Class Work 31. Describe the function of the Golgi apparatus? 32. How do proteins travel from the E.R. to the Golgi apparatus? 33. After proteins are m

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Class Work 31. Describe the function of the Golgi apparatus? 32. How do proteins travel from the E.R. to the Golgi apparatus? 33. After proteins are m"

Transcription

1 Eukaryotes Class Work 1. What does the word eukaryote mean? 2. What is the one major difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes? 3. List the different kingdoms of the eukaryote domain in the order in which they evolved. 4. Provide an example for each kingdom of eukaryote. 5. Describe why a smaller cell is more efficient than a larger cell. 6. List the 4 structures that all cells have. 7. Aside from the presence of a nucleus, identify two other differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. 8. What allowed eukaryotes to evolve as larger cells, but still maintain the efficiency of smaller cells? 9. Identify the procedure that allows a scientist to separate out the organelles from a eukaryotic cell. Class Work 10. What type of cell contains a nucleus? 11. What important information is contained in the nucleus? 12. Compare where the DNA of a prokaryotic cell is located vs. where the DNA of a eukaryotic cell is located. 13. Describe the structure of a ribosome. 14. Describe the function of a ribosome. 15. List the organelles that make up the endomembrane system. 16. Describe the location of the endoplasmic reticulum? 17. Describe the function of the smooth E.R. 18. What is a transport vesicle made of? 19. Describe the role of glycoproteins. 20. How is the nucleus able to control the other activities of the cell? 21. What is a nickname for the nucleus? 22. Describe the relationship between the nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, and nucleolus. 23. Compare the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genetic material. 24. List and describe the three main functions of the nucleus. 25. How are ribosomes made? 26. What is an appropriate nickname for ribosomes? 27. Describe the structural difference between the smooth and rough E.R. 28. What processes occur within the rough E.R.? 29. Describe the function of a transport vesicle. 30. Where is insulin made?

2 Class Work 31. Describe the function of the Golgi apparatus? 32. How do proteins travel from the E.R. to the Golgi apparatus? 33. After proteins are modified in the Golgi apparatus and packaged in transport vesicles, what happens to these proteins? 34. Describe the structure of a lysosome. 35. What happens when damaged organelles enclosed within membranous vesicles fuse with lysosomes? 36. What type of organelle is a peroxisome? 37. What is an appropriate nickname for the Golgi apparatus? 38. Although some proteins remain in the cell, sequence the path of newly made proteins from the ribosomes to the outside of the cell. 39. Describe the function of a lysosome. 40. What is an appropriate nickname for lysosomes? 41. Describe what occurs when a lysosome binds with a food vacuole. 42. Why are peroxisomes necessary for cells to have? 43. Why might packets of proteins collected by the Golgi apparatus merge with lysosomes? 44. What is the importance of a cell enclosing its digestive enzymes inside lysosomes? Class Work 45. True of False: Vacuoles come in one size and are surrounded by a membrane. 46. List the three types of vacuoles. 47. In what type of cell would a central vacuole be found and what does it store? 48. In what type of organisms would contractile vacuoles be found? 49. Describe the function of a contractile vacuole. 50. In what type of organism would a food vacuole typically be found? 51. What is the role of mitochondria and chloroplasts in the cell? 52. What important cellular process occurs in mitochondria? 53. What important cellular process occurs in chloroplasts? 54. Describe the difference in location of the inter-membrane space of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. 55. Who is the Mitochondrial Eve? 56. Describe how a central vacuole is related to the osmotic pressure and shape of a plant cell. 57. In addition to water storage, what other molecules do central vacuoles store? 58. Food vacuoles are formed through phagocytosis and then fuse to which organelle? 59. Compare the number of vacuoles in plant and animal cells. 60. In what type of cells can mitochondria be found? 61. In what type of cells can chloroplasts be found?

3 62. What is a nickname for mitochondria? 63. Explain the characteristics of mitochondria and chloroplasts that separate them from the organelles in the endomembrane system. 64. Describe two common characteristics of chloroplasts and mitochondria. 65. Predict whether you would expect muscle cells or fat cells to contain more mitochondria and explain why. 66. Explain why mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from your mother. Class Work 67. Where is the cytoskeleton found and what is its function? 68. Describe the structure of the plasma membrane. 69. Describe the functions of the plasma membrane. 70. Identify three forms of passive transport across the plasma membrane. 71. What is the direction of movement of materials during exocytosis? 72. From what does the vesicle for endocytosis form? 73. What is the difference between phagocytosis and pinocytosis? 74. Describe receptor-mediated endocytosis. 75. List the three fibers that make up cytoskeleton. 76. Describe the location of the plasma membrane. 77. Identify three forms of active transport of large molecules across the plasma membrane. 78. How does active transport differ from passive transport? 79. What happens to the vesicle after exocytosis? 80. What is the direction of movement of materials during endocytosis? 81. Describe how secretory proteins exit the cell. 82. What type of molecules would be likely to cross the plasma membrane by exocytosis? 83. What is the nickname for phagocytosis? 84. What is the nickname for pinocytosis? Class Work 85. What types of cells contain cell walls? 86. From what polysaccharide are the cell walls of fungi formed? 87. The plant cell wall is comparable to what structure in an animal cell? 88. Describe the function of cell surfaces. 89. What type of junction can be found in plants? 90. The direct cytoplasmic connection in animal cells is known as what type of junction? 91. List three organelles found only in plant cells. 92. Explain the endosymbiotic theory. 93. Describe what is unique about the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts even though they are found in eukaryotic cells.

4 94. Describe the location and function of a cell wall. 95. From what polysaccharide are the cell walls of a plant formed? 96. List some of the functions of the extracellular matrix. 97. What molecules is the extracellular matrix composed of? 98. What can be shared through plasmodesmata? 99. Identify and describe the three types of junctions found in animal cells What two organelles are used to support the endosymbiotic theory? 101. Provide evidence for the theory of endosymbiosis. Free Response 1. A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presence of membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotes. a. Describe the structure and function of two eukaryotic organelles other than the nucleus. b. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane bound organelles in common. Describe the function of DNA and discuss how it differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. c. Explain the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic cells and discuss and example of evidence supporting this theory. 2. Membranes are essential components of all cells. a. Identify three macromolecules that are components of a eukaryotic cell membrane and discuss the structure and function of each. b. Explain how membranes participate in the chemiosmotic production of ATP. c. Explain how membranes participate in intracellular signaling. 3. A scientist is given a cell sample and asked to identify what type of cell they are looking at. a. Provide a brief explanation of how the scientist can begin to decide what type of cell they are looking at. b. Describe how the scientist can differentiate between a eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell. c. Describe how the scientist can distinguish between a plant and an animal cell. 4. The nucleus is a distinguishing feature of the eukaryotic cell. a. Draw the nucleus and label the nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, nucleolus, and DNA. b. Describe the relationship between each of the parts you labeled on the nucleus. c. Describe the steps in the production of protein and the organelles involved in the production and excretion of the protein from the cell. Answers

5 1. True Nucleus 2. Eukaryotes have a nucleus 3. Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals 4. Algae, moss, mushroom, human 5. Has a larger surface area to volume ratio, which allows for needed materials to travel within the cell faster and allows waste to be removed faster. 6. Cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, chromosomes 7. Membrane bound organelles and eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells 8. Compartmentalization or development of organelles 9. Cell fractionation 10. Eukaryotic cell 11. Genetic information 12. The DNA of a prokaryotic cell is found in the nucleoid and the DNA of a eukaryotic cell is found in the nucleus. 13. Ribosomes are made of RNA and protein and have two subunits: a large subunit and a small subunit 14. Ribosomes are the site where translation occurs and proteins are synthesized 15. Nucleus, rough and smooth ER, Golgi body, lysosomes, nuclear envelope, and plasma membrane 16. The ER is located just outside the nucleus and is connected to the nuclear envelope 17. The smooth ER serves as the site for lipid synthesis, absorbs drugs and poisons, and stores calcium ions 18. Made of membranes from the ER 19. Glycoproteins are short sugar chains that help to designate the location for where proteins will go 20. Directs protein synthesis through the DNA 21. Control Center 22. The nucleolus is the dense region in the center of the nucleus where rrna is made and ribosomes are assembled. The nucleolus is surrounded by the nuclear envelope, which contains nuclear pores that allow the ribosomes and RNA to exit the nucleus and enter the ER. 23. Prokaryotic genetic material such as that of bacteria is found in a single circular chromosome. Eukaryotic genetic material is found in the form of chromatin which is a lot of densely packed DNA wrapped around proteins. 24. To assemble ribosomes, serve as the site for transcription, and to protect the DNA and pass it on through cell division. 25. DNA holds the code for the creation of rrna and ribosomal proteins which are created through the processes of transcription and translation 26. Protein Factories 27. The smooth ER does not have ribosomes attached to it and the rough ER does. 28. The protein making ribosomes can be found in the rough ER. The rough ER then processes and folds these proteins and sometimes attaches glycoproteins before enclosing

6 the proteins in transport vesicles. 29. Transport vesicles are used to carry proteins from one location to another. 30. In the rough ER 31. The Golgi apparatus modifies the proteins to mark them for where they will be going and packages them into new transport vesicles. 32. In transport vesicles 33. They travel to other organelles such as the plasma membrane, lysosomes, or are excreted from the cell. 34. Lysosomes are hydrolytic enzymes enclosed in a membrane. 35. The hydrolytic enzymes inside the lysosome break down the damaged organelles and the components are then released back into the cell where they can be reused. 36. Peroxisomes are a specific kind of lysosome that break down hydrogen peroxide. 37. Post Office or Packaging Center 38. Newly made proteins leave the ribosomes, go to rough ER, then are transported via transport vesicles to the Golgi, they are then transported again through transport vesicles to the plasma membrane and released to the outside of the cell. 39. Lysosomes serve to digest food and other molecules. 40. Digestive center or stomach 41. The hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the food and release nutrients into the cell. 42. Hydrogen peroxide is toxic to cells and formed as a byproduct of metabolism therefore it cannot be avoided nor can it be allowed to accumulate. 43. The packets of proteins could be the digestive enzymes. 44. The digestive enzymes are then stopped from breaking down other parts of the cell and causing damage to the cell. 45. False, vacuoles come in many different sizes and are surrounded by a membrane. 46. Central, contractile, food 47. Plant; water 48. Single celled organisms 49. Act as a pump to expel excess water 50. Protists 51. Mitochondria produce energy for the cell in the form of ATP and chloroplasts store energy for the cell in the form of glucose. 52. Cell Respiration 53. Photosynthesis 54. The inter-membrane space in eukaryotes is between the inner and outer membrane of the mitochondria. The inter membrane space in prokaryotes is between the cell membrane and cell wall. 55. The first human female 56. The central vacuole is the place in plant cells where water is stored. As water in the cell increases, the central vacuole expands and increases turgor pressure and results in a firmer cell. When the water in the cell decreases the central vacuole shrinks and the cell loses turgor pressure resulting in shrinking or shriveling of the cell.

7 57. Essential chemicals, pigments, waste 58. Lysosomes 59. More vacuoles are found in the animal cell. 60. Eukaryotic Cells (both plant and animal) 61. Plant Cells 62. Powerhouse 63. They each have a double membrane. 64. They each have their own DNA and a double membrane 65. Muscle cells since they perform more work 66. When a sperm cell and an egg cell merge, the sperm only contributes DNA therefore all of the organelles come from the egg cell. 67. The cytoskeleton branches throughout the cytoplasm. Its function is to provide mechanical support and movement for the cell. 68. Phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded throughout 69. They provide protection and support for the cell. They also are selectively permeable so they allow materials to enter and leave the cell. 70. Diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion 71. From inside the cell to outside the cell. 72. From the plasma membrane 73. Phagocytosis is for large solid molecules and pinocytosis is for liquid molecules 74. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is when particles are taken into the cell within a protein-coated vesicle. 75. Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules 76. Around the outside of the cell, enclosing the cytoplasm and other organelles. 77. Exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis 78. Active transport is the movement of molecules against their concentration gradient with the use of energy. 79. It is incorporated into the plasma membrane 80. From outside the cell to the inside 81. They are carried to the plasma membrane through transport vesicles or more specifically secretory vesicles and then released to the outside of the cell through exocytosis. 82. Proteins and wastes that are too large to diffuse across the membrane 83. Cell eating 84. Cell drinking 85. Plant Cells and Fungi 86. Chitin 87. Extracellular matrix 88. Protection, support, joining of cells 89. Plasmodesmata 90. Gap Junction 91. Cell Wall, Central Vacuole, Chloroplast 92. This theory says that chloroplasts and mitochondria were previously independent prokaryotic cells that were engulfed by another prokaryotic cell and then evolved into eukaryotic cells. 93. Their DNA is more similar to that of a bacterial cell than a eukaryotic cell 94. The cell wall is located outside the cell membrane in plant and fungus cells. It provides

8 protection and support for the cell. 95. Cellulose 96. Support, anchorage, and communication between cells 97. Proteins and carbohydrates 98. Water, food, and chemical messages 99. Tight junctions- bind cells together into leak proof sheets. Adhering junctions- somewhat leakproof. Gap junctions- allow substances to flow freely between cells Chloroplasts & Mitochondria 101. Chloroplasts and mitochondria cannot form spontaneously but only from pre-existing chloroplasts and mitochondria. The DNA of chloroplasts and mitochondria are both a single circular loop and resemble that of bacteria. The protein-making machinery of mitochondria and chloroplasts are most like that of bacteria and not eukaryotes.

9 Free Response Answers a. Any two organelles from the notebook, other than the nucleus, along with their structure and function would be appropriate. b. The function of DNA in both is the same: to store, protect, and transmit genetic information and to code for proteins. Prokaryotic DNA is a single, circular chromosome found in the cells cytoplasm. Eukaryotic DNA is a large, linear molecule that is densely packed and found within the nucleus. c. Chloroplasts and/or mitochondria were independent prokaryotic cells that were engulfed by another prokaryotic cell and formed a symbiotic relationship allowing for the evolution of eukaryotic cells. Evidence includes that mitochondria and chloroplast have their own DNA, own ribosomes, and double membranes. They also are similar in size to prokaryotic cells. a. Phospholipids- glycerol with two fatty acid chains, hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic head. Act as a barrier between the cell and the environment; selectively permeable. Proteins- made of amino acidshave primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure. Can be found as integral or transmembrane proteins. Allow for transport of materials, attachment, recognition, and formation of cell junctions. Glycoproteins- made of carbohydrate chains, function in cell recognition and attachment. b. During the electron transport chain in cell respiration and photosynthesis, protons are pumped across the membrane of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and prokaryotic cell membranes creating a gradient. The protons then move down their gradient through ATP synthase, which allows for the chemiosmotic processing of ATP. c. Formation of plasmodesmata in plant cells and gap junctions in animal cells allow these cells to share water, food, and chemical messages. a. By preparing a slide and examining it under the microscope. b. A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles, a prokaryotic cell does not. c. A plant cell will have a cell wall, central vacuole, and chloroplasts. An animal cell has none of these things. a. See notebook for correct drawing/labeling.

10 b. The nucleolus is the densely packed region of the nucleus that contains the DNA and is surrounded by the nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope contains nuclear pores from which the RNA and ribosomes created through transcription can exit the nucleus. c. The DNA is transcribed in the nucleus. The RNA exits the nucleus through the nuclear pores and is translated into protein by the ribosomes of the rough ER. The rough ER modifies the protein and sends it to the Golgi in transport vesicles. The Golgi marks, sorts, and packages the protein and it is then put in transport vesicles that travel to the plasma membrane. At the membrane, the vesicle binds with and becomes incorporated into the membrane while simultaneously releasing its contents outside of the cell, this is known as exocytosis.

Cell (Learning Objectives)

Cell (Learning Objectives) Cell (Learning Objectives) 1. Understand & describe the basic components necessary for a functional cell. 2. Review the order of appearance of cells on earth and explain the endosymbiotic theory. 3. Compare

More information

Basic Structure of a Cell

Basic Structure of a Cell Basic Structure of a Cell Prokaryotic Cells No nucleus Archaea & Eubacteria One circular chromosome Extremely small Eukaryotic Cells Has a nucleus!!! Membrane-bound organelles Plants, Animals, Fungi, &

More information

Cell Structure. Chapter 4

Cell Structure. Chapter 4 Cell Structure Chapter 4 Cell Theory Cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke. Early studies of cells were conducted by - Mathias Schleiden (1838) - Theodor Schwann (1839) Schleiden and Schwann proposed

More information

Chapter 3: Cells. Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College

Chapter 3: Cells. Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College Chapter 3: Cells Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College Learning Objectives Be able to describe: what a cell is & two main classes of cells. structure & functions of cell membranes. how

More information

and their organelles

and their organelles and their organelles Discovery Video: Cells REVIEW!!!! The Cell Theory 1. Every living organism is made of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function. It is the smallest

More information

7.L.1.2 Plant and Animal Cells. Plant and Animal Cells

7.L.1.2 Plant and Animal Cells. Plant and Animal Cells 7.L.1.2 Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells Clarifying Objective: 7.L.1.2 Compare the structures and functions of plant and animal cells; include major organelles (cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus,

More information

Slide 1 / 113. Eukaryotes

Slide 1 / 113. Eukaryotes Slide 1 / 113 Eukaryotes Slide 2 / 113 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes prokaryotes: pro: before karyon: kernel/seed (nucleus) eukaryote: eu: true karyon: kernel/seed (nucleus) So prokaryote = "before a nucleus"

More information

A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life. B. Prokaryotic Cells. C. Eukaryotic Cells. D. Organelles that Process Information

A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life. B. Prokaryotic Cells. C. Eukaryotic Cells. D. Organelles that Process Information The Organization of Cells A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life Lecture Series 4 The Organization of Cells B. Prokaryotic Cells C. Eukaryotic Cells D. Organelles that Process Information E. Organelles that

More information

Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell

Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell The cell is the basic unit of life Although cells differ substantially from one another, they all share certain characteristics that reflect a common ancestry and remind us

More information

CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location ALL CELLS DNA Common in Animals Uncommon in Plants Lysosome

CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location ALL CELLS DNA Common in Animals Uncommon in Plants Lysosome CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location is the material that contains the Carry genetic ALL CELLS information that determines material inherited characteristics.

More information

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure 1 of 49 Comparing the Cell to a Factory Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic

More information

What is a cell? 2 Exceptions to The Cell Theory. Famous People. Can You Identify This Object? Basic Unit of all forms of Life. 1.

What is a cell? 2 Exceptions to The Cell Theory. Famous People. Can You Identify This Object? Basic Unit of all forms of Life. 1. Can You Identify This Object? CELLS Day 1: CELLULAR COMPONENTS & PROCESES What is a cell? Collection of living material enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from it s surroundings Basic Unit of

More information

Function and Illustration. Nucleus. Nucleolus. Cell membrane. Cell wall. Capsule. Mitochondrion

Function and Illustration. Nucleus. Nucleolus. Cell membrane. Cell wall. Capsule. Mitochondrion Intro to Organelles Name: Block: Organelles are small structures inside cells. They are often covered in membranes. Each organelle has a job to do in the cell. Their name means little organ. Just like

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Cell Structure and Function Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live Gas exchange CO 2 & O 2 Eat (take in & digest food) Make energy ATP Build

More information

7-1 Life Is Cellular. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

7-1 Life Is Cellular. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 7-1 Life Is Cellular The Discovery of the Cell What is the cell theory? The Discovery of the Cell The cell theory states: All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure

More information

Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. They are identified by the presence of certain membrane-bound organelles.

Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. They are identified by the presence of certain membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. They are identified by the presence of certain membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells have organelles too, but much fewer

More information

UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure

UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure UNIT 3 CP BIOLOGY: Cell Structure Page CP: CHAPTER 3, Sections 1-3; HN: CHAPTER 7, Sections 1-2 Standard B-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells and their

More information

Cell Theory and Structure. Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles

Cell Theory and Structure. Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles Cell Theory and Structure Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles Discoveries In 1665 Robert Hooke observed a thin slice of cork from an oak tree What he saw reminded him of

More information

Chapter 4. Table of Contents. Section 1 The History of Cell Biology. Section 2 Introduction to Cells. Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4. Table of Contents. Section 1 The History of Cell Biology. Section 2 Introduction to Cells. Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Cell Structure and Function Table of Contents Section 1 The History of Cell Biology Section 2 Introduction to Cells Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells Section

More information

Biology I. Chapter 7

Biology I. Chapter 7 Biology I Chapter 7 Interest Grabber NOTEBOOK #1 Are All Cells Alike? All living things are made up of cells. Some organisms are composed of only one cell. Other organisms are made up of many cells. 1.

More information

Ch 7: Cell Structure and Functions. AP Biology

Ch 7: Cell Structure and Functions. AP Biology Ch 7: Cell Structure and Functions AP Biology The Cell Theory 1. All living things are made of cells. 2. New cells come from existing cells. 3. Cells are the basic units of structure and function of living

More information

CELL STRUCTURE. What are the basic units of life? What are the structures within a cell and what are they capable of? How and why do cells divide?

CELL STRUCTURE. What are the basic units of life? What are the structures within a cell and what are they capable of? How and why do cells divide? CELL STRUCTURE What are the basic units of life? What are the structures within a cell and what are they capable of? How and why do cells divide? YEAR 8 BODY SYSTEMS Cells alive! Cells are the smallest

More information

Cell Structure and Function Unit 4

Cell Structure and Function Unit 4 Cell Structure and Function Unit 4 Definition of Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. RECALL... Levels of Organization! Why do we call them cells? In 1665, Robert

More information

Lecture Series 3 The Organization of Cells

Lecture Series 3 The Organization of Cells Lecture Series 3 The Organization of Cells Reading Assignments Read Chapter 15 Endomembrane System Read Chapter 17 Cytoskeleton A. The Cell: The Basic Unit of Life Cell Theory: All cells come from preexisting

More information

Cell Organelles. 2. Cells are the basic unit of organization in an organism Cells tissues organ organ system organism

Cell Organelles. 2. Cells are the basic unit of organization in an organism Cells tissues organ organ system organism Cell Organelles What are some of the differences you see between these two cells? A. Cell Theory 1. All organisms are made up of one or more cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of organization in an organism

More information

Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell

Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell AP Biology Reading Guide Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Name Period Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Class: Date: Ch 7 Review Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Researchers use fluorescent labels and light microscopy to a. follow

More information

Chapter 4 Active Reading Guide A Tour of the Cell

Chapter 4 Active Reading Guide A Tour of the Cell Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 4 Active Reading Guide A Tour of the Cell Section 1 1. The study of cells has been limited by their small size, and so they were not seen and described until 1665, when

More information

A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells

A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells Cell Biology A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells or composed of cells. 1 The interior contents

More information

Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Chapter Notes. 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells.

Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Chapter Notes. 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Key learnings: Chapter Notes 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. 2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all

More information

Basic Structure of a Cell

Basic Structure of a Cell Basic Structure of a Cell 1 Nonliving Levels ATOMS MOLECULES ORGANELLES 2 Living Levels CELLS life starts here TISSUES Similar cells working together 3 More Living Levels ORGANS ORGAN SYSTEMS ORGANISM

More information

What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms?

What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms? What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms? 1. Made of CELLS 2. Require ENERGY (food) 3. REPRODUCE (species) 4. Maintain HOMEOSTASIS 5. ORGANIZED 6. RESPOND to environment 7. GROW and DEVELOP 8. EXCHANGE

More information

Chemistry of Life Cells & Bioprocesses CRT Review

Chemistry of Life Cells & Bioprocesses CRT Review Chemistry of Life Cells & Bioprocesses CRT Review Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life macromolecules - The four types of macromolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins Types of Macromolecules

More information

protein synthesis cell theory Centrioles specialization. unicellular ribosomes. mitochondria cell interdependence prokaryotes

protein synthesis cell theory Centrioles specialization. unicellular ribosomes. mitochondria cell interdependence prokaryotes All cells must generate proteins. Cells make protein through a process called protein synthesis All living things are made of cells, Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms,

More information

Division Ave. High School AP Biology

Division Ave. High School AP Biology Tour of the Cell 1 Types of cells Prokaryote bacteria cells - no organelles - organelles Eukaryote animal cells Eukaryote plant cells Why organelles? Specialized structures u specialized functions cilia

More information

Cells and Their Organelles

Cells and Their Organelles Mr. Ulrich Regents Biology Name:.. Cells and Their Organelles The cell is the basic unit of life. The following is a glossary of animal cell terms. All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. The cell

More information

Define The cell organelles. Describe the comparison between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Determine the types of cell.

Define The cell organelles. Describe the comparison between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Determine the types of cell. Define The cell organelles. Describe the comparison between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Determine the types of cell. List the types of organelles. Describe the Mitochondrial Inheritance. Nice to know

More information

CELL THEORY, STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

CELL THEORY, STRUCTURE & FUNCTION CELL THEORY, STRUCTURE & FUNCTION History of Cells Robert Hooke (1665) observed cork under a microscope Thought they looked like the rooms monks lived in called cells. History of Cells Antony Van Leeuwenhoek

More information

Cells & Cell Organelles. Doing Life s Work

Cells & Cell Organelles. Doing Life s Work Cells & Cell Organelles Doing Life s Work Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote Eukaryotes animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell most bacteria 1-10 microns eukaryotic

More information

What in the Cell is Going On?

What in the Cell is Going On? What in the Cell is Going On? Robert Hooke naturalist, philosopher, inventor, architect... (July 18, 1635 - March 3, 1703) In 1665 Robert Hooke publishes his book, Micrographia, which contains his drawings

More information

Chapter 3: Cells The smallest part of you

Chapter 3: Cells The smallest part of you Chapter 3: Cells The smallest part of you Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College Learning Objectives Describe what a cell is and the two general types of cells. Describe the structure

More information

REVIEW 2: CELLS & CELL DIVISION UNIT. A. Top 10 If you learned anything from this unit, you should have learned:

REVIEW 2: CELLS & CELL DIVISION UNIT. A. Top 10 If you learned anything from this unit, you should have learned: Period Date REVIEW 2: CELLS & CELL DIVISION UNIT A. Top 10 If you learned anything from this unit, you should have learned: 1. Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes No internal membranes vs. membrane-bound organelles

More information

CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION 7-1 Life Is Cellular CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Discovery of the Cell 1665: Robert Hooke used an early compound microscope to look at a thin slice of cork. Cork looked

More information

What is a cell? Recall your work yesterday. When classifying cells, what are the two groups scientists separate cells into?

What is a cell? Recall your work yesterday. When classifying cells, what are the two groups scientists separate cells into? What is a cell? Recall your work yesterday. When classifying cells, what are the two groups scientists separate cells into? Light Microscopes and Total Power Magnification We can use microscopes to observe

More information

Cell structure and function

Cell structure and function Cell structure and function Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, write the word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. Prokaryotes were the first cells to evolve

More information

Eukaryotic Cells. Cell Wall. Key Concept Eukaryotic cells have organelles that perform important functions.

Eukaryotic Cells. Cell Wall. Key Concept Eukaryotic cells have organelles that perform important functions. 2 Eukaryotic Cells Key Concept Eukaryotic cells have organelles that perform important functions. What You Will Learn Eukaryotic cells have many parts such as cell s, a nucleus, and ribosomes in common.

More information

http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html 4A: Students will compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Robert Hooke (1665) Used a compound microscope to look at thin slices of cork (oak

More information

Quickly Research BEFORE the Bell (Write the answers down on sheet of paper)

Quickly Research BEFORE the Bell (Write the answers down on sheet of paper) Quickly Research BEFORE the Bell (Write the answers down on sheet of paper) What are STEM cells? What can STEM cells do/become? What implications could be in our hospitals if STEM cells could be used?

More information

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Chapter 3 Day 1

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Chapter 3 Day 1 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Chapter 3 Day 1 REVIEW: CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS 1. Made of CELLS 2. Require ENERGY (food) 3. REPRODUCE (species) 4. Maintain HOMEOSTASIS 5. ORGANIZED 6. RESPOND to

More information

Cells. Structural and functional units of living organisms

Cells. Structural and functional units of living organisms Cells Structural and functional units of living organisms Eukaryotic ( true nucleus ) vs. Prokaryotic ( before nucleus ) cells Proks Eukaryotic ( true nucleus ) vs. Prokaryotic ( before nucleus ) cells

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Cell Structure and Function Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Prokaryotic cells: Pro- Before, Karyot- Center or Nucleus Very Basic Cells with no membrane bound organelles. DNA is not separate from the rest of the

More information

Chapter 3. Cell Structure & Function

Chapter 3. Cell Structure & Function Chapter 3 Cell Structure & Function Cytology Study of cells Cell basic unit of life Smallest structure capable of performing all the functions necessary for life Are extremely diverse Most microscopic

More information

The Cell. The basic unit of all living things

The Cell. The basic unit of all living things The Cell The basic unit of all living things 1 Robert Hooke was the first to name the cell (1665) 2 The Cell Theory The cell is the unit of Structure of all living things. The cell is the unit of Function

More information

Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry

Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry Name Period Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry 1. The study of cells has been limited by their small size, and so they were

More information

Outline. Cell Structure and Function. Cell Theory Cell Size Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Organelles. Chapter 4

Outline. Cell Structure and Function. Cell Theory Cell Size Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Organelles. Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Chapter 4 Cell Theory Cell Size Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Organelles! Nucleus Outline! Endomembrane System! Cytoskeleton! Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella 1 2 Cell Theory

More information

Biology Exam #1 Study Guide. True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. F 1. All living things are composed of many cells.

Biology Exam #1 Study Guide. True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. F 1. All living things are composed of many cells. Biology Exam #1 Study Guide True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. F 1. All living things are composed of many cells. T 2. Membranes are selectively permeable if they allow only certain

More information

FUNCTION. Prokaryotes (Monera)

FUNCTION. Prokaryotes (Monera) COMPETENCY 1.0 UNDERSTAND CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Skill 1.1 Demonstrating knowledge of the components of cells (e.g., cell membrane, cell wall, ribosome, nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast) and how

More information

Organelles & Cells Student Edition. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole

Organelles & Cells Student Edition. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole Name: Date: 1. Which structure is outside the nucleus of a cell and contains DNA? A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole 2. A potato core was placed in a beaker of water as shown in the figure

More information

Cell Structure and Function How do the structures and processes of a cell enable it to survive?

Cell Structure and Function How do the structures and processes of a cell enable it to survive? Name Cell Structure and Function Date How do the structures and processes of a cell enable it to survive? Before You Read Before you read the chapter, think about what you know about the topic. Record

More information

NAME: PERIOD: The Cell and Its Functions

NAME: PERIOD: The Cell and Its Functions NAME: PERIOD: The Cell and Its Functions Directions: Using your notes and book as a guide, complete the following questions to review everything we have learned about cells, their parts, and any functions

More information

Directions for Plant Cell 3-Part Cards

Directions for Plant Cell 3-Part Cards Directions for Plant Cell 3-Part Cards 1. Print out copy of 3 part cards and control cards Laminate for durability. Cut apart description and labels from 3 part cards. 2. As an introductory lesson, students

More information

Introduction to Cells

Introduction to Cells Life Science Introduction to Cells All life forms on our planet are made up of cells. In ALL organisms, cells have the same basic structure. The scientist Robert Hooke was the first to see cells under

More information

122-Biology Guide-5thPass 12/06/14. Topic 1 An overview of the topic

122-Biology Guide-5thPass 12/06/14. Topic 1  An overview of the topic Topic 1 http://bioichiban.blogspot.com Cellular Functions 1.1 The eukaryotic cell* An overview of the topic Key idea 1: Cell Organelles Key idea 2: Plasma Membrane Key idea 3: Transport Across Membrane

More information

Introduction to Cells

Introduction to Cells Life Science Introduction to Cells All life forms on our planet are made up of cells. In ALL organisms, cells have the same basic structure. The scientist Robert Hooke was the first to see cells under

More information

Cells Cytology = the study of cells. Nonliving Levels. Organization Levels of Life. Living Levels 11/14/13. More Living Levels

Cells Cytology = the study of cells. Nonliving Levels. Organization Levels of Life. Living Levels 11/14/13. More Living Levels Cells Cytology = the study of cells What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms? 1. Made of CELLS 2. Require ENERGY (food) 3. REPRODUCE (species) 4. Maintain HOMEOSTASIS 5. ORGANIZED 6. RESPOND to environment

More information

Chapter 4 Cell Structure

Chapter 4 Cell Structure Chapter 4 Cell Structure 4.2 What Is a Cell? Cells First observed in the microscope of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek First called cells by Robert Cooke Smallest unit of life Cell theory is a foundation of modern

More information

Introduction to Cells- Stations Lab

Introduction to Cells- Stations Lab Introduction to Cells- Stations Lab Station 1: Microscopes allow scientists to study cells. Microscopes: How do light microscopes differ from electron microscopes? (How does each work? How much can each

More information

Principles of Cellular Biology

Principles of Cellular Biology Principles of Cellular Biology آشنایی با مبانی اولیه سلول Biologists are interested in objects ranging in size from small molecules to the tallest trees: Cell Basic building blocks of life Understanding

More information

What is a cell? A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things. Who discovered cells?

What is a cell? A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things. Who discovered cells? INTRODUCTION TO THE CELL What is a cell? A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things. Who discovered cells? Robert Hooke (by looking at a piece of cork under a microscope What is

More information

CHAPTER 2 The Cell: An Overview

CHAPTER 2 The Cell: An Overview CHAPTER 2 The Cell: An Overview MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which plant tissue did the first observed cells come from? a. cork b. pollen c. a maple leaf d. human skin ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 25 TOP: 2.0

More information

Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Sections 1-6

Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Sections 1-6 Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Sections 1-6 4.1 Food For Thought E. coli O157:H7A, strain of bacteria that causes severe illness or death, occasionally contaminates foods such as ground beef and

More information

THE DISCOVERY OF THE CELL

THE DISCOVERY OF THE CELL 1 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CELL It was not until the mid-1600 s that scientists began to use microscopes to observe cells. In 1665, Englishman Robert Hooke used an early compound microscope to look at a slice

More information

Eukaryotes January 2014

Eukaryotes January 2014 Slide 1 / 143 Slide 2 / 143 Eukaryotes January 2014 www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 143 Vocabulary Click on each word below to go to the definition. 5' cap exocytosis adhering junction exon alternative splicing

More information

NCERT solution for Fundamental Unit of Life

NCERT solution for Fundamental Unit of Life 1 NCERT solution for Fundamental Unit of Life Question 1 Who discovered cells and how? An English Botanist, Robert Hooke discovered cells. In 1665, he used self-designed microscope to observe cells in

More information

NAME: PERIOD: DATE: A View of the Cell. Use Chapter 8 of your book to complete the chart of eukaryotic cell components.

NAME: PERIOD: DATE: A View of the Cell. Use Chapter 8 of your book to complete the chart of eukaryotic cell components. NAME: PERIOD: DATE: A View of the Cell Use Chapter 8 of your book to complete the chart of eukaryotic cell components. Cell Part Cell Wall Centriole Chloroplast Cilia Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Endoplasmic

More information

Chapter 5: The Fundamental Unit of Life Science

Chapter 5: The Fundamental Unit of Life Science Chapter 5: The Fundamental Unit of Life Science 1 Who discovered cells and how? An English Botanist, Robert Hooke discovered cells In 1665, he used self-designed microscope to observe cells in a cork slice

More information

Cell organelles. Cell Wall

Cell organelles. Cell Wall Cell organelles Cell Wall Plant cells have an outermost structure called a cell wall. A cell wall is a rigid structure that gives support to a cell. Plants and algae have cell walls made of a complex sugar.

More information

Parts of the Cell book pgs

Parts of the Cell book pgs Parts of the Cell book pgs. 12-18 Animal Cell Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Go to Section: Eukaryotic Cell: Organelles & Functions 1. Cell Membrane (Nickname: skin ) Function: A protective layer that covers

More information

Unit 7: Cells and Life

Unit 7: Cells and Life Unit 7: Cells and Life Name: Period: Test Date: 1 Table of Contents Title of Page Page Number Due Date VIRUS vs CELLS CHECKLIST 3 Warm-ups 4-5 Virus Notes 6-7 Viral Reproduction Notes 8 Viruses VS Cells

More information

CELL HISTORY, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

CELL HISTORY, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION CELL HISTORY, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION The cell is the smallest unit of life that can carry out life processes. Chapter 4 Robert Hooke 1665 -observed cork through a light microscope. Anton Van Leewenhoek

More information

T HE C ELL C H A P T E R 1 P G. 4-23

T HE C ELL C H A P T E R 1 P G. 4-23 T HE C ELL C H A P T E R 1 P G. 4-23 A CELL IS THE SMALLEST LIVING UNIT KNOWN. IT IS OFTEN CALLED THE BUILDING BLOCK OF THE BODY, AND IS THE BASIC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF AN ORGANISM. CELL THEORY

More information

The Fundamental Unit Of Life. Prokaryotes. Eukaryotes. Specialized Structures of the Cell. How Plant and Animal Cells differ.

The Fundamental Unit Of Life. Prokaryotes. Eukaryotes. Specialized Structures of the Cell. How Plant and Animal Cells differ. UNIT 4 THE CELL The Fundamental Unit Of Life Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Specialized Structures of the Cell How Plant and Animal Cells differ Homeostasis Cell membranes Membrane Transport Osmosis THE FUNDAMENTAL

More information

To help you complete this review activity and to help you study for your test, you should read SC State Standards B

To help you complete this review activity and to help you study for your test, you should read SC State Standards B Name: Test Date: PAGE: Biology I: Unit 3 Cell Structure Review for Unit Test Directions: You should use this as a guide to help you study for your test. You should also read through your notes, worksheets,

More information

Unit 4: Cells. Biology 309/310. Name: Review Guide

Unit 4: Cells. Biology 309/310. Name: Review Guide Unit 4: Cells Review Guide LEARNING TARGETS Place a checkmark next to the learning targets you feel confident on. Then go back and focus on the learning targets that are not checked. Identify the parts

More information

Life of the Cell. Learning Objectives

Life of the Cell. Learning Objectives Life of the Cell Society on a micro-scale 1 Learning Objectives 1. What are the characteristics that distinguish prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Which type of cell is believed to be older (more primitive)?

More information

Organelle Description Function Animal, Plant or Both

Organelle Description Function Animal, Plant or Both Biology Name: Date: Period: Organelle Description Function Animal, Plant or CELL WALL Rigid, tough, made of cellulose Protects and supports the cell Plant CELL MEMBRANE Thin, covering, protects cells Protects

More information

Biology Unit 3 A View of the Cell

Biology Unit 3 A View of the Cell Biology Unit 3 A View of the Cell 3:1 Types of Microscopes MICROSCOPE: tool used to magnify small details SIMPLE MICROSCOPE: microscope using only one lens; magnifying glass COMPOUND MICROSCOPE: microscope

More information

How do we define what it means to be alive?

How do we define what it means to be alive? How do we define what it means to be alive? Defining Life-7 Characteristics of Life There is no universal definition of life. To define life in unequivocal terms is still a challenge for scientists. Conventional

More information

THE CELL THEORY (R+R+R+E+G+N+T+S) 3).

THE CELL THEORY (R+R+R+E+G+N+T+S) 3). CELL BIOLOGY All living things are made up of small individual units called cells. Cells are the smallest functioning living unit. Cells can not normally be seen with the naked eye. To usually observe

More information

Warm-Up. Answer the following questions in a complete sentence and explain why each answer is correct.

Warm-Up. Answer the following questions in a complete sentence and explain why each answer is correct. Warm-Up Answer the following questions in a complete sentence and explain why each answer is correct. Unlike a eukaryotic cell, a prokaryotic does not have A. DNA. B. a cell membrane. C. cytoplasm. D.

More information

Microscope History Robert Hooke

Microscope History Robert Hooke 1 Microscope History Robert Hooke First described cells in 1665. He viewed thin slices of cork and compared the boxy partitions he observed to the cells (small rooms) in a monastery. (1635 1702) 2 Microscope

More information

CELL Readings BCMS 1/1/2018

CELL Readings BCMS 1/1/2018 CELL Readings BCMS 1/1/2018 3.1 Cell Biology Learning Objectives Explain how cells are observed. Define the three main parts of the cell theory. Explain the levels of organization in an organism. Introduction

More information

Eukaryotic Cells. Figure 1: A mitochondrion

Eukaryotic Cells. Figure 1: A mitochondrion Eukaryotic Cells Figure 1: A mitochondrion How do cells accomplish all their functions in such a tiny, crowded package? Eukaryotic cells those that make up cattails and apple trees, mushrooms and dust

More information

Module A Unit 1 Basic Biological Principles. Mr. Mitcheltree

Module A Unit 1 Basic Biological Principles. Mr. Mitcheltree Module A Unit 1 Basic Biological Principles Mr. Mitcheltree Biochemistry Cytology Genetics Evolution Taxonomy Microbiology Mycology Botany Zoology Ecology Branches of Biology Characteristics of Life Made

More information

Cell Structure, Function & Ultrastructure

Cell Structure, Function & Ultrastructure Cell Structure, Function & Ultrastructure Learning Objectives 2.1.2 Components of the cell as seen under the light microscope and their functions. Cell Structure and Function 1. Plant cells: cell wall,

More information

Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification

Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Table of Contents Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Section 1: Living Things 1- What is an organism? Any living thing is called an organism. Organisms vary in size: 1)one-celled or unicellular

More information

EOC - Unit 3 Review Cells

EOC - Unit 3 Review Cells EOC - Unit 3 Review Cells Standard 14: SC.912.L.14.1: Describe the scientific theory of cells (cell theory), and relate the history of its discovery to the process of science. Also Assesses: SC.912.N.1.3

More information

Honors Biology Fall Final Exam Study Guide

Honors Biology Fall Final Exam Study Guide Honors Biology Fall Final Exam Study Guide Helpful Information: Exam has 100 multiple choice questions. Be ready with pencils and a four-function calculator on the day of the test. Review ALL vocabulary,

More information