Introduction to Animals

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1 Introduction to Animals

2 Moving Forward Quizlet Each section we cover, 1 group will go to our class on Quizlet and create 20 flash cards on the topic (/5mks) If I warn you about talking while I m talking, leaving class without permission, phones out/music in while I m talking, general disrespect towards myself or your classmates- 20 Quizlet flashcards on that days topic. Work ethic dropped to N, Mark dropped to I until it is completed.

3 What makes something an animal? With your partner, and a whiteboard write down as much information as you can think of on this topic.

4 Evolution of Animals Hypothesis of earliest animal How long ago? Common ancestor? What kind of habitat?

5 Evolution of Animals The earliest animal probably evolved from a colonial flagellated protist (700 mya) Hypothesis: all animals have a common ancestor Early animals populated seas, fresh waters, and eventually land

6

7 Characteristics What separates animals from other organisms? How do they get nutrients? What are the characteristics of their cells? What are other characteristics that make them unique? Why do we group all of those organisms together as animals?

8 Characteristics Animals are multicellular Multicellularity: adaptation of a cell for a particular function Can be large Can move around Have a stable, controlled internal environment Relative independence from harsh environment Heterotrophic They must ingest other organisms or organic material that is decomposing. Eukaryotes. Animal cells lack cell walls

9 Characteristics cont d Animals have two unique types of tissues: nervous tissue for impulse conduction and muscle tissue for movement. Tissue: several cells working together to do a job Organ: made up of several different tissues As we go through this unit, look for development of sensory organs, coordination of systems

10 Most animals reproduce sexually, with the diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle. In most species, a small flagellated sperm fertilizes a larger, nonmotile eggs. The zygote goes through mitotic cell divisions Forms a multicellular, hollow ball of cells called the blastula.

11 Development cont d During gastrulation, part of the embryo folds inward, forming the gastrula. This produces two tissue layers: the endoderm as the inner layer and the ectoderm as the outer layer. Some animals develop directly into adults, but others have distinct larval stages. The larva is a sexually immature stage that is morphologically different from the adult, usually eats different foods, and may live in a different habitat from the adult. Animal larvae eventually undergo metamorphosis, transforming the animal into an adult.

12 Sea Star larvae

13

14 Body Plan- the way body parts are arranged around a point Asymmetry: Body has no definite shape and cannot be divided into two identical halves These guys are often sessilenon-motile Radial Symmetry Body can be divided into two identical halves by any plane that passes through the longitudinal axis Bilateral Symmetry The body can be divided into two identical halves by only one specific plane passing through the longitudinal axis

15 Body Plan Symmetry Radial Often sedentary, have to reach the environment from all sides Bilateral Often active animals

16 Regions - Bilateral Symmetry Dorsal Anterior Posterior Ventral

17 Other defining characteristics Germ layers Segmentation (Annelids onwards) Body cavity (coelom) Organization

18 Germ Layers Specialization of body tissue Germ layers form when gastrula is formed Become specific structures and organs in the animal Ectoderm: cells on the outside of gastrula, become body covering Mesoderm: middle layer of cells that forms muscles and interior organs Endoderm: cells on the inside of the gastrula that become the lining of the gut

19 Coelom Body Cavity Without a true coelom (acoelomate) - blind sac Cnidarians, Platyhelminthes Pseudocoelom - tube within a tube Aschelminthes With a true coelom Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata

20 Cephalization Concentration of sensory and brain structures in the anterior (head) end of the animal Nervous tissue is found only in animals Allows animals to sense and respond to their environment Concentration at head end allows animals to respond more quickly

21 Approximately 35 Animal phyla recognized by zoologists We are looking at the most common Starting with the simplest phyla and going through from least complex to most complex

22 Invertebrates

23 We ll get to that First, let s see who is making today s Flash Cards! Quiz- Intro to Animals (Monday) INTRO TO ANIMAL ASSIGNMENT DUE NOVEMBER

24 Porifera Sponges 10,000 known species Calcareous, glass, coralline (tropical), demosponges (like the bath sponge)

25 Cnidaria Sea anemone Coral Jellyfish Hydra

26 Platyhelminthes Planarians Flukes Tapeworms

27 Nematoda Roundworms

28 Mollusca Bivalves: clams, oysters, mussels Gastropods: Snails, nudibranchs Chitons Cephalopods: Squid, Octopus

29 Segmented Worms Oligochaeta: Earthworms Hirudinea: Leeches Polychaeta:

30 Arthropoda Spiders Crustaceans (crab, lobster) Insects

31 Echinoderms Sea urchin Sand dollar Sea star Sea cucumber

32 Vertebrates Chordata Animals with a backbone

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