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1 Chapter 8-9 Intro to Animals Image from:

2 Zoology Definition: the scientific study of the behavior, structure, physiology, classification, and distribution of animals

3 Biological Classification The science of classifying living things is called taxonomy. Charles Linneaus developed the system of classifying organisms by assigning them a genus and species name.

4 Biological Classification All living things are classified in the following taxa (groups): Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

5 Biological Classification There are six kingdoms, but Zoology is based upon only Kingdom Animalia. Kingdom Animalia is divided into 9 major Phyla (Phylum singular). Each Phylum is then divided into Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.

6

7 Animals Invertebrates (animals without a backbone) Porifera Cnidaria Worms Mollusks Echinoderms Arthropods

8 Animals Vertebrates- Animals with backbones Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

9 Animal Groups Image from:

10 Characteristics of ALL Animals: EUKARYOTES 1. Are cells have nucleus & membrane bound organelles HETEROTROPHIC 2. Are get food from consuming other organisms MULTICELLULAR 3. Are made of many cells SPECIALIZATION 4. Show different kinds of cells do different jobs

11 Characteristics of ALL Animals: MOVE 5. (at some point in life cycle) for food, find mates, escape danger DNA 6. Contain which carries the genetic code REPRODUCE 7. Make offspring Most have sexual reproduction (few asexual)

12 Advantages of Being Multicellular The organism can be larger Cell differentiation different cells perform different functions so bodies can be more efficient The organism can be more complex better movement, higher functioning

13 10 Body Systems : 1. INTEGUMENTARY OUTSIDE BODY COVERING (fur, skin, scales, feathers) Covers and protects, ID, prevents heat & water loss Orangutan image from: Fish image from: Frog image from: Cardinal image from:

14 10 Body Systems : DIGESTIVE 2. Breaks down food to obtain nutrients & gets rid of undigested waste Image from:

15 NO OPENINGS: Food enters through skin

16 Images from: Only one opening: FOOD IN and WASTE OUT through same opening

17 Image from: Two openings: FOOD IN at one end (mouth) WASTE OUT at other end (ANUS)

18 Image from: Two openings: Most efficient If food flows only one direction it allows for organ specialization (Different parts can start to do different jobs)

19 10 Body Systems : 3. CIRCULATORY Transports nutrients/oxygen to body cells Carries carbon dioxide/nitrogen waste away from cells Circulatory fluid can be: inside blood vessels = CLOSED loose inside body spaces = OPEN Image from:

20 10 Body Systems : 4. RESPIRATORY Exchange gases with the environment take in oxygen get rid of waste gases (CO 2 &/or ammonia) Image from:

21 10 Body Systems : 5. EXCRETORY Get rid of nitrogen waste made by cells Help with HOMEOSTASIS by maintaining water/ion balance ( ) OSMOREGULATION

22 NITROGEN WASTE : AMMONIA Most TOXIC Must be removed QUICKLY Needs MOST water to dilute UREA Made from ammonia by liver Less toxic than ammonia Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs less water to dilute than ammonia) URIC ACID LEAST TOXIC Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs LEAST amount of water to dilute)

23 NITROGEN WASTE

24 ALL WASTE is NOT THE SAME! WHERE ITS MADE? Body system used? In what form? DIGESTIVE WASTE left over from undigested food Handled by digestive system Feces (poop) NITROGEN WASTE made by cells from break down of proteins Handled by excretory system ammonia, urea, or uric acid

25 10 Body Systems : SKELETAL 6. Framework to support body/protection Skeleton on inside = ENDOSKELETON Skeleton on outside = EXOSKELETON Walking skeleton image from: Insect lefg image from:

26 7. Image from: 10 Body Systems : MUSCULAR Locomotion- move body itself OR move substances through body (EX: food through digestive system; blood through vessels)

27 10 Body Systems : 8. REPRODUCTIVE - Produce offspring by combining genetic material from 2 parents = SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Produce offspring using genetic material from only 1 parent = ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Family image from: Planaria animation:

28 10 Body Systems : INDIRECT DEVELOPMENT immature LARVA looks different than adult Metamorphosis image from: Frog image from: DIRECT DEVELOPMENT young are smaller versions of adults Image from:

29 Sperm and egg join outside female s body = External fertilization Sperm and egg join inside female s body = Animation from: Internal fertilization

30 9. NERVOUS Receive sensory info about environment & send response signals

31 10. ENDOCRINE Make hormones that regulate other body systems (only in higher animals) Image from:

32 Types of Symmetry No symmetry Radial symmetry Bilateral symmetry

33 ASYMMETRY No symmetry Doesn t matter how you cut it; you never get 2 identical halves. Example: Sponge Image from:

34 Radial Symmetry Jelly fish image: Image from: Get 2 identical halves in several directions.

35 Bilateral Symmetry If divide animal down the middle you get 2 mirror images BUT only divides equally in ONE direction Image from:

36 CEPHALIZATION Concentration of nervous tissue and sensory organs in anterior end of an organism (head area)

37 Which way is up? ANTERIOR head end DORSAL (top) POSTERIOR tail end VENTRAL (underneath) Image from:

38 Planes of Symmetry

39 EMBRYOLOGY Image from: 1. Where does BLASTOPORE end up? 2. What do embryos look like as they divide? 3. When do cells decide what they will be?

40 EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT Image from: Becomes digestive system

41 1. Where does BLASTOPORE end up? Images modified from:

42 What do embryos look like as they divide? SPIRAL CLEAVAGE RADIAL CLEAVAGE Images from:

43 When do cells decide what they will become? Image from:

44 Cells decide early Cells decide later Removing cell causes death DETERMINATE Removing cell OK INDETERMINATE Images modified from:

45 THAT S WHERE TWINS COME FROM!

46 ANIMALS PROTOSTOMES Blastopore becomes MOUTH Decide very early (DETERMINATE) SPIRAL cleavage ALL INVERTEBRATES except ECHINODERMS DEUTEROSTOMES Blastopore becomes ANUS Decide later (INDETERMINATE) RADIAL cleavage ALL VERTEBRATES (Fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals) plus ECHINODERMS

47 EMBRYOLOGY Echinoderms are the exception to the rule! They are INVERTEBRATES but their embryos act like DEUTEROSTOMES Image from:

48 EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT Image from: Becomes digestive system

49 All animals except sponges, jellyfish, anemones have 3 germ layers in their embryos Endoderm Digestive system, respiratory Mesoderm Muscle, excretory, bones, circulatory Ectoderm Outer skin, brain, nervous system

50 Types of Coeloms (See-Lums) No cavity (space) around organs Image from: ACOELOM = without space

51 FLATWORMS are ACOELOMATES!

52 Types of Coeloms (See-Lums) Space around organs but only lined with mesoderm on one side (mesoderm lines body wall BUT NOT around gut) Image from: PSEUDOCOELOM

53 ROUND WORMS are PSEUDOCOELOMATES!

54 Kinds of Coeloms (See-Lums) EUCOELOM: Body cavity (space) lined on BOTH sides by mesoderm Image from: EUCOELOM = TRUE COELOM = COELOM

55 EUCOELOMATES ALL VERTEBRATES & SOME INVERTEBRATES ALL ANIMALS you will dissect this year are EUCOELOMATES!

56 3 Types of Coeloms ACOELOM ectoderm mesoderm endoderm PSEUDOCOELOM EUCOELOM Image from:

57 Advantages of having a COELOM (body space): Provides space for internal organs In animals without a skeleton- Fluid in coelom space can act as a HYDROSTATIC skeleton In animals without blood vessels- Fluid in coelom space can circulate nutrients and oxygen to cells

58 WHY is a EUCOELOM the best? Digestive organ muscles and body wall muscles come from MESODERM in different places so organism can digest food and move at same time. Images from:

59 SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things 9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells.

60 SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things 9-12.L.1.2. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationship of major taxa. (APPLICATION) Kingdoms Examples: animals, plants, fungi, protista, monera Phyla Examples: invertebrates, vertebrates, divisions of plants

61 SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things 9-12.L.1.3. Students are able to identify structures and function relationships within major

62 Core High School Life Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: predict the function of a given structure; predict how homeostasis is maintained within living systems; High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: describe the relationship between structure and function explain how homeostasis is maintained within living systems; High school students performing at the BASIC level recognize that different structures perform different functions; define homeostasis

63 SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.L.1.5A. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationships of domains. (SYNTHESIS) Examples: eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes

64 SOURCES Anemone from: Snail from: Crab from: Clam from: Ant from:

65 Millipede from: Starfish from: Jellyfish from:

66 Tree frog: Turtle: Bird: Fish from: Orangutan:

67 Earthworm : /Exxon/Food%20Chain%20images/ExxonPicsLarge/Earthworms.jpg Starfish from: Snail from: Crab from:

68 All images on this page from:

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