: Describe the function of each of Nucleus- Nuclear envelope- Nuclear pores- Chromatin- Nucleolus- Station 4: the following and label the picture below: Ribosomes: What are ribosomes made of? What do ribosomes do? Where can ribosomes be found? The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic through the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum: What is the endoplasmic retitculum (ER)? Station 5: How do rough and smooth ER differ in appearance and function? Rough ER- Smooth ER-

4 (Once materials are made, they are transported to the ) Golgi apparatus: What are the main jobs of the Golgi apparatus? (From the Golgi apparatus, vacuoles pinch off and carry materials to their appropriate destination ) Vacuoles: What is a vacuole? What kinds of substances can vacuoles hold? How do vacuoles differ in plant and animal cells? In you own words, summarize how the endomembrane system moves proteins through the cell. (Some pockets that break off from the Golgi apparatus can be highly specialized ) Lysosomes: What are lysosomes and how do they help the cell maintains homeostasis? Why do you think it s so important that lysosomes are enclosed by membranes? Station 6: Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another. Use the chart below to describe mitochondria and chloroplasts: Mitochondria Found in what types of cells? Use To make During the process of Function: Chloroplasts

5 Structures surrounding cells help provide structure and support. What structure surrounds plant, fungal, and algae cells? What are animal cells surrounded by? Overview: All cells share some basic properties, but prokaryotes lack internal structures bound by membranes. While plant and animal cells are both eukaryotic and have many structures in common, some structures are unique to different types of cells. Use checkmarks in the following chart to describe the structures found in different types of cells. Plasma membrane Prokaryotes Animals Eukaryotes Plants Cytosol DNA Ribosomes Centrioles Cilia Flagella Nucleus ER Golgi apparatus Central vacuole Mitochondria Chloroplasts Lysosome Cell wall Extracellular matrix Use the Venn diagrams below to compare and contrast different types of cells.

6 Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Plant cells Animal cells

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