Kingdom Animalia. Special Features: Advanced nervous systems means cephalization (faces), brains, and efficient mobility (walk/run/swim/grab)

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1 Kingdom Animalia

2 Kingdom Animalia Cell Number: Multicellular with extensive specialization Cell Type: Eukaryotic Animal Cells (no cell wall) Food: Heterotrophic Carnivore (meat), Herbivore (plants), Omnivore (meat and plants), or Detritivore (scavenger) Reproduction: Sexual (Eggs or live birth) Special Features: Advanced nervous systems means cephalization (faces), brains, and efficient mobility (walk/run/swim/grab)

3 Animal Organization Cell Specialization Cells are adapted for one job (digestion, transport, etc.) Cell Differentiation Cells look different from one another (muscle vs. skin cell) Body Organization Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organism Heart cell + other heart cells Heart tissue + other heart tissue Heart + veins/arteries Cardiovascular system + other systems Human

4 Animal Organization (cont d) Asymmetry no set structure to the organism (draw one) Radial symmetry Cut in half anywhere (like a pie) and both halves look the same (draw one) Bilateral Cut in half at one place and both halves look the same (draw one)

5 Animal Organization (cont d) Anatomy Terms Dorsal - Back Ventral - Belly Anterior - Head Posterior Tail

6 Animal Classification Vertebrates Animals with a notochord (backbone) Only one phylum- Chordata Invertebrates Animals with no notochord (backbone) Lots of phyla - Most animals are invertebrates

7 Animal Reproduction Sexual with sperm (male) and eggs (female). Sperm + Egg = Zygote Embryo Fetus The more advanced the animals, the more complicated sexual reproduction Some animals exhibit metamorphosis in their life cycles Complete metamorphosis juvenile hatches as a larvae (ex: tadpole or caterpillar) and then develops into an adult that looks very different (ex: frog or butterfly) Incomplete metamorphosis juvenile hatches as a nymph, which is just a smaller version of the adult

8 Animal Evolution first to last Invertebrates Simplest Animals Porifera (Sponges) Asymmetrical; aquatic; filter feeders; sessile (do not move as adults); hermaphroditic (both male and female) Nerves Evolve Cnidaria (Jellyfish and Anemones) Radial symmetry; aquatic; some sessile, some motile; specialized tissues for feeding and movement Organ systems evolve Nematoda, Annelida, Platyhelminthes (all Worms) Bilateral symmetry; aquatic or terrestrial (land); motile; digestive and simple nervous systems Cephalization (faces), Skeletons, and nervous systems evolve - Echinodermata (Starfish and Urchins), Mollusca (Clams, Octopus, Squid), and Arthropoda (Insects, Crabs, and Lobsters) Bilateral or radial symmetry; aquatic or terrestrial; motile; digestive, circulatory, and sometimes complex nervous systems; insects are most common animals

9 Animal Evolution- first to last (cont d) Vertebrates Backbones and complex brain systems evolve Chordata (Vertebrates) Separated into five major classes Fishes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves (birds), and Mammalia Backbone allows for most complex brains; bilateral symmetry; specialized sensory organs (eyes, ears, antennae, etc); highly organized bodies Mammals are considered dominant ; especially humans

10 Porifera - Sponges

11 Cnidaria Jellies and Anemones

12 Worms (Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, and Annelida)

13 Echinodermata Seastars and Urchins

14 Mollusca Clams, Snails, Octopuses, & Squid

15 Arthropoda insects and crustaceans

16 Chordata Vertebrates Class 1 - Fish

17 Class 2 - Amphibia

18 Class 3 - Reptilia

19 Class 4 Aves (birds)

20 Class 5 - Mammalia

21 Special Animal Characteristics Animal Homeostasis Ectotherm Cold blooded (internal temperature changes with environment; lay in sun when cold, seek shade when hot) Endotherm Warm blooded (special adaptations to keep internal temp the same despite the environment; shiver when cold, sweat or pant when hot) Cnidarian Body Plan Polyp- attached (draw) Medusa- Free floating (draw) Special Cell Nematocyst stinging cell

22 Special Animal Characteristics (cont d) Chordata Fishes Bony or cartilaginous (sharks) Chordata Mammals Live birth and mammary glands Marsupials mammals with pouches Monotremes rare mammals that lay eggs

23

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