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1 Eukaryotes Class Work 1. What does the word eukaryote mean? 2. What is the one major difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes? 3. List the different kingdoms of the eukaryote domain in the order in which they evolved. 4. Provide an example for each kingdom of eukaryote. 5. Describe why a smaller cell is more efficient than a larger cell. 6. List the 4 structures that all cells have. 7. Aside from the presence of a nucleus, identify two other differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. 8. What allowed eukaryotes to evolve as larger cells, but still maintain the efficiency of smaller cells? 9. Identify the procedure that allows a scientist to separate out the organelles from a eukaryotic cell. Class Work 10. What type of cell contains a nucleus? 11. What important information is contained in the nucleus? 12. Compare where the DNA of a prokaryotic cell is located vs. where the DNA of a eukaryotic cell is located. 13. Describe the structure of a ribosome. 14. Describe the function of a ribosome. 15. List the organelles that make up the endomembrane system. 16. Describe the location of the endoplasmic reticulum? 17. Describe the function of the smooth E.R. 18. What is a transport vesicle made of? 19. Describe the role of glycoproteins. 20. How is the nucleus able to control the other activities of the cell? 21. What is a nickname for the nucleus? 22. Describe the relationship between the nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, and nucleolus. 23. Compare the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genetic material. 24. List and describe the three main functions of the nucleus. 25. How are ribosomes made? 26. What is an appropriate nickname for ribosomes? 27. Describe the structural difference between the smooth and rough E.R. 28. What processes occur within the rough E.R.? 29. Describe the function of a transport vesicle. 30. Where is insulin made?

2 Class Work 31. Describe the function of the Golgi apparatus? 32. How do proteins travel from the E.R. to the Golgi apparatus? 33. After proteins are modified in the Golgi apparatus and packaged in transport vesicles, what happens to these proteins? 34. Describe the structure of a lysosome. 35. What happens when damaged organelles enclosed within membranous vesicles fuse with lysosomes? 36. What type of organelle is a peroxisome? 37. What is an appropriate nickname for the Golgi apparatus? 38. Although some proteins remain in the cell, sequence the path of newly made proteins from the ribosomes to the outside of the cell. 39. Describe the function of a lysosome. 40. What is an appropriate nickname for lysosomes? 41. Describe what occurs when a lysosome binds with a food vacuole. 42. Why are peroxisomes necessary for cells to have? 43. Why might packets of proteins collected by the Golgi apparatus merge with lysosomes? 44. What is the importance of a cell enclosing its digestive enzymes inside lysosomes? Class Work 45. True of False: Vacuoles come in one size and are surrounded by a membrane. 46. List the three types of vacuoles. 47. In what type of cell would a central vacuole be found and what does it store? 48. In what type of organisms would contractile vacuoles be found? 49. Describe the function of a contractile vacuole. 50. In what type of organism would a food vacuole typically be found? 51. What is the role of mitochondria and chloroplasts in the cell? 52. What important cellular process occurs in mitochondria? 53. What important cellular process occurs in chloroplasts? 54. Describe the difference in location of the inter-membrane space of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. 55. Who is the Mitochondrial Eve? 56. Describe how a central vacuole is related to the osmotic pressure and shape of a plant cell. 57. In addition to water storage, what other molecules do central vacuoles store? 58. Food vacuoles are formed through phagocytosis and then fuse to which organelle? 59. Compare the number of vacuoles in plant and animal cells. 60. In what type of cells can mitochondria be found? 61. In what type of cells can chloroplasts be found?

3 62. What is a nickname for mitochondria? 63. Explain the characteristics of mitochondria and chloroplasts that separate them from the organelles in the endomembrane system. 64. Describe two common characteristics of chloroplasts and mitochondria. 65. Predict whether you would expect muscle cells or fat cells to contain more mitochondria and explain why. 66. Explain why mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from your mother. Class Work 67. Where is the cytoskeleton found and what is its function? 68. Describe the structure of the plasma membrane. 69. Describe the functions of the plasma membrane. 70. Identify three forms of passive transport across the plasma membrane. 71. What is the direction of movement of materials during exocytosis? 72. From what does the vesicle for endocytosis form? 73. What is the difference between phagocytosis and pinocytosis? 74. Describe receptor-mediated endocytosis. 75. List the three fibers that make up cytoskeleton. 76. Describe the location of the plasma membrane. 77. Identify three forms of active transport of large molecules across the plasma membrane. 78. How does active transport differ from passive transport? 79. What happens to the vesicle after exocytosis? 80. What is the direction of movement of materials during endocytosis? 81. Describe how secretory proteins exit the cell. 82. What type of molecules would be likely to cross the plasma membrane by exocytosis? 83. What is the nickname for phagocytosis? 84. What is the nickname for pinocytosis? Class Work 85. What types of cells contain cell walls? 86. From what polysaccharide are the cell walls of fungi formed? 87. The plant cell wall is comparable to what structure in an animal cell? 88. Describe the function of cell surfaces. 89. What type of junction can be found in plants? 90. The direct cytoplasmic connection in animal cells is known as what type of junction? 91. List three organelles found only in plant cells. 92. Explain the endosymbiotic theory. 93. Describe what is unique about the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts even though they are found in eukaryotic cells.

4 94. Describe the location and function of a cell wall. 95. From what polysaccharide are the cell walls of a plant formed? 96. List some of the functions of the extracellular matrix. 97. What molecules is the extracellular matrix composed of? 98. What can be shared through plasmodesmata? 99. Identify and describe the three types of junctions found in animal cells What two organelles are used to support the endosymbiotic theory? 101. Provide evidence for the theory of endosymbiosis. Free Response 1. A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presence of membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotes. a. Describe the structure and function of two eukaryotic organelles other than the nucleus. b. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane bound organelles in common. Describe the function of DNA and discuss how it differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. c. Explain the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic cells and discuss and example of evidence supporting this theory. 2. Membranes are essential components of all cells. a. Identify three macromolecules that are components of a eukaryotic cell membrane and discuss the structure and function of each. b. Explain how membranes participate in the chemiosmotic production of ATP. c. Explain how membranes participate in intracellular signaling. 3. A scientist is given a cell sample and asked to identify what type of cell they are looking at. a. Provide a brief explanation of how the scientist can begin to decide what type of cell they are looking at. b. Describe how the scientist can differentiate between a eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell. c. Describe how the scientist can distinguish between a plant and an animal cell. 4. The nucleus is a distinguishing feature of the eukaryotic cell. a. Draw the nucleus and label the nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, nucleolus, and DNA. b. Describe the relationship between each of the parts you labeled on the nucleus. c. Describe the steps in the production of protein and the organelles involved in the production and excretion of the protein from the cell. Answers

5 1. True Nucleus 2. Eukaryotes have a nucleus 3. Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals 4. Algae, moss, mushroom, human 5. Has a larger surface area to volume ratio, which allows for needed materials to travel within the cell faster and allows waste to be removed faster. 6. Cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, chromosomes 7. Membrane bound organelles and eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells 8. Compartmentalization or development of organelles 9. Cell fractionation 10. Eukaryotic cell 11. Genetic information 12. The DNA of a prokaryotic cell is found in the nucleoid and the DNA of a eukaryotic cell is found in the nucleus. 13. Ribosomes are made of RNA and protein and have two subunits: a large subunit and a small subunit 14. Ribosomes are the site where translation occurs and proteins are synthesized 15. Nucleus, rough and smooth ER, Golgi body, lysosomes, nuclear envelope, and plasma membrane 16. The ER is located just outside the nucleus and is connected to the nuclear envelope 17. The smooth ER serves as the site for lipid synthesis, absorbs drugs and poisons, and stores calcium ions 18. Made of membranes from the ER 19. Glycoproteins are short sugar chains that help to designate the location for where proteins will go 20. Directs protein synthesis through the DNA 21. Control Center 22. The nucleolus is the dense region in the center of the nucleus where rrna is made and ribosomes are assembled. The nucleolus is surrounded by the nuclear envelope, which contains nuclear pores that allow the ribosomes and RNA to exit the nucleus and enter the ER. 23. Prokaryotic genetic material such as that of bacteria is found in a single circular chromosome. Eukaryotic genetic material is found in the form of chromatin which is a lot of densely packed DNA wrapped around proteins. 24. To assemble ribosomes, serve as the site for transcription, and to protect the DNA and pass it on through cell division. 25. DNA holds the code for the creation of rrna and ribosomal proteins which are created through the processes of transcription and translation 26. Protein Factories 27. The smooth ER does not have ribosomes attached to it and the rough ER does. 28. The protein making ribosomes can be found in the rough ER. The rough ER then processes and folds these proteins and sometimes attaches glycoproteins before enclosing

6 the proteins in transport vesicles. 29. Transport vesicles are used to carry proteins from one location to another. 30. In the rough ER 31. The Golgi apparatus modifies the proteins to mark them for where they will be going and packages them into new transport vesicles. 32. In transport vesicles 33. They travel to other organelles such as the plasma membrane, lysosomes, or are excreted from the cell. 34. Lysosomes are hydrolytic enzymes enclosed in a membrane. 35. The hydrolytic enzymes inside the lysosome break down the damaged organelles and the components are then released back into the cell where they can be reused. 36. Peroxisomes are a specific kind of lysosome that break down hydrogen peroxide. 37. Post Office or Packaging Center 38. Newly made proteins leave the ribosomes, go to rough ER, then are transported via transport vesicles to the Golgi, they are then transported again through transport vesicles to the plasma membrane and released to the outside of the cell. 39. Lysosomes serve to digest food and other molecules. 40. Digestive center or stomach 41. The hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the food and release nutrients into the cell. 42. Hydrogen peroxide is toxic to cells and formed as a byproduct of metabolism therefore it cannot be avoided nor can it be allowed to accumulate. 43. The packets of proteins could be the digestive enzymes. 44. The digestive enzymes are then stopped from breaking down other parts of the cell and causing damage to the cell. 45. False, vacuoles come in many different sizes and are surrounded by a membrane. 46. Central, contractile, food 47. Plant; water 48. Single celled organisms 49. Act as a pump to expel excess water 50. Protists 51. Mitochondria produce energy for the cell in the form of ATP and chloroplasts store energy for the cell in the form of glucose. 52. Cell Respiration 53. Photosynthesis 54. The inter-membrane space in eukaryotes is between the inner and outer membrane of the mitochondria. The inter membrane space in prokaryotes is between the cell membrane and cell wall. 55. The first human female 56. The central vacuole is the place in plant cells where water is stored. As water in the cell increases, the central vacuole expands and increases turgor pressure and results in a firmer cell. When the water in the cell decreases the central vacuole shrinks and the cell loses turgor pressure resulting in shrinking or shriveling of the cell.

7 57. Essential chemicals, pigments, waste 58. Lysosomes 59. More vacuoles are found in the animal cell. 60. Eukaryotic Cells (both plant and animal) 61. Plant Cells 62. Powerhouse 63. They each have a double membrane. 64. They each have their own DNA and a double membrane 65. Muscle cells since they perform more work 66. When a sperm cell and an egg cell merge, the sperm only contributes DNA therefore all of the organelles come from the egg cell. 67. The cytoskeleton branches throughout the cytoplasm. Its function is to provide mechanical support and movement for the cell. 68. Phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded throughout 69. They provide protection and support for the cell. They also are selectively permeable so they allow materials to enter and leave the cell. 70. Diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion 71. From inside the cell to outside the cell. 72. From the plasma membrane 73. Phagocytosis is for large solid molecules and pinocytosis is for liquid molecules 74. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is when particles are taken into the cell within a protein-coated vesicle. 75. Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules 76. Around the outside of the cell, enclosing the cytoplasm and other organelles. 77. Exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis 78. Active transport is the movement of molecules against their concentration gradient with the use of energy. 79. It is incorporated into the plasma membrane 80. From outside the cell to the inside 81. They are carried to the plasma membrane through transport vesicles or more specifically secretory vesicles and then released to the outside of the cell through exocytosis. 82. Proteins and wastes that are too large to diffuse across the membrane 83. Cell eating 84. Cell drinking 85. Plant Cells and Fungi 86. Chitin 87. Extracellular matrix 88. Protection, support, joining of cells 89. Plasmodesmata 90. Gap Junction 91. Cell Wall, Central Vacuole, Chloroplast 92. This theory says that chloroplasts and mitochondria were previously independent prokaryotic cells that were engulfed by another prokaryotic cell and then evolved into eukaryotic cells. 93. Their DNA is more similar to that of a bacterial cell than a eukaryotic cell 94. The cell wall is located outside the cell membrane in plant and fungus cells. It provides

8 protection and support for the cell. 95. Cellulose 96. Support, anchorage, and communication between cells 97. Proteins and carbohydrates 98. Water, food, and chemical messages 99. Tight junctions- bind cells together into leak proof sheets. Adhering junctions- somewhat leakproof. Gap junctions- allow substances to flow freely between cells Chloroplasts & Mitochondria 101. Chloroplasts and mitochondria cannot form spontaneously but only from pre-existing chloroplasts and mitochondria. The DNA of chloroplasts and mitochondria are both a single circular loop and resemble that of bacteria. The protein-making machinery of mitochondria and chloroplasts are most like that of bacteria and not eukaryotes.

9 Free Response Answers a. Any two organelles from the notebook, other than the nucleus, along with their structure and function would be appropriate. b. The function of DNA in both is the same: to store, protect, and transmit genetic information and to code for proteins. Prokaryotic DNA is a single, circular chromosome found in the cells cytoplasm. Eukaryotic DNA is a large, linear molecule that is densely packed and found within the nucleus. c. Chloroplasts and/or mitochondria were independent prokaryotic cells that were engulfed by another prokaryotic cell and formed a symbiotic relationship allowing for the evolution of eukaryotic cells. Evidence includes that mitochondria and chloroplast have their own DNA, own ribosomes, and double membranes. They also are similar in size to prokaryotic cells. a. Phospholipids- glycerol with two fatty acid chains, hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic head. Act as a barrier between the cell and the environment; selectively permeable. Proteins- made of amino acidshave primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure. Can be found as integral or transmembrane proteins. Allow for transport of materials, attachment, recognition, and formation of cell junctions. Glycoproteins- made of carbohydrate chains, function in cell recognition and attachment. b. During the electron transport chain in cell respiration and photosynthesis, protons are pumped across the membrane of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and prokaryotic cell membranes creating a gradient. The protons then move down their gradient through ATP synthase, which allows for the chemiosmotic processing of ATP. c. Formation of plasmodesmata in plant cells and gap junctions in animal cells allow these cells to share water, food, and chemical messages. a. By preparing a slide and examining it under the microscope. b. A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles, a prokaryotic cell does not. c. A plant cell will have a cell wall, central vacuole, and chloroplasts. An animal cell has none of these things. a. See notebook for correct drawing/labeling.

10 b. The nucleolus is the densely packed region of the nucleus that contains the DNA and is surrounded by the nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope contains nuclear pores from which the RNA and ribosomes created through transcription can exit the nucleus. c. The DNA is transcribed in the nucleus. The RNA exits the nucleus through the nuclear pores and is translated into protein by the ribosomes of the rough ER. The rough ER modifies the protein and sends it to the Golgi in transport vesicles. The Golgi marks, sorts, and packages the protein and it is then put in transport vesicles that travel to the plasma membrane. At the membrane, the vesicle binds with and becomes incorporated into the membrane while simultaneously releasing its contents outside of the cell, this is known as exocytosis.

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