Intro to Animals. Chapter 32

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1 Intro to Animals Chapter 32

2 1) Multicellular Organization (Different cells have different functions)

3 Specialization: adaptation of a cell for a particular function Remember: cells tissues organs organ system

4 Animal cells are eukaryotic Has nucleus and membranebound organelles

5 2) Heterotrophic- cannot make their own food (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores) they must obtain nutrients by eating other org s = ingestion

6 They digest their food Proteins, fats, & carb s in food must be broken down into molecules small enough for their bodies to use

7 3) REPRODUCE Most animals reproduce sexually, but some can asexually reproduce Egg & Sperm

8 Sexual Reproduction 2 haploid gametes fuse to form a zygote (diploid cell) undergoes repeated mitotic divisions enlarging mass of dividing cells undergoes differentiation Cells become specialized

9 4) Movement - find food - find a mate - find a home - escape enemies Animals that move very slowly or not at all (adult sponges) have adaptations to let them take care of these needs

10 Animal Origin & Classification 1 st animals may have evolved from colonial protists Have grouped animals by comparing: fossils body symmetry patterns of embryo development Macromolecules (rrna)

11 Phylogenic Diagram

12 Animal Classification Vertebrates- have a backbone Invertebrates- don t have a backbone -Make up 95% of all species (sponges, Cnidaria, worms, mollusks, insects)

13 Origins of Animal Tissues & Organs

14 BODY SYMMETRY 1) Asymmetrical: no pattern 2) Radial symmetry: parts are organized in a circle around an axis

15 3) Bilateral symmetry 2 halves on either side of a central plane anterior toward head posterior toward tail dorsal back or top ventral - abdomen animals tend to exhibit cephalization

16

17 A) Germ Layers Body Structure form in the embryos of all animals except sponges B) Body Cavities Most animals have some type aids in movement and transport of nutrients and wastes among cells

18 Body Structure & Relatedness Biologists use similarities in body plans and patterns of development to help them classify animals and hypothesize about the evolutionary history of animals

19

20 Characterized by: 1. Symmetry A) Invertebrates 2. Segmentation 3. Support of the Body 4. Respiratory and Circulatory Systems 5. Digestive and Excretory Systems 6. Nervous System 7. Reproduction and Development

21 1. Symmetry Body plans: lack of symmetry radial bilateral

22 2. Segmentation body composed of a series of repeating similar units segments may look different and have different functions

23 3. Support of the Body Some have a(n): simple skeleton fluid-filled body cavity exoskeleton (rigid outer covering)

24 4. Respiratory & Circulatory Systems Gas exchange occurs across the body covering or thru internal gills Invert s may have: an open circulatory system a closed circulatory system no circulatory system

25 5. Digestive System & Invert s may have: no digestive system (digestion occurs w/in individual cells) a simple central chamber w/ 1 opening a digestive tract (gut)

26 Excretory Systems Wastes are either: dissolved and excreted directly OR filtered by specialized structures

27 6. Nervous System Range from simple (no neurons) to complex (high degree of cephalization w/ complex brain)

28 7. Reproduction & Development Sexual and asexually reproduction Some are hermaphrodites 2 patterns of development: Indirect development: has an intermediate stage called a larva Direct development: no larval stage

29 B) Vertebrates Classes include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals spend part or all of their life on land (except fish)

30 Chordates All some stage in life: a notochord a dorsal nerve cord a postanal tail pharyngeal pouches

31 Segmentation & Support Segmentation is evident in the ribs and the vertebrae Have an endoskeleton that grows as the animal grows

32 Body Coverings integument: outer covering Help w/ respiration, protection, or insulation

33 Respiratory & Circulatory Systems Aquatic vert s have gills and land vert s have lungs closed circulatory system w/ multichambered heart

34 Digestive & Excretory Systems Digestion occurs in the gut Most vert s must expel wastes while conserving water Kidneys filter wastes from blood while regulating water levels in body

35 Nervous System highly organized brains control of specific functions occurs in specific centers in the brain

36 Reproduction & Development Fish & amphibians- eggs and sperm are released into water Reptiles, birds, & mammals- egg and sperm unite w/in body Most eggs develop outside the body and nourished by egg yolk Most mammal embryos develop in the body, nourished by mother

37

38 Chapter 33 Sponges, Cnidarians, & Ctenophores

39

40 PHYLUM PORIFERA = Sponges Least complex animals Simple body plans No true body tissues, organs, or systems Sessile: do not move

41 Obtaining Food Food is filtered out of the water = filter feeding Choanocytes (collar cells) pull the water thru the ostia They have flagella that help move water thru bringing in O2 & carrying away wastes (leaves via osculum)

42 Nutrients are distributed thru the body by amoebocytes The body is supported by a skeleton made of spongin (flexible protein fibers), spicules (calcium carbonate particles), or both

43

44 osculum

45 Reproduction Sponges can reproduce asexually and sexually 1) Asexual I m a chip off the old block! producing buds (gemmules) regeneration (growth) of missing parts

46 2) Sexually joining of egg and sperm Most are hermaphrodites can produce both eggs and sperm

47 Sexual Reproduction

48 PHYLUM CNIDARIA Radially symmetrical More complex than sponges Have tissues and few simple organs

49 2 Body Forms Polyp: vase shaped Sessile Hydra, sea anemone Medusa: bell shaped Free swimming Jellyfish (Portuguese Man-of-War)

50

51 4 classes: 1) Class Hydrozoa Obelia, man-o-war, and hydra may live as polyps, medusae, or mixed colonies 2) Class Cubozoa box jellies most live as medusae

52 Obelia Hydra Hydra Man of War

53 3) Class Scyphozoa jellyfish most live as medusae 4) Class Anthozoa sea anemones and corals live only as polyps

54

55 Coral

56 Characteristics Most live individually except for coral & hydra Coral live as a colony of polyps covered by calcium carbonate (polyps join together to form coral reef) Most live in salt water except for hydra

57 Feeding & Defense Arm-like tentacles surround mouth tentacles contain stinging cells (cnidocytes) used to capture food & to protect When stimulated, its nematocyst (poisoned barbed harpoon) can paralyze or ensnare prey

58

59

60

61 Nervous System Have a nerve net = web of interconnected nerve cells This allows simple responses & movement

62 Reproduction A) Medusa (go thru both types to complete cycle) 1) Sexually (free-swimming) Fertilized eggs become larva Larva settle & form polyp 2) Asexually (young medusa bud & break off)

63 Reproduction in Obelia

64 Reproduction in Aurelia

65 B) Polyps Asexually (buds fall off parent) Sexually w/ egg & sperm

66 Phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies) move thru water by beating their 8 rows of cilia capture prey w/ sticky substance secreted by colloblasts The apical organ enables them to sense their orientation in the water Most are hermaphroditic Many have bioluminescence

67 Comb Jellies

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