122-Biology Guide-5thPass 12/06/14. Topic 1 An overview of the topic

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "122-Biology Guide-5thPass 12/06/14. Topic 1 An overview of the topic"

Transcription

1 Topic 1 Cellular Functions 1.1 The eukaryotic cell* An overview of the topic Key idea 1: Cell Organelles Key idea 2: Plasma Membrane Key idea 3: Transport Across Membrane Key idea 4: Membrane Systems GCE A level practice questions: 2011 P2 Q6a-b; 2010 P2 Q1; 2009 P2 Q1; 2007 P2 Q2; 2006 P2 Q6a & Q8; 2005 P2 Q7; 2004 P2 Q7c; 2003 P2 Q7a-b 1.2 Biological molecules* Key idea 1: Types and Features Key idea 2: Named Examples GCE A level practice questions: 2011 P2 Q6a-b; 2010 P2 Q7; 2007 P2 Q8; 2006 P2 Q8; 2005 P2 Q1a-d; 2004 P2 Q7b; 2003 P2 Q1 1.3 Enzymes* Key idea 1: Mode and Specificity of Action Key idea 2: Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Key idea 3: Enzyme Inhibitors GCE A level practice questions: 2009 P2 Q8; 2005 P2 Q8; 2006 P2 Q2; 2004 P2 Q2; 2003 P2 Q10; 1.3 Nuclear division* Key idea 1: Mitosis Key idea 2: Significance Key idea 3: Meiosis Key idea 4: Significance GCE A level practice questions: 2009 P2 Q6; 2008 P2 Q1; 2006 P2 Q9; 2004 P2 Q2 & Q8; 2003 P2 Q2 Additional Practice Questions (detailed answers in booklet) Multiple choice questions Data analysis questions Essay questions *Note: This entire topic is relevant to the H1 syllabus except for the events of meiosis. Biology Study Guide 1

2 ЯЯ Section 1.1 The Eukaryotic Cell The cell is the basic unit of life. All living organisms are made up of cells. The plasma membrane encloses the contents of the cell. In a multicellular organism, cells are differentiated and each type of cell performs a specialised function. Bio term(s): Eukaryotic cell Prokaryotic cell Organelle The eukaryotic cell differs from a prokaryotic cell as it has a distinct and possesses membrane-bound organelles. These organelles are part of the internal structure (or ultrastructure) of the cell to help it perform its specialised function well. endoplasmic reticulum mitochondrion plasma membrance endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus centriole vacuole chloroplast cell wall plasma membrane mitochondrion ƿkey ƿ idea 1 Bio term(s): Nucleus Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum Nuclear pore Cell Organelles Eukaryotic cells (i) Nucleus It is the largest organelle within the eukaryotic cell. It is enclosed with a nuclear envelope comprising of double membranes. The outer membrane is continuous with endoplasmic reticulum. Nuclear pores are present and serve as channels for molecules to move between the and cytoplasm. Nucleoplasm Mitochondria Chloroplast Within the is the semi-fluid matrix (i.e. nucleoplasm) where chromosomes are found. Most of the DNA is located in the while the rest is found in organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. 2 Cellular Functions Effective Guide Biology

3 Histone Diploid cell Nucleolus Ribosomal ribonucleic acid The chromosomes are made up of DNA associated with proteins (e.g. histones). The number of chromosomes in a cell varies according to the individual species. In humans, there are 46 chromosomes in the of a somatic cell (diploid cell) while there are 23 chromosomes in the of a gamete. Within the is one or more prominent structure(s) called the nucleolus (nucleoli). Nucleoli are responsible for the synthesis of ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rrna), which is a component of ribosomes. Chromosomes Genes The contains the hereditary material (chromosomes) of an organism. The DNA contains genes which control and direct activities of a cell by regulating protein synthesis. The division of the is part of the cell division during the growth and development of the multicellular organism. smooth endoplasmic reticulum nuclear envelope mitochondrion rough lysosome ER nucleolus Nucleus Cristae intermembrane space (ii) Mitochondrion It is bound by a double membrane. The outer membrane is smooth and continuous while the inner membrane is extensively folded to form cristae. Cristae project into the semi-fluid matrix of the mitochondrion The outer and inner membranes are separated by the intermembrane space. Effective Guide Biology Cellular Functions 3

4 Mitochondrial matrix The mitochondrial matrix contains circular DNA and 70S ribosomes. The genes within the circular DNA are expressed to produce proteins. Ribosome It is the site for cellular respiration to produce ATP. Cellular respiration matrix outer membrane inner membrane intermembrane space crista stalked particles top view side view Mitochondrion Stroma Thylakoid Grana Intergranal lamellae Photosynthesis (iv) Chloroplast It is bound by double membrane. The outer membrane is smooth and continuous while the inner membrane gives rise to membranes (i.e. thylakoids) in the semi-fluid interior stroma. The stroma contains circular DNA and 70S ribsomes. The thylakoids are stacked to form grana. The grana are joined by intergranal lamellae. Photosynthetic pigments (e.g. chlorophyll) are found on grana and intergranal lamellae. It is the site for photosynthesis where sugars and other organic molecules are made. 4 Cellular Functions Effective Guide Biology

5 inner membrane intermembrane space outer membrane chloroplast DNA stroma granum ribosome thylakoid thylakoid membrane Chloroplast (iv) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) It is bound by a single membrane. There are two types of ER the rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Two types of ER have distinct features and functions but their membranes are connected and their internal spaces are continuous. Rough ER Cisternae Smooth ER The rough ER originates from the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. It consists of a network of flattened membrane-bound sacs called cisternae. Ribosomes are attached on the outer surface of the membrane. The smooth ER consists of a series of interconnected tubules. Rough ER: It is the site for protein synthesis by the attached ribosomes and subsequent transport to the next cellular location (e.g. ). Polypeptides are also folded into their specific conformations. Smooth ER: It is the site of a variety of metabolic processes - lipid synthesis, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and poisons and storage of calcium ions required for muscle contraction. Effective Guide Biology Cellular Functions 5

6 rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) ribosomes Golgi vesicles (v) It consists of a stack of flattened membrane-bound sacs (i.e. cisternae) and associated vesicles (i.e. Golgi vesicles). Forming/cis face Maturing/trans face Cisternae are continually being formed at one end of the Golgi body (i.e. forming face or cis face). This occurs when vesicles that bud from ER fuse with the and add their content into the lumen of the Golgi body. At the other end of the organelle (i.e. maturing face or trans face), it breaks down continually as vesicles pinch off to transport the bio-molecules elsewhere. Lysosome It is the site where proteins and other bio-molecules are sorted and packaged before transportation to their cellular destinations or secretion out of the cell. At times, the proteins are further chemically modified (e.g. attachment of carbohydrate chains to form glycoproteins). Lysosomes and cell walls are also produced by the organelle. 6 Cellular Functions Effective Guide Biology

7 cis face - receiving side of transport vesicle from rough ER cisternae new vesicles forming transport vesicle from the golgi trans face - shipping side of secretory vesicle from trans face Lipase Protease Nuclease Pathogen (vi) Lysosome They are single membrane vesicles formed from Golgi body. They contain hydrolytic enzymes (e.g. lipases, proteases, nucleases). It helps to protect the organism from pathogens or derive its food source. Materials (e.g. pathogenic bacteria or food material) taken into the cell are broken down by the hydrolytic enzymes. The products of digestion are then absorbed and assimilated by cytoplasm of cell. Autophagy Autolysis It helps to break down worn-out organelles within a cell (i.e. autophagy). When a cell is damaged beyond repair or dead, the lysosomes within release their content to initiate autolysis. Effective Guide Biology Cellular Functions 7

Basic Structure of a Cell

Basic Structure of a Cell Basic Structure of a Cell Prokaryotic Cells No nucleus Archaea & Eubacteria One circular chromosome Extremely small Eukaryotic Cells Has a nucleus!!! Membrane-bound organelles Plants, Animals, Fungi, &

More information

Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell

Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell The cell is the basic unit of life Although cells differ substantially from one another, they all share certain characteristics that reflect a common ancestry and remind us

More information

Warm-Up Pairs Discuss the diagram What Where Which Why

Warm-Up Pairs Discuss the diagram What Where Which Why Warm-Up In Pairs Discuss the diagram What is it? Where does it come from? Which parts can you label? (in pencil) Why do you think you will learn about it? 5 m Eukaryote: Organelles, Structure and Function

More information

Biology: Life on Earth

Biology: Life on Earth Teresa Audesirk Gerald Audesirk Bruce E. Byers Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Lecture for Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Chapter 4 Outline 4.1 What

More information

The Cell Notes 1 of 11

The Cell Notes 1 of 11 The Cell The basic unit of structure and function in living things The smallest units in living things The smallest units in living things that show the characteristics of life Organisms can be made of

More information

Function and Illustration. Nucleus. Nucleolus. Cell membrane. Cell wall. Capsule. Mitochondrion

Function and Illustration. Nucleus. Nucleolus. Cell membrane. Cell wall. Capsule. Mitochondrion Intro to Organelles Name: Block: Organelles are small structures inside cells. They are often covered in membranes. Each organelle has a job to do in the cell. Their name means little organ. Just like

More information

Cells and Their Organelles

Cells and Their Organelles Mr. Ulrich Regents Biology Name:.. Cells and Their Organelles The cell is the basic unit of life. The following is a glossary of animal cell terms. All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. The cell

More information

Cell Structure: What cells are made of. Can you pick out the cells from this picture?

Cell Structure: What cells are made of. Can you pick out the cells from this picture? Cell Structure: What cells are made of Can you pick out the cells from this picture? Review of the cell theory Microscope was developed 1610. Anton van Leeuwenhoek saw living things in pond water. 1677

More information

The Discovery of Cells

The Discovery of Cells The Discovery of Cells Microscope observations! General Cell & Organelle Discovery 1600s Observations made by scientists using more powerful microscopes in the 1800s led to the formation of the cell theory.

More information

Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell

Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Concept 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions 1. Which two domains consist of prokaryotic cells? 2. A major difference between

More information

Cells and Their Organelles

Cells and Their Organelles Cells and Their Organelles The cell is the basic unit of life. The following is a glossary of animal cell terms. All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing

More information

Biology. 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure 10/29/2013. Eukaryotic Cell Structures

Biology. 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure 10/29/2013. Eukaryotic Cell Structures Biology Biology 1of 49 2of 49 Eukaryotic Cell Structures Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists

More information

Cell Is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life and are often called

Cell Is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life and are often called The Cell Cell Is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life and are often called the "building blocks of life". The study of

More information

Name: Date: Hour:

Name: Date: Hour: Name: Date: Hour: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Comprehension Questions 1. At what level of organization does life begin? 2. What surrounds all cells? 3. What is meant by semipermeable? 4. What 2 things make up the cell

More information

Overview of Cells. Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes The Cell Organelles The Endosymbiotic Theory

Overview of Cells. Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes The Cell Organelles The Endosymbiotic Theory Overview of Cells Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes The Cell Organelles The Endosymbiotic Theory Prokaryotic Cells Archaea Bacteria Come in many different shapes and sizes.5 µm 2 µm, up to 60 µm long Have large

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Cell Structure and Function Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live Gas exchange CO 2 & O 2 Eat (take in & digest food) Make energy ATP Build

More information

Cell Structure. Chapter 4

Cell Structure. Chapter 4 Cell Structure Chapter 4 Cell Theory Cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke. Early studies of cells were conducted by - Mathias Schleiden (1838) - Theodor Schwann (1839) Schleiden and Schwann proposed

More information

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure 1 of 49 Comparing the Cell to a Factory Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic

More information

Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell

Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell AP Biology Reading Guide Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Name Period Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry

More information

O.k., Now Starts the Good Stuff (Part II) Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function

O.k., Now Starts the Good Stuff (Part II) Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function O.k., Now Starts the Good Stuff (Part II) Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function Eukaryotic Cells These cells have membrane-bound structures called organelles. Cell processes occur in these organelles.

More information

Division Ave. High School AP Biology

Division Ave. High School AP Biology Tour of the Cell 1 Types of cells Prokaryote bacteria cells - no organelles - organelles Eukaryote animal cells Eukaryote plant cells Why organelles? Specialized structures u specialized functions cilia

More information

CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location ALL CELLS DNA Common in Animals Uncommon in Plants Lysosome

CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location ALL CELLS DNA Common in Animals Uncommon in Plants Lysosome CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location is the material that contains the Carry genetic ALL CELLS information that determines material inherited characteristics.

More information

Discovery of the Cell

Discovery of the Cell Cell Structure Discovery of the Cell Who discovered cells? 1665 Robert Hooke used a compound microscope to examine a piece of cork (20X magnification) He saw little boxes in the cork and called them cells

More information

A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells

A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells Cell Biology A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells or composed of cells. 1 The interior contents

More information

Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Chapter Notes. 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells.

Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Chapter Notes. 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Key learnings: Chapter Notes 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. 2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all

More information

Cell Theory. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century!

Cell Theory. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century! Cell Notes Cell Theory All living organisms are made of. cells The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century! In 1665,

More information

Cell Types. Prokaryotes

Cell Types. Prokaryotes Cell Types Prokaryotes before nucleus no membrane-bound nucleus only organelle present is the ribosome all other reactions occur in the cytoplasm not very efficient Ex.: bacteria 1 Cell Types Eukaryotes

More information

Components of a functional cell. Boundary-membrane Cytoplasm: Cytosol (soluble components) & particulates DNA-information Ribosomes-protein synthesis

Components of a functional cell. Boundary-membrane Cytoplasm: Cytosol (soluble components) & particulates DNA-information Ribosomes-protein synthesis Cell (Outline) - Components of a functional cell - Major Events in the History of Earth: abiotic and biotic phases; anaerobic and aerobic atmosphere - Prokaryotic cells impact on the biosphere - Origin

More information

10/1/2014. Chapter Explain why the cell is considered to be the basic unit of life.

10/1/2014. Chapter Explain why the cell is considered to be the basic unit of life. Chapter 4 PSAT $ by October by October 11 Test 3- Tuesday October 14 over Chapter 4 and 5 DFA- Monday October 20 over everything covered so far (Chapters 1-5) Review on Thursday and Friday before 1. Explain

More information

Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell

Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell 1. The study of cells has been limited by their small size, and so they were not seen and described until 1665, when Robert Hooke first looked at dead cells from an oak tree.

More information

Guided Reading Activities

Guided Reading Activities Name Period Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell Guided Reading Activities Big Idea: Introduction to the Cell Answer the following questions as you read Modules 4.1 4.4: 1. A(n) uses a beam of light to illuminate

More information

Biology 1 Notebook. Review Answers Pages 17 -?

Biology 1 Notebook. Review Answers Pages 17 -? Biology 1 Notebook Review Answers Pages 17 -? The History of Cell Studies 1. Robert Hook (1665) used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork. The little boxes he observed reminded him of the small

More information

Cell (Learning Objectives)

Cell (Learning Objectives) Cell (Learning Objectives) 1. Understand & describe the basic components necessary for a functional cell. 2. Review the order of appearance of cells on earth and explain the endosymbiotic theory. 3. Compare

More information

AS Biology Summer Work 2015

AS Biology Summer Work 2015 AS Biology Summer Work 2015 You will be following the OCR Biology A course and in preparation for this you are required to do the following for September 2015: Activity to complete Date done Purchased

More information

Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis. Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis. Enduring understanding 2.B: Growth, reproduction and dynamic

More information

Topic 3: Cells Ch. 6. Microscopes pp Microscopes. Microscopes. Microscopes. Microscopes

Topic 3: Cells Ch. 6. Microscopes pp Microscopes. Microscopes. Microscopes. Microscopes Topic 3: Cells Ch. 6 -All life is composed of cells and all cells have a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA. pp.105-107 - The development of the microscope was the key to understanding that all living

More information

Quickly Research BEFORE the Bell (Write the answers down on sheet of paper)

Quickly Research BEFORE the Bell (Write the answers down on sheet of paper) Quickly Research BEFORE the Bell (Write the answers down on sheet of paper) What are STEM cells? What can STEM cells do/become? What implications could be in our hospitals if STEM cells could be used?

More information

Unit 3: Cells. Objective: To be able to compare and contrast the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells.

Unit 3: Cells. Objective: To be able to compare and contrast the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. Unit 3: Cells Objective: To be able to compare and contrast the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells (unicellular or multicellular).

More information

Biology. Mrs. Michaelsen. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Cell size comparison. The Cell. Doing Life s Work. Hooke first viewed cork 1600 s

Biology. Mrs. Michaelsen. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Cell size comparison. The Cell. Doing Life s Work. Hooke first viewed cork 1600 s Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Cells & Cell Organelles Doing Life s Work Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell most

More information

Class XI Chapter 8 Cell The Unit of Life Biology

Class XI Chapter 8 Cell The Unit of Life Biology Question 1: Which of the following is not correct? (a) Robert Brown discovered the cell. (b) Schleiden and Schwann formulated the cell theory. (c) Virchow explained that cells are formed from pre-existing

More information

7 Characteristics of Life

7 Characteristics of Life 7 Characteristics of Life 1. Interdependence 2. Metabolism 3. Homeostasis 4. Cellular Structure and Function 5. Reproduction 6. Heredity 7. Evolution The Cell Theory All living things are composed of one

More information

A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life. B. Prokaryotic Cells. D. Organelles that Process Information. E. Organelles that Process Energy

A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life. B. Prokaryotic Cells. D. Organelles that Process Information. E. Organelles that Process Energy The Organization of Cells A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life Lecture Series 4 The Organization of Cells B. Prokaryotic Cells C. Eukaryotic Cells D. Organelles that Process Information E. Organelles that

More information

Cellular basis of life History of cell Biology Year Name of the scientist Importance

Cellular basis of life History of cell Biology Year Name of the scientist Importance Cellular basis of life History of cell Biology Year Name of the scientist Importance 1590 Jansen 1650 Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1665 Robert Hooke 1831 Matthias Schleiden 1831 Theodore Schwann 1855 Rudolf Virchow

More information

Chapter 7.2. Cell Structure

Chapter 7.2. Cell Structure Chapter 7.2 Cell Structure Daily Objectives Describe the structure and function of the cell nucleus. Describe the function and structure of membrane bound organelles found within the cell. Describe the

More information

Outline. Cell Structure and Function. Cell Theory Cell Size Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Organelles. Chapter 4

Outline. Cell Structure and Function. Cell Theory Cell Size Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Organelles. Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Chapter 4 Cell Theory Cell Size Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Organelles! Nucleus Outline! Endomembrane System! Cytoskeleton! Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella 1 2 Cell Theory

More information

The Cell: The smallest unit in living things that shows the characteristics of life; the basic building blocks of life.

The Cell: The smallest unit in living things that shows the characteristics of life; the basic building blocks of life. The Cell: The smallest unit in living things that shows the characteristics of life; the basic building blocks of life. What is a cell s function? Each cell contains information (DNA) that is used as instructions

More information

Question 1: Which of the following is not correct? (a) Robert Brown discovered the cell. (b) Schleiden and Schwann formulated the cell theory. (c) Virchow explained that cells are formed from pre-existing

More information

Cell Structure. Chapter 4. Cell Theory. Cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke.

Cell Structure. Chapter 4. Cell Theory. Cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke. Cell Structure Chapter 4 Cell Theory Cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke. Early studies of cells were conducted by - Mathias Schleiden (1838) - Theodor Schwann (1839) Schleiden and Schwann proposed

More information

A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life. B. Prokaryotic Cells. C. Eukaryotic Cells. D. Organelles that Process Information

A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life. B. Prokaryotic Cells. C. Eukaryotic Cells. D. Organelles that Process Information The Organization of Cells A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life Lecture Series 4 The Organization of Cells B. Prokaryotic Cells C. Eukaryotic Cells D. Organelles that Process Information E. Organelles that

More information

Chapter 4 A Tour of the Cell*

Chapter 4 A Tour of the Cell* Chapter 4 A Tour of the Cell* *Lecture notes are to be used as a study guide only and do not represent the comprehensive information you will need to know for the exams. The Fundamental Units of Life Cells

More information

THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE

THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE IMPORTANT TERMS: 1) Cisternae: A flattened sac like membranous structures, usually found in Golgi complex. 2) Nucleoid: The nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell containing

More information

cells - relatively simple cells - lack nuclear membrane and many organelles - bacteria and their relatives are all prokaryotic

cells - relatively simple cells - lack nuclear membrane and many organelles - bacteria and their relatives are all prokaryotic Cell Biology A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells or composed of cells. 1 The interior contents

More information

4.1 Cells are the Fundamental Units of Life. Cell Structure. Cells. Fundamental units of life Cell theory. Except possibly viruses.

4.1 Cells are the Fundamental Units of Life. Cell Structure. Cells. Fundamental units of life Cell theory. Except possibly viruses. Cells 4.1 Cells are the Fundamental Units of Life Fundamental units of life Cell theory All living things are composed of one or more cells. The cell is the most basic unit of life. All cells come from

More information

Introduction to Botany. Lecture 10

Introduction to Botany. Lecture 10 Introduction to Botany. Lecture 10 Alexey Shipunov Minot State University September 21, 2015 Shipunov (MSU) Introduction to Botany. Lecture 10 September 21, 2015 1 / 33 Outline 1 Questions and answers

More information

02/02/ Living things are organized. Analyze the functional inter-relationship of cell structures. Learning Outcome B1

02/02/ Living things are organized. Analyze the functional inter-relationship of cell structures. Learning Outcome B1 Analyze the functional inter-relationship of cell structures Learning Outcome B1 Describe the following cell structures and their functions: Cell membrane Cell wall Chloroplast Cytoskeleton Cytoplasm Golgi

More information

2011 The Simple Homeschool Simple Days Unit Studies Cells

2011 The Simple Homeschool Simple Days Unit Studies Cells 1 We have a full line of high school biology units and courses at CurrClick and as online courses! Subscribe to our interactive unit study classroom and make science fun and exciting! 2 A cell is a small

More information

CELLS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

CELLS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION CELLS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Jhia Anjela D. Rivera Department of Biological Sciences School of Science and Technology Centro Escolar University DISCOVERY OF CELLS Robert Hooke (1665): Observed a thin slice

More information

Cell Organelles. a review of structure and function

Cell Organelles. a review of structure and function Cell Organelles a review of structure and function TEKS and Student Expectations (SE s) B.4 Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized

More information

Chapter 4 Active Reading Guide A Tour of the Cell

Chapter 4 Active Reading Guide A Tour of the Cell Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 4 Active Reading Guide A Tour of the Cell Section 1 1. The study of cells has been limited by their small size, and so they were not seen and described until 1665, when

More information

Cell Theory. Cell Structure. Chapter 4. Cell is basic unit of life. Cells discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke

Cell Theory. Cell Structure. Chapter 4. Cell is basic unit of life. Cells discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke Cell Structure Chapter 4 Cell is basic unit of life Cell Theory Cells discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke Early cell studies conducted by - Mathias Schleiden (1838) - Theodor Schwann (1839) Schleiden &

More information

Cells: The Working Units of Life

Cells: The Working Units of Life 4 Cells: The Working Units of Life Chapter 4 Cells: The Working Units of Life Key Concepts 4.1 Cells Provide Compartments for Biochemical Reactions 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells Do Not Have a Nucleus 4.3 Eukaryotic

More information

Goals: Viruses: not considered alive. Living cells. Plants. Bacteria. Animals. Archae Bacteria. Protists. Fungi. The prokaryotic cell structure

Goals: Viruses: not considered alive. Living cells. Plants. Bacteria. Animals. Archae Bacteria. Protists. Fungi. The prokaryotic cell structure Goals: Identify the structures of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Identify the differences between viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes Use knowledge about differences between types of cells to solve a

More information

Cells & Cell Organelles. Doing Life s Work

Cells & Cell Organelles. Doing Life s Work Cells & Cell Organelles Doing Life s Work Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote Eukaryotes animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell most bacteria 1-10 microns eukaryotic

More information

and their organelles

and their organelles and their organelles Discovery Video: Cells REVIEW!!!! The Cell Theory 1. Every living organism is made of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function. It is the smallest

More information

Today s materials: Cell Structure and Function. 1. Prokaryote and Eukaryote 2. DNA as a blue print of life Prokaryote and Eukaryote. What is a cell?

Today s materials: Cell Structure and Function. 1. Prokaryote and Eukaryote 2. DNA as a blue print of life Prokaryote and Eukaryote. What is a cell? Today s materials: 1. Prokaryote and Eukaryote 2. DNA as a blue print of life Prokaryote and Eukaryote Achadiah Rachmawati What is a cell? Cell Structure and Function All living things are made of cells

More information

History of Cell Theory. Organization of Life

History of Cell Theory. Organization of Life History of Cell Theory Robert Hooke first observed cells while examining cork under the microscope (mid- 1600 s) Anton van Leeuwenhoek first observed microscopic organisms in pond water, as well as blood

More information

3.2. Eukaryotic Cells and Cell Organelles. Teacher Notes and Answers. section

3.2. Eukaryotic Cells and Cell Organelles. Teacher Notes and Answers. section section 3.2 Eukaryotic Cells and Cell Organelles Teacher Notes and Answers SECTION 2 Instant Replay 1. Answers will vary. An example answer is a shapeless bag. 2. store and protect the DNA 3. mitochondria

More information

BASIC BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES

BASIC BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES BASIC BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES A1 A1. Basic Biological Principles 1. Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms 2. Compare cellular structures and their function

More information

Chapter 4. Table of Contents. Section 1 The History of Cell Biology. Section 2 Introduction to Cells. Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4. Table of Contents. Section 1 The History of Cell Biology. Section 2 Introduction to Cells. Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Cell Structure and Function Table of Contents Section 1 The History of Cell Biology Section 2 Introduction to Cells Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Section

More information

Turns sunlight, water & carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into sugar & oxygen through photosynthesis

Turns sunlight, water & carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into sugar & oxygen through photosynthesis CELL PART/ ORGANELLE FUNCTION (what it does) PICTURE Plant, Animal, or Both Cell Membrane controls what goes in & out of the cell protects the cell Nucleus directs all the cell s activities contains cell

More information

Module 2: Foundations in biology

Module 2: Foundations in biology alevelbiology.co.uk Module 2: Foundations in biology SPECIFICATION 2.1.1 Cell structure Learners should be able to demonstrate and apply their knowledge and understanding of: (a) The use of microscopy

More information

Cell Organelles Tutorial

Cell Organelles Tutorial 1 Name: Cell Organelles Tutorial TEK 7.12D: Differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles, including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast,

More information

Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry

Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry Name Period Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry 1. The study of cells has been limited by their small size, and so they were

More information

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Chapter 3 Day 1

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Chapter 3 Day 1 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Chapter 3 Day 1 REVIEW: CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS 1. Made of CELLS 2. Require ENERGY (food) 3. REPRODUCE (species) 4. Maintain HOMEOSTASIS 5. ORGANIZED 6. RESPOND to

More information

UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure

UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure Page CP: CHAPTER 3, Sections 1-3; HN: CHAPTER 7, Sections 1-2 Standard B-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells and their

More information

Ask yourself. Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function. Examples of Cells. A is cell the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.

Ask yourself. Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function. Examples of Cells. A is cell the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function Ask yourself If you were a scientist living in the 1500s, what kind of questions would you ask yourself if you were the one to discover cells? Let me think. Cell Video

More information

THYLAKOID GRANUM / GRANA

THYLAKOID GRANUM / GRANA THYLAKOID GRANUM / GRANA THYLAKOID GRANUM + STACKED THYLAKOID VESICLES THYLAKOID GRANUM THYLAKOID GRANUM + STACKED THYLAKOID VESICLES --- SITE: LIGHT RXT THYLAKOID GRANUM THYLAKOID GRANUM G STACKED THYLAKOID

More information

What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms?

What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms? What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms? 1. Made of CELLS 2. Require ENERGY (food) 3. REPRODUCE (species) 4. Maintain HOMEOSTASIS 5. ORGANIZED 6. RESPOND to environment 7. GROW and DEVELOP 8. EXCHANGE

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Cell Structure and Function Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Prokaryotic cells: Pro- Before, Karyot- Center or Nucleus Very Basic Cells with no membrane bound organelles. DNA is not separate from the rest of the

More information

Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification

Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Table of Contents Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Section 1: Living Things 1- What is an organism? Any living thing is called an organism. Organisms vary in size: 1)one-celled or unicellular

More information

7.L.1.2 Plant and Animal Cells. Plant and Animal Cells

7.L.1.2 Plant and Animal Cells. Plant and Animal Cells 7.L.1.2 Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells Clarifying Objective: 7.L.1.2 Compare the structures and functions of plant and animal cells; include major organelles (cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus,

More information

Honors Biology-CW/HW Cell Biology 2018

Honors Biology-CW/HW Cell Biology 2018 Class: Date: Honors Biology-CW/HW Cell Biology 2018 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Hooke s discovery of cells was made observing a. living

More information

Y1 Biology 131 Syllabus - Academic Year (1st Semester)

Y1 Biology 131 Syllabus - Academic Year (1st Semester) Y1 Biology 131 Syllabus - Academic Year 2015-2016 (1st Semester) Day Date Topic Page No. Tuesday 20 September 2016 Cell and Cell Organelles CMB 47-53 Wednesday 21 September 2016 Biological Membranes CMB

More information

Cell Theory and Structure. Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles

Cell Theory and Structure. Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles Cell Theory and Structure Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles Discoveries In 1665 Robert Hooke observed a thin slice of cork from an oak tree What he saw reminded him of

More information

The Unity of Life. All living things are made up of small individual units called cells.

The Unity of Life. All living things are made up of small individual units called cells. The Unity of Life All living things are made up of small individual units called cells. Robert Hooke (1600 s) - examined slices of cork with a magnifying glass and observed box-like structures which he

More information

Basic Structure of a Cell

Basic Structure of a Cell Basic Structure of a Cell 1 Nonliving Levels ATOMS MOLECULES ORGANELLES 2 Living Levels CELLS life starts here TISSUES Similar cells working together 3 More Living Levels ORGANS ORGAN SYSTEMS ORGANISM

More information

Introduction to Cells. Intro to Cells. Scientists who contributed to cell theory. Cell Theory. There are 2 types of cells: All Cells:

Introduction to Cells. Intro to Cells. Scientists who contributed to cell theory. Cell Theory. There are 2 types of cells: All Cells: Intro to Cells Key Concept: Cells are the basic unit of life. Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of cells: 1 Animal Cell

More information

Introduction to Botany. Lecture 3

Introduction to Botany. Lecture 3 Introduction to Botany. Lecture 3 Alexey Shipunov Minot State University August 30th, 2010 Taxonomic pyramid Monday test Name at least one function of proteins in plasma membrane Monday test What will

More information

Complete the table by stating the function associated with each organelle. contains the genetic material.... lysosome ribosome... Table 6.

Complete the table by stating the function associated with each organelle. contains the genetic material.... lysosome ribosome... Table 6. 1 (a) Table 6.1 gives the functions of certain organelles in a eukaryotic cell. Complete the table by stating the function associated with each organelle. The first row has been completed for you. Organelle

More information

Chapter Life Is Cellular

Chapter Life Is Cellular Chapter 7 7-1 Life Is Cellular The Discovery of the Cell Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a single-lens microscope to observe tiny little organisms in pond water. The Discovery of the Cell In 1665, Robert Hooke

More information

Eukaryotic Cell Structure. 7.2 Biology Mr. Hines

Eukaryotic Cell Structure. 7.2 Biology Mr. Hines Eukaryotic Cell Structure 7.2 Biology Mr. Hines Comparing the cell to a factory In order for a cell to maintain its internal environment (homeostasis), many things must go on. This is similar to a factory.

More information

CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION 7-1 Life Is Cellular CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Discovery of the Cell 1665: Robert Hooke used an early compound microscope to look at a thin slice of cork. Cork looked

More information

2. small / 70s ribosomes box; (2) Feature also present ( ) or absent ( ) in chloroplasts

2. small / 70s ribosomes box; (2) Feature also present ( ) or absent ( ) in chloroplasts 1(a)(i) 1. circular DNA box ; 2. small / 70s ribosomes box; (2) 1(a)(ii) Features present in mitochondria Surrounded by a double membrane Feature also present () or absent () in chloroplasts Crista present

More information

Lecture Series 3 The Organization of Cells

Lecture Series 3 The Organization of Cells Lecture Series 3 The Organization of Cells Reading Assignments Read Chapter 15 Endomembrane System Read Chapter 17 Cytoskeleton A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life Cell Theory: All cells come from preexisting

More information

Reading Assignments. A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life. Lecture Series 3 The Organization of Cells

Reading Assignments. A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life. Lecture Series 3 The Organization of Cells Lecture Series 3 The Organization of Cells Reading Assignments Read Chapter 15 Endomembrane System Read Chapter 17 Cytoskeleton A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life Cell Theory: All cells come from preexisting

More information

Introduction to Botany

Introduction to Botany Introduction to Botany Alexey Shipunov Minot State University Lecture 13 Shipunov (MSU) Introduction to Botany Lecture 13 1 / 27 Outline 1 Questions and answers Quiz 2 Plant cell Cell boundaries Protein

More information

Chapter-8 CELL : THE UNIT OF LIFE

Chapter-8 CELL : THE UNIT OF LIFE Chapter-8 CELL : THE UNIT OF LIFE POINTS TO REMEMBER Gram positive bacteria : Bacteria that take up gram stain. Gram negative bacteria : Bacteria that do not take up gram stain. Prokaryotic cells : Cells

More information