Animals. What are they? Where did they come from? What are their evolutionary novelties? What characterizes their diversification?

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1 Animals What are they? Where did they come from? What are their evolutionary novelties? What characterizes their diversification?

2 What synapomorphies unite Animals Multicellular Heterotrophs (Metazoans)? Obtain organic & inorganic compounds by ingestion Move under their own power at some point in their life cycle

3 Animals were assembled! Evolved from a diverse, paraphyletic group: PROTISTS Protists evolved from Archaeans, and acquired some useful bacteria along the way.

4 Phylogeny of Eukarya & Protists Based on a few important morphological synapomorphies & growing DNA synapomorphies

5 How did Endomembrane system develop from prokaryotes? Invagination of plasma membrane Nuclear envelope ER Golgi Transport vessicles This continues to happen in Protist groups today

6 How did other organelles Cooperating Prokaryotes Endosymbionts Mitochondria Only organelles with: Their own genome Their own replication & transcription machinery Reproduction via fission, independent of cell cycle Double membrane develop?

7 Bacterial lineages Mitochondria

8 Phylogeny of Eukarya & Protists Based on a few important morphological synapomorphies & growing DNA synapomorphies

9 Where do Animals belong? DNA synapomorphies unite Animals & Fungi Both synthesize chitin Single, posterior Flagella of fungi gametes is similar to that of Animal gametes Use same energy storage molecule: glycogen What do plants use to store energy?

10 Clicker Q Which node indicates the MRCA of Land Plants & Fungi?

11 Probable evolution of Animals From single celled or colonial Choanoflagellate ancestor Formation of colonies Specialization of cells Interdependence of cells

12 DNA sequence; Animal specific proteins (collagen; adherins) found in choanoflagellates Synapomorphies Morphologically identical to Sponge collar cells Collar cells also found in basal Animals; never in Protists, Plants or Fungi

13 Typical Animal Life Cycle Most are 2n & reproduce sexually Diploid (2n) stage is dominant Tissue differentiation Ectoderm Endoderm Structures that produce gametes are contained within sporophyte

14 Main avenues of diversification Changes of body plan Number & type of tissue layers (specialized cells) Plane of symmetry Presence & type of body cavity Early developmental changes Increased cephalization & organ system complexity

15 Animal Phylogeny

16 Body plan shifts Symmetry Asymmetry -> Radial symmetry -> Bilateral symmetry

17 True Tissues True tissues (specialization of cells) 1. Simple epithelial tissue - Porifera 2. Diploblasts ( two sprouts ) - Cnidaria, Ctenophore Ectoderm Endoderm 3. Triploblasts - Bilateralia Addition of mesoderm (Becomes muscle & organs)

18 Evolution of the Body Cavity Coelom Creates internal chamber for nutrient & O 2 circulation Allows organs to move independently of each other Allows body movement via manipulation of hydrostatic pressure

19 Acoelomic No Body Cavity 3 tissue types, addition of mesoderm No body cavity; no space between digestive tube and specialized organs E.g. Flatworms

20 Pseudo body cavity Pseudocoelom: incomplete lining of body cavity by mesoderm E.g. Nematodes (round worms)

21 True Body Cavity True Coelom (Eucoelom) E.g. Annelids, Echinoderms, Chordates, Molluscs, Arthropods

22 Developmental differences Cell cleavage pattern Spiral - P Radial - D Gastrulation: gut formation Pore becomes mouth - P Pore becomes anus - D Coelom formation As independent block of tissue - P As eversion of endoderm - D

23 Diverse feeding modes Suspension Deposit Mass Fluid

24 Diverse food choices Adaptations for food acquisition Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Detritivores Predators Parasites Endo & ecto

25 Animal Phylogeny

26 Protostome groups Ecdysozoa - growth by molting (ecdysis) Lophotrochozoa - growth by incremental additions

27 Defining characters Ecdysozoa - growth by molting Lophotrochozoa use cilia Lophophore: specialized feeding structure Trocophore larva: feeding & dispersal stage

28 Most Animals are Protostomes Arthropoda Insecta Chelicerates Crustaceans Mollusca

29 Coelom is reduced & reinvented Primary function: hydrostatic skeleton & space for circulating fluids In speciose groups, these jobs are absorbed by novel structures Arthropods: exoskeleton & muscles; hemocoel Molluscs: foot; visceral mass contains organs & circulates fluids

30 Water to Land Protostomes made the transition, but did so many times (many lineages) Necessary adaptations: Exchange gases in air vs. water Avoid desiccation Move in high gravity environment Once these appeared, diversification was rapid. Why? Protostomes move to land ~ 465 Mya, but first Vertebrates don t invade land until 360 Mya ~ 100 My of ecological opportunity on land

31 Further diversification Feeding adaptations for food gathering or capture Moving musculoskeletal systems Reproducing dispersing gametes protecting gametes & offspring preventing desiccation

32 Feeding Modification of mouthparts or appendages Allow all types of feeding Ecdysis allows juveniles & adults to specialize on different foods

33 Moving Determined by type of skeleton & appendages: Hydrostatic Ecto Endo

34 Sexual Reproduction External (sessile adults) or internal (mobile adults) Asexual (parthenogenic, fragmenting, splitting lengthwise) Metamorphosis Typical of taxa with sessile adults; dispersal stage Desiccation-resistant eggs membrane-bound (multiple terrestrial Arthropoda)

35 Porifera (Sponges) No symmetry No true tissues No nerves, no muscle, no body cavity, no skeleton; mixed layer of specialized cells Suspension feeders Hermaphrodites (most are sequential)

36 Cnidarians & Ctenophores Corals, jellyfish, anemones Radial symmetry True Tissues! Cnidocytes for prey capture Gastrovascular cavity In & out tubes are same Hydrostatic skeleton Reproductive system Gonads (testes, ovaries)

37 Lophotrochozoans

38 Ecdysozoans

39 Arthropoda

40 Nematoda

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