3. Choanoflagellates resemble what? What is the significance of this resemblance?

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1 I. Animal Diversity 1. What are some basic characteristics of the animal kingdom? What characteristics make them different from plants? - Eukaryotic, heterotrophic (we don t make our own food), we store carbohydrates as glycogen, sexual reproduction is dominant form of reproduction, no cell wall, gastrulation occurs - Plants have a cell wall, undergo sexual and asexual reproduction, store carbohydrates as starch, do not undergo gastrulation (but do have embryonic tissue) 2. What is gastrulation? Is this kingdom specific? Phylum specific? Explain the basic process of embryonic development Gastrulation is the process by which different embryonic tissues form in the blastula. Gastrulation is specific to Kingdom Animalia (excluding sponges) but occurs in all phyla (except for sponges) ** You do not have to know super specifics of embryonic development for this test so only know the details presented in the book for this chapter Process: 1. The zygote undergoes cell division (mitosis) to form an eight- celled embryo 2. Cell division continues to create a blastula which is a hollow ball of cells 3. Gastrulation occurs once the blastula has formed. A portion of the cells begin to fold inward a. The archenteron is the hollow portion in the center- this becomes the gut b. The outside cells become the ectoderm (think epidermis of skin=outer) c. The inside cells become the endoderm d. The blastopore becomes either the mouth (protostome) or anus (Deuterostome) ** Animals with 2 tissues are called DIPLOBLASTIC. Animals with 3 tissues are called TRIPLOBLASTIC. All animals with tissues possess ectoderm and endoderm. Animals with 3 layers (triploblastic) have mesoderm 3. Choanoflagellates resemble what? What is the significance of this resemblance? Choanoflagellates resemble the collar cells (choanocytes) in sponges. This demonstrates there is a common ancestor that links all animals If you are confused think back to the plants. Green algae is similar to the charophytes which demonstrated a common ancestor.

2 4. What are the two types of symmetry? How do they differ? Bilateral: animals are split into two halves, they have sides (left /right) Radial: like a pie, these animals have no distinct sides Why is this important? Most of the more advanced organisms have bilateral symmetry, why? Bilateral animals have a left and a right side that need to communicate. Think about the brain. The left side and the right side need to have a way to communicate in order to have optimal functioning. The same principle applies to animals. The left and the right sides need to communicate in order for the organism to function efficiently. How do they communicate? Some sort of nervous system/tissue! Nervous tissues allow animals to integrate senses which allows them to have advanced functions 5. Complete the following chart: Acoelomate Type of Coelom Organization of body cavity No body cavity (coelom) The outer portion is lined with ectoderm The middle portion is filled with mesoderm Endoderm lines the digestive cavity *These animals have no body cavity, which means they have no room for internal organs. No organs=less specialized, this is why there are no higher level organisms with acoelomate body structure Pseudocoelomate Outer portion of body is lined with ectoderm Mesoderm lines the ectoderm Digestive tract is lined with endoderm only *These animals have a PARTIALLY lined body cavity (hence why they are named

3 pseudo- ). The presence of the cavity allows them to have some organs/supportive structures but the lack of a TOTALLY lined cavity provides little support Coelomate Outer portion of body is lined with ectoderm Mesoderm lines both the ectoderm and the digestive tract with a space in between the layers (coelom) *The presence of a cavity with lined mesoderm allows for muscular support and internal organs. This is why the higher order animals are coelomates 6. Complete the following table Protostome Deuterostome Cleavage Spiral and determinate Radial and indeterminate Coelom Formation Masses of mesoderm form on each side of the archenteron near the blastopore and grow towards the cavity Mesoderm grows as an out pocket of the archenteron Fate of Blastopore Blastopore becomes mouth Blastopore becomes anus 7. What is the Parazoa/Eumetazoa split? Parazoa are sponges, which lack true tissues. Because sponges lack tissues they have no symmetry and are classified as asymmetric. When the phylum tree splits from Parazoa to Eumetazoa tissues appear. Eumetazoa have tissues and symmetry

4 II. Animal Phyla Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Parazoa Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera Y/N tissues No Y/N organ systems No Symmetry: asymmetric Body plan: sac type Digestion: intracellular They feed by: Collar Cells: drive water past the cells via flagella Amoebocytes: distribute food, store food, rid of wastes Reproduction: Asexual or budding Larvae is ciliated Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Eumetazoa Phylum Cnidaria Phylum Cnidaria Y/N Tissues No Y/N vascular system No Symmetry: Radial Digestion Extracellular They have nerve nets which are noncentralized arrangements of neurons Cnidocytes which are unique to this phylum have a nematocyst which is a whip like barb Alternation of generation: polyp (stationary) and medusa (free floating) Class Hydrazoa Exist on as a polyp Larva are called planula

5 Class Scyphozoa Medusa is the dominant stage Known as the true jellyfish Class Cubozoa Known as box jellies and sea wasps Class Anthozoa Only stage present is _polyp Includes the _corals and sea anemones Build coral reefs through coral skeletons Symbiotic relationship with algae called zooxanthellae The skeletons of corals are hydrostatic meaning their cells can contract Phylum Ctenophora Commonly known as the comb jellies due to their 8 comb rows Symmetry: radial These are the largest animals to use _cilia to move Y/N tissues THE ACOELOMATES Phylum Platyhelminthes Commonly known as the flatworms They have a branched gastrovascular cavity with extracellular and intracellular digestion Y/N circulatory system No Y/N respiratory system No Have special flame cells located in the protonephridia which aide in excretion (These are comparable to the human kidney) Have nerve chords which help to communicate with the left and right sides of the body Body Plan: tube in tube Class Turbellaria Includes the Planaria Haveeye spots which are only sensitive to light Are capable of learning Class Trematoda Commonly known as the flukes Y/N all are parasitic Yes

6 Class Cestoda Commonly known as the tapeworms Scolex is the head region Have proglottids which are repeating sections of reproductive organs BY 124 SI The Pseudocoelomates Phylum Rotifera Commonly known as the rotifers These are special in that they each organism has the same number of cells Use a mastax to grind food Parthenogenesis can occur Have a complete digestive system Body plan: tube in tube Y/N organs Yes Phylum Nematoda Commonly known as the round worms Can be free- living or parasitic Have a hydrostatic skeleton Body Plan: tube in tube Y/N organs Yes Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Parazoa Phylum Porifera Subkingdom Eumetazoa Phylum Cnidaria Class Hydrozoa Class Scyphozoa Class Cubozoa Class Anthozoa Phylum Ctenophora Acoelomates Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Turbellaria Class Trematoda Class Cestoda

7 Pseudocoelomates Phylum Rotifera Phylum Nematoda BY 124 SI

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