Chapter 32 Introduction to Animal Diversity

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 32 Introduction to Animal Diversity"

Transcription

1 Chapter 32 Introduction to Animal Diversity

2 Review: Biology 101 There are 3 domains: They are Archaea Bacteria Protista! Eukarya

3 Endosymbiosis (proposed by Lynn Margulis) is a relationship between two species in which one organism lives inside the cell or cells of the other organism (the host) This is the root of the diversity of life.

4 Mitochondria and plastids are derived from prokaryotes that were engulfed by the ancestors of early eukaryotic cells Mitochondria evolved once by endosymbiosis of an alpha proteobacterium The ancestral host cell may have been an archaean or a protoeukaryote, from a lineage related to, but diverged from archaeal ancestors

5 What makes a Kingdom? A Kingdom is a division of life, right under Domain. Boundless. The Levels of Classification. Boundless Biology. Boundless, 03 Jul Retrieved 12 Dec from ess-biology-textbook/phylogenies-and-the-history-of-life- 20/organizing-life-on-earth-133/the-levels-of-classification //

6 Welcome to Your Kingdom The animal kingdom extends far beyond humans and other animals we may encounter 1.3 million living species of animals have been identified Fig. 32-1

7 Animal characteristics Animals are heterotrophs that ingest their food

8 What makes an Animal? Animals are multicellular eukaryotes Heterotrophs that digest internally Their cells lack cell walls Their bodies are held together by structural proteins such as collagen Nervous tissue and muscle tissue are unique to animals

9 Reproduction and Development Most animals reproduce sexually, with the diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes rapid cell division called cleavage Cleavage leads to formation of a blastula The blastula undergoes gastrulation, forming a gastrula with different layers of embryonic tissues

10 The Earth is very old The Earth is about 4.5 billion (4,500,000,000) years old. The geological time scale divides up this vast time interval.

11 The history of animals spans more than half a billion years The animal kingdom includes a great diversity of living species and an even greater diversity of extinct ones The common ancestor of living animals may have lived between 675 and 875 million years ago This ancestor may have resembled modern choanoflagellates, protists that are the closest living relatives of animals

12 The oldest fossils (bacteria) are between 3 billion and 3.5 billion years old. More complex animals appeared in the oceans about 565 million years ago, and became much more common about 542 million years ago. This is the start of a division of geological time called the Phanerozoic Eon. Phanerozoic means "visible life", and is the time in which fossils are abundant.

13 Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion 524 Million Years Ago) Early members of the animal fossil record include the Ediacaran biota, (pre-cambrian) which dates from 565 to 550 million years ago All life was soft-bodied Mawsonites spriggi Spriggina floundersi

14 Paleozoic Era ( Million Years Ago) The Cambrian explosion (535 to 525 million years ago) marks the earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals Several hypotheses regarding the explosion 1. New predator-prey relationships 2. A rise in atmospheric oxygen 3. The evolution of the Hox gene complex

15 Fig. 32-5

16 Animal diversity continued to increase through the Paleozoic, but was punctuated by mass extinctions Animals began to make an impact on land by 460 million years ago Vertebrates made the transition to land around 360 million years ago

17 Mesozoic Era ( Million Years Ago) Coral reefs emerged, becoming important marine ecological niches for other organisms During the Mesozoic era, dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates The first mammals emerged

18

19 Cenozoic Era (65.5 Million Years Ago to the Present) The beginning of the Cenozoic era followed mass extinctions of both terrestrial and marine animals These extinctions included the large, nonflying dinosaurs and the marine reptiles Modern mammal orders and insects diversified during the Cenozoic

20 Animals can be characterized by body plans A body plan is a set of morphological and developmental traits we will classify animals by: 1. Symmetry 2. Tissues 3. Type of body Cavity 4. Fate of the blastopore

21 All animals, and only animals, have Hox (Homeobox) genes Hox regulates the development of body form Lay out the basic body form of all animals it doesn t matter if it s a mouse s head or a fly s head that is being built, the same gene directs the process Jellyfish have only two Hox genes, bilateria have at least seven.

22 Metamorphosis - Some animals change body plans during their life-cycle Many animals have at least one larval stage A larva is sexually immature and morphologically distinct from the adult; it eventually undergoes metamorphosis

23 1. Symmetry Animals can be categorized according to the symmetry of their bodies, or lack of it Sponges are asymmetrical they have asymmetry

24 1. Symmetry Animals can be categorized according to the symmetry of their bodies, or lack of it Some animals have radial symmetry Fig. Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings (a) Radial symmetry

25 1. Symmetry (b) Bilateral symmetry Bilaterally symmetrical animals have: A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side A right and left side Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends Cephalization, the development of a head Fig. Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

26 2. Tissues Tissues are collections of specialized cells isolated from other tissues by membranous layers During development germ layers give rise to the tissues and organs of the animal embryo

27 2. Tissues Ectoderm is the germ layer covering the embryo s surface Endoderm is the innermost germ layer and lines the developing digestive tube. Diploblastic animals have ectoderm and endoderm Triploblastic animals also have an intervening mesoderm layer; these include all bilaterians

28 3. Body Cavities Most triploblastic animals possess a body cavity A true body cavity is called a coelom and is derived from mesoderm

29 3. Body Cavities Animals that are Diploblastic (like jellyfish) or do not form a blastula (like sponges) have no body cavity. We say that they have No Coelom

30 3. Body Cavities Triploblastic animals that lack a body cavity are called acoelomates Body covering (from ectoderm) Tissuefilled region (from mesoderm) Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm) (c) Acoelomate

31 3. Body Cavities A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the mesoderm and endoderm Triploblastic animals that possess a pseudocoelom are called pseudocoelomates Body covering (from ectoderm) Pseudocoelom Digestive tract (from endoderm) Muscle layer (from mesoderm) (b) Pseudocoelomate

32 3. Body Cavities Coelomates are animals that possess a true coelom Coelom Body covering (from ectoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) (a) Coelomate Fig. 32-8a

33 4. Protostome and Deuterostome Development Based on early development, many animals can be categorized as having protostome development or deuterostome development Blastocoel Cleavage Cleavage Blastula Endoderm Ectoderm Zygote Eight-cell stage Archenteron Gastrulation Gastrula Blastocoel Blastopore Cross section of blastula

34 4. Protostome and Deuterostome Development The blastopore forms during gastrulation Protostome:blastopore becomes the mouth Deuterostome: the blastopore becomes the anus Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) Anus Digestive tube Mouth (c) Fate of the blastopore Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Mouth Anus Mouth develops from blastopore. Anus develops from blastopore. Fig. 32-9c

35 4. Protostome and Deuterostome Development Protostome: the splitting of solid masses of mesoderm forms the coelom Deuterostome: the mesoderm buds from the wall of the archenteron to form the coelom Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) Coelom Archenteron Coelom (b) Coelom formation Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Mesoderm Blastopore Blastopore Mesoderm Solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom. Folds of archenteron form coelom. Fig. 32-9b

36 Porifera Figure ANCESTRAL PROTIST Metazoa 770 million years ago Eumetazoa 680 million years ago Bilateria 670 million years ago Deuterostomia Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa Ctenophora Cnidaria Acoela Hemichordata Echinodermata Chordata Platyhelminthes Rotifera Ectoprocta Brachiopoda Mollusca Annelida Nematoda Arthropoda

37 Five important points about the relationships among living animals are reflected in their phylogeny 1. All animals share a common ancestor 2. Sponges are basal animals 3. True animals Eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissues 4. Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria 5. Most animals (95%) are invertebrates, animals that lack a backbone, only some Chordata, are classified as vertebrates.

38 You should now be able to: 1. List the characteristics define animals 2. Summarize key events of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras 3. Distinguish between the following pairs or sets of terms: radial and bilateral symmetry; grade and clade of animal taxa; diploblastic and triploblastic; spiral and radial cleavage; determinate and indeterminate cleavage; acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate grades

39 4. Compare the developmental differences between protostomes and deuterostomes 5. Compare the alternate relationships of annelids and arthropods presented by two different proposed phylogenetic trees 6. Distinguish between ecdysozoans and lophotrochozoans

8/23/2014. Introduction to Animal Diversity

8/23/2014. Introduction to Animal Diversity Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 32 Objectives List the characteristics that combine to define animals Summarize key events of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras Distinguish between the

More information

An Introduction to Animal Diversity

An Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Overview: Welcome to Your Kingdom The animal kingdom

More information

Animal Origins and Evolution

Animal Origins and Evolution Animal Origins and Evolution Common Features of Animals multicellular heterotrophic motile Sexual reproduction, embryo Evolution of Animals All animals are multicellular and heterotrophic, which means

More information

Biology 11. The Kingdom Animalia

Biology 11. The Kingdom Animalia Biology 11 The Kingdom Animalia Objectives By the end of the lesson you should be able to: Describe the 5 ways we classify animals Symmetry Germ layers Body plan Segmentation Animal Evolution Hank Video

More information

What Is an Animal? Section 25.1 Typical Animal Characteristics. I. Characteristics of Animals. Biology II Mrs. Michaelsen

What Is an Animal? Section 25.1 Typical Animal Characteristics. I. Characteristics of Animals. Biology II Mrs. Michaelsen What Is an Animal? Section 25.1 Typical Animal Characteristics Biology II Mrs. Michaelsen I. Characteristics of Animals A. All animals are eukaryotic, multicellular, have ways of moving to reproduce, obtain

More information

Introduction to Animal Kingdom. Invertebrates and Vertebrates

Introduction to Animal Kingdom. Invertebrates and Vertebrates Introduction to Animal Kingdom Invertebrates and Vertebrates Introduction To Animals Vertebrate animal with a backbone. Invertebrate animal without a backbone; includes more than 95% of all animal species

More information

Chapter 32. Objectives. Table of Contents. Characteristics. Characteristics, continued. Section 1 The Nature of Animals

Chapter 32. Objectives. Table of Contents. Characteristics. Characteristics, continued. Section 1 The Nature of Animals Introduction to Animals Table of Contents Objectives Identify four important characteristics of animals. List two kinds of tissues found only in animals. Explain how the first animals may have evolved

More information

3. Choanoflagellates resemble what? What is the significance of this resemblance?

3. Choanoflagellates resemble what? What is the significance of this resemblance? I. Animal Diversity 1. What are some basic characteristics of the animal kingdom? What characteristics make them different from plants? - Eukaryotic, heterotrophic (we don t make our own food), we store

More information

Chapter 8-9 Intro to Animals. Image from:

Chapter 8-9 Intro to Animals. Image from: Chapter 8-9 Intro to Animals Image from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.html Zoology Definition: the scientific study of the behavior, structure, physiology, classification, and distribution

More information

Workshop: The Evolution of Animalia body symmetry embryonic germ layers ontogenetic origins I. What is an Animal? II. Germ Layers

Workshop: The Evolution of Animalia body symmetry embryonic germ layers ontogenetic origins I. What is an Animal? II. Germ Layers Workshop: The Evolution of Animalia by Dana Krempels Perhaps even more than the other Eukarya, Animalia is characterized by a distinct progression of complexity in form and function as one moves from the

More information

1/30/2009. Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

1/30/2009. Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 9 Architectural Pattern of an Animal New Designs for Living Zoologists recognize 34 major phyla of living multicellular animals Survivors of around 100 phyla that appeared 600 million years ago

More information

Chapter 32 Intro to Animals. Image from:

Chapter 32 Intro to Animals. Image from: Chapter 32 Intro to Animals Image from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.html Animals Invertebrates (animals without a backbone) Porifera Cnidaria Worms Mollusks Echinoderms Arthropods Animals

More information

Kingdom Animalia - Evolution of Form and Function by Dana Krempels

Kingdom Animalia - Evolution of Form and Function by Dana Krempels Kingdom Animalia - Evolution of Form and Function by Dana Krempels A. Identification of synapomorphies defining major animal taxa Note the characters in the table below. Each should be placed on the phylogenetic

More information

The Evolution of Animal Diversity. Dr. Stephen J. Salek Biology 130 Fayetteville State University

The Evolution of Animal Diversity. Dr. Stephen J. Salek Biology 130 Fayetteville State University The Evolution of Animal Diversity Dr. Stephen J. Salek Biology 130 Fayetteville State University Create your own animal? Start with a basic plant. Make the plant into a simple animal such as a worm. Consider:

More information

Workshop: The Evolution of Animalia body symmetry embryonic germ layers ontogenetic origins I. What is an Animal?

Workshop: The Evolution of Animalia body symmetry embryonic germ layers ontogenetic origins I. What is an Animal? Workshop: The Evolution of Animalia by Dana Krempels Perhaps even more than the other Eukarya, Animalia is characterized by a distinct progression of complexity in form and function as one moves from the

More information

Unit 10: Animals Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total)

Unit 10: Animals Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) Name: AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 7th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity 1. Define the following

More information

The Animals, or Metazoa. Approximate proportions of animal species presently known; The true diversity of animals may be more than 90% Arthropods

The Animals, or Metazoa. Approximate proportions of animal species presently known; The true diversity of animals may be more than 90% Arthropods The Animals, or Metazoa Are some of the best-studied organisms Comprise over a million known species Originated c. the Cambrian (~550 MYA) Most animal phyla are marine; however, due to the diversity of

More information

The Radiata-Bilateria split. Second branching in the evolutionary tree

The Radiata-Bilateria split. Second branching in the evolutionary tree The Radiata-Bilateria split Second branching in the evolutionary tree Two very important characteristics are used to distinguish between the second bifurcation of metazoans Body symmetry Germinal layers

More information

Invertebrate Survey Lab

Invertebrate Survey Lab Answer these questions before lab. 1. What kingdom do all animals fall into? a. Protist b. Animalia c. Eukarya 2. How many phyla of invertebrates are in appendix E on pages 1074-1076? a. 9 b. 7 c. 8 3.

More information

Questions in developmental biology. Differentiation Morphogenesis Growth/apoptosis Reproduction Evolution Environmental integration

Questions in developmental biology. Differentiation Morphogenesis Growth/apoptosis Reproduction Evolution Environmental integration Questions in developmental biology Differentiation Morphogenesis Growth/apoptosis Reproduction Evolution Environmental integration Representative cell types of a vertebrate zygote => embryo => adult differentiation

More information

Eukaryote Phylogeny. Glycogen. Kingdom Animalia. Amoebozoa Animalia. Plantae. Chromalveolata Rhizaria. Fungi. Excavata

Eukaryote Phylogeny. Glycogen. Kingdom Animalia. Amoebozoa Animalia. Plantae. Chromalveolata Rhizaria. Fungi. Excavata Eukaryote Phylogeny most protozoans, brown algae, & water molds Excavata Chromalveolata Rhizaria Plantae Amoebozoa Animalia Fungi cpsts. w/ 2 memb. chitin, hyphae glycogen eukaryotic cells (nucleus, etc.)

More information

What defines the zygote, the blastula, and the gastrula? Draw pictures.

What defines the zygote, the blastula, and the gastrula? Draw pictures. What makes a multicellular organism multicellular? a) Multiple cells b) Multiple cells that work together c) Specialized cells d) Multiple specialized cells that work together What defines the zygote,

More information

Kingdom Animalia. Special Features: Advanced nervous systems means cephalization (faces), brains, and efficient mobility (walk/run/swim/grab)

Kingdom Animalia. Special Features: Advanced nervous systems means cephalization (faces), brains, and efficient mobility (walk/run/swim/grab) Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Animalia Cell Number: Multicellular with extensive specialization Cell Type: Eukaryotic Animal Cells (no cell wall) Food: Heterotrophic Carnivore (meat), Herbivore (plants), Omnivore

More information

Overview of Animal Diversity

Overview of Animal Diversity Chapter 32 CHAPTER Overview of Animal Diversity Chapter Outline 32.1 Some General Features of Animals 32.2 Evolution of the Animal Body Plan 32.3 The Classification of Animals 32.4 The Roots of the Animal

More information

31.1 What Evidence Indicates the Animals Are Monophyletic?

31.1 What Evidence Indicates the Animals Are Monophyletic? 31.1 What Evidence Indicates the Animals Are Monophyletic? What traits distinguish the animals from the other groups of organisms? In contrast to the Bacteria, Archaea, and most microbial eukaryotes, all

More information

Unit 10: Animals Guided Reading Questions (100 pts total)

Unit 10: Animals Guided Reading Questions (100 pts total) Name: AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 7th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity 1. Define the following

More information

Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 07 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida ANIMALIA. (More Similar to Fungi than Plants)

Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 07 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida ANIMALIA. (More Similar to Fungi than Plants) Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 07 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida ANIMALIA (More Similar to Fungi than Plants) ANIMAL SIMILARITIES PLANTS FUNGI Cell Walls - Immobile - Often need - substrate - Heterotrophs

More information

AP: CHAPTER 18: the Genetics of VIRUSES p What makes microbes good models to study molecular mechanisms? 4. What is a bacteriophage?

AP: CHAPTER 18: the Genetics of VIRUSES p What makes microbes good models to study molecular mechanisms? 4. What is a bacteriophage? AP: CHAPTER 18: the Genetics of VIRUSES p328-340 1. What makes microbes good models to study molecular mechanisms? Name Per 2. How were viruses first discovered? 3. What are the two basic components of

More information

If done properly, is based on evolutionary relationships (at least to some extent). Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> species

If done properly, is based on evolutionary relationships (at least to some extent). Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> species Taxonomy. (Your text makes a real mess of this. Use these notes as a guide through the book.) Study of classifying and naming organisms. Founded by Linnaeus. If done properly, is based on evolutionary

More information

What Is an Animal? Animals come in many shapes, forms, and sizes. About 98 percent of all animals are invertebrates. The Kingdom Animalia

What Is an Animal? Animals come in many shapes, forms, and sizes. About 98 percent of all animals are invertebrates. The Kingdom Animalia What Is an Animal? What characteristics do all animals have? Animals come in many shapes, forms, and sizes. Scientists estimate that there are between 1 and 2 million species of animals! Some, like whales

More information

Biology 340 Comparative Embryology Lecture 4 Dr. Stuart Sumida. Overview of Pre-Metazoan. and Protostome Development (Insects)

Biology 340 Comparative Embryology Lecture 4 Dr. Stuart Sumida. Overview of Pre-Metazoan. and Protostome Development (Insects) Biology 340 Comparative Embryology Lecture 4 Dr. Stuart Sumida Overview of Pre-Metazoan and Protostome Development (Insects) Plants Fungi Animals In1998 fossilized animal embryos were reported from the

More information

Classification. The three-domains. The six-kingdom system. The traditional five-kingdom system. Bacteria Archaea Eukarya

Classification. The three-domains. The six-kingdom system. The traditional five-kingdom system. Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Classification The three-domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya The six-kingdom system Bacteria Archaea Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia The traditional five-kingdom system Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia

More information

Class Webpage. Forms of Diversity. biol170/biol170syl.htm

Class Webpage. Forms of Diversity.  biol170/biol170syl.htm Class Webpage http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~efc/classes/ biol170/biol170syl.htm What is an animal? While there are exceptions, five criteria distinguish animals from other life forms. (1)Animals are multicellular,

More information

Chapter Study Guide Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages )

Chapter Study Guide Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages ) Name Class Date Chapter Study Guide Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages 417-422) Key Concepts What is the fossil record? What information do relative dating and radioactive dating provide about fossils?

More information

Chapter 33: Invertebrates

Chapter 33: Invertebrates Name Period Chapters 31, 32, and 33 should be considered as a single unit, and you should try to put all of them together in a single conceptual framework. Due to the scope of our course, you are likely

More information

Introduction to Animal Diversity. Chapter 23.1, 23.2 and additional

Introduction to Animal Diversity. Chapter 23.1, 23.2 and additional Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 23.1, 23.2 and additional 1 Think of an Animal... Does your choice have hair or fur? Does it have a skeleton? Over a million species of animals described 95% have

More information

An Introduction to the Invertebrates, Part One Phyla Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora. Reference: Chapter 33.1, 33.2

An Introduction to the Invertebrates, Part One Phyla Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora. Reference: Chapter 33.1, 33.2 An Introduction to the Invertebrates, Part One Phyla Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora Reference: Chapter 33.1, 33.2 Overview: Life Without a Backbone v Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone

More information

Evolution and diversity of organisms

Evolution and diversity of organisms Evolution and diversity of organisms Competency Levels - 7 3.1.1 Uses the theories of origin of life and natural selection to analyze the process of evolution of life 3.2.1 Constructs hierarchy of taxa

More information

History of Life on Earth The Geological Time- Scale

History of Life on Earth The Geological Time- Scale History of Life on Earth The Geological Time- Scale Agenda or Summary Layout The Geological Time-Scale 1 2 3 The Geological Time-Scale The Beginning of Life Cambrian Explosion The Geological Time-Scale

More information

An Introduction to the Invertebrates

An Introduction to the Invertebrates An Introduction to the Invertebrates Janet Moore New Hall, Cambridge niustrations by Raith Overhill Second Edition. :::.. CAMBRIDGE :: UNIVERSITY PRESS ~nts ao Paulo, Delhi rcss, New York._ MOO 586 List

More information

Kingdom: Animals. AP Biology Common ancestor. Domain Eukarya. Domain Archaea. Domain Eubacteria

Kingdom: Animals. AP Biology Common ancestor. Domain Eukarya. Domain Archaea. Domain Eubacteria Kingdom: Animals Domain Eukarya Domain Eubacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya 2007-2008 Common ancestor Animal Characteristics Heterotrophs must ingest others for nutrients Multicellular complex bodies

More information

The History of Life. Fossils and Ancient Life (page 417) How Fossils Form (page 418) Interpreting Fossil Evidence (pages ) Chapter 17

The History of Life. Fossils and Ancient Life (page 417) How Fossils Form (page 418) Interpreting Fossil Evidence (pages ) Chapter 17 Chapter 17 The History of Life Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages 417 422) This section explains how fossils form and how they can be interpreted. It also describes the geologic time scale that is used

More information

Protists. Simple Eukaryotes. Regents Biology Common ancestor. Domain Archaebacteria. Domain Eukaryotes. Domain Bacteria

Protists. Simple Eukaryotes. Regents Biology Common ancestor. Domain Archaebacteria. Domain Eukaryotes. Domain Bacteria Protists Simple Eukaryotes Domain Bacteria Domain Archaebacteria Domain Eukaryotes Regents Biology 2006-2007 Common ancestor General characteristics Classification criteria eukaryotes not animal, plant

More information

Unit 9: Diversity of Life Guided Reading Questions (90 pts total)

Unit 9: Diversity of Life Guided Reading Questions (90 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Chapter 27 Bacteria and Archaea Unit 9: Diversity of Life Guided Reading

More information

Chapter 24 Introduction to Animals

Chapter 24 Introduction to Animals 1 Chapter 24 Introduction to Animals I. Animal characteristics A. General Animal Features Multicellular B. Feeding and Digestion a. acquire nutrients from various sources obtaining nutrients unique to

More information

EVOLUTION OF COMPLEX LIFE FORMS

EVOLUTION OF COMPLEX LIFE FORMS 0.002 0.6 1.0 1.9 2.8 Ancestral humans Diversification of mammals Invasion of the land Diversification of animals Origin of the major eukaryotic groups Eukaryotic cells abundant Atmospheric oxygen plentiful

More information

Ms. SASTRY 1 Chapter in class follow along lecture notes

Ms. SASTRY 1 Chapter in class follow along lecture notes Ms. SASTRY 1 Chapter 26 34 in class follow along lecture notes Chp 26 Origin of life: 1) When did earth form? 2) What is the order of evolution of life forms on earth? 3) What were their modes of nutrition

More information

PSI Biology Classification Classification

PSI Biology Classification Classification Classification Classification & Naming Classwork 1. What is the correct order of the current classification hierarchy, from most general to most specific? 2. Are two organisms in domain more or less closely

More information

Summary The Fossil Record Earth s Early History. Name Class Date

Summary The Fossil Record Earth s Early History. Name Class Date Name Class Date Chapter 17 Summary The History of Life 17 1 The Fossil Record Fossils are preserved traces and remains of ancient life. Scientists who study fossils are called paleontologists. They use

More information

What is an animal? Introduction to Animals. Germ Layers. Tissues and Organs. Structural Support. Types of Symmetry 11/3/2015

What is an animal? Introduction to Animals. Germ Layers. Tissues and Organs. Structural Support. Types of Symmetry 11/3/2015 What is an animal? Introduction to Animals Multicellular chemoorganoheterotrophs Eukaryotes that lack cell walls and chloroplasts Have mitochondria Are motile at some point in their lives Contain collagen

More information

INTRODUCTION TO ANIMALS

INTRODUCTION TO ANIMALS CHAPTER 32 INTRODUCTION TO ANIMALS The diversity of animal life is staggering. Animals have adapted to Earth s lushest environments and to its harshest environments. This Sally Lightfoot crab, Grapsus

More information

Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages )

Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages ) Name Class Date Chapter 17 The History of Life Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages 417 422) This section explains how fossils form and how they can be interpreted. It also describes the geologic time

More information

Chps : Animals. Characteristics of kingdom Animalia: Multicellular Heterotrophic Most are motile Possess sense organs

Chps : Animals. Characteristics of kingdom Animalia: Multicellular Heterotrophic Most are motile Possess sense organs Chps 23-26: Animals Chps. 23-27: Animals Characteristics of kingdom Animalia: Multicellular Heterotrophic Most are motile Possess sense organs Animal Characteristics Forms of symmetry: Radial Bilateral

More information

Chapter 12. Life of the Paleozoic

Chapter 12. Life of the Paleozoic Chapter 12 Life of the Paleozoic Paleozoic Invertebrates Representatives of most major invertebrate phyla were present during Paleozoic, including sponges, corals, bryozoans, brachiopods, mollusks, arthropods,

More information

Outline 11: Fossil Record of Early Life Life in the Precambrian

Outline 11: Fossil Record of Early Life Life in the Precambrian Outline 11: Fossil Record of Early Life Life in the Precambrian Time Line 0.545 BY animals with hard parts, start of the Phanerozoic Eon 0.600 BY first animals, no hard parts 2.0 BY first definite eukaryotes

More information

Classification: Evolution:

Classification: Evolution: Review for Final Exam Suggestions All material covered in the course is testable. The following are suggested topics to cover, but is not meant to be an exhaustive list. Topics that are not listed but

More information

Blastocoelomates. General Features. General Features. Phylogenetic Relationships. Phylogenetic Relationships

Blastocoelomates. General Features. General Features. Phylogenetic Relationships. Phylogenetic Relationships General Features Blastocoelomates 1. A large and heterogeneous group. a. also known as "Aschelminthes" - cavity worms. General Features b. Nearly any source you consult will have a different arrangement

More information

Third and Ten Part B Chapters 26-30

Third and Ten Part B Chapters 26-30 Third and Ten Part hapters 26-30 What a plant needs: arbon (O 2 ) Hydrogen (H 2 O) Oxygen (O 2, O 2 & H 2 0) Other nutrients are absorbed through the roots -- phosphorous, potassium, nitrogen, sulfur,

More information

Science 316 Sample questions, exam 3. Sun

Science 316 Sample questions, exam 3. Sun Notes: This sample exam contains questions primarily relevant to the final 3 rd of the class (though some will also require remembering earlier material). Remember, however, that your final will be cumulative

More information

Zoological Systematics & Taxonomy

Zoological Systematics & Taxonomy Name: PRE-LAB This lab is designed to introduce you to the basics of animal classification (systematics) and taxonomy of animals. This is a field that is constantly changing with the discovery of new animals,

More information

THE EVOLUTION OF METAZOAN AXIAL PROPERTIES

THE EVOLUTION OF METAZOAN AXIAL PROPERTIES THE EVOLUTION OF METAZOAN AXIAL PROPERTIES Mark Q. Martindale Abstract Renewed interest in the developmental basis of organismal complexity, and the emergence of new molecular tools, is improving our ability

More information

Of all the kingdoms of organisms, the animal kingdom is the

Of all the kingdoms of organisms, the animal kingdom is the 26 1 Introduction to the Animal Kingdom Of all the kingdoms of organisms, the animal kingdom is the most diverse in appearance. Some animals are so small that they live on or inside the bodies of other

More information

Classification Chapter 18

Classification Chapter 18 Classification Chapter 18 The domain system Prokaryotic domains Bacteria and Archaea Eukaryotes Are in the domain Eukarya Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Earliest organisms Prokaryotes Eukoryotes Figure 15.10B

More information

CHAPTER 32 INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL EVOLUTION. Section A: What is an animal?

CHAPTER 32 INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL EVOLUTION. Section A: What is an animal? CHAPTER 32 INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL EVOLUTION Section A: What is an animal? 1. Structure, nutrition, and life history define animals 2. The animal kingdom probably evolved from a colonial, flagellated protist

More information

13.1 Biological Classification - Kingdoms and Domains Modern species are divided into three large groups, or domains. Bacteria Archaea Eukarya

13.1 Biological Classification - Kingdoms and Domains Modern species are divided into three large groups, or domains. Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Chapter 13 Prospecting for Biological Gold Biodiversity and Classification 13.1 Biological Classification- How Many Species Exist? Biodiversity is the variety within and among living species Number of

More information

Chapter 7. Marine Animals Without a Backbone

Chapter 7. Marine Animals Without a Backbone Chapter 7 Marine Animals Without a Backbone General Characteristics of Animals Multicellular, diploid organisms with tissues, organs or organ systems in most Heterotrophic Require oxygen for aerobic

More information

Origins of Life. Fundamental Properties of Life. The Tree of Life. Chapter 26

Origins of Life. Fundamental Properties of Life. The Tree of Life. Chapter 26 Origins of Life The Tree of Life Cell is the basic unit of life Today all cells come from pre-existing cells Earth formed ~4.5 billion years ago (BYA) Chapter 26 As it cooled, chemically-rich oceans were

More information

Developmental Biology Biology 4361

Developmental Biology Biology 4361 Developmental Biology Biology 4361 The Anatomical Tradition 2009 A hen is only an egg s way of making a new egg. Samuel Butler, 1885 The Anatomical Tradition - Overview What is developmental biology? How

More information

introduction to the Animal Kingdom (pages $55-560) Formulating a Definition: Building Vocabulary Skills

introduction to the Animal Kingdom (pages $55-560) Formulating a Definition: Building Vocabulary Skills STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER Sponges, Cnidarians, and Unsegmented Worms Section 26-1 introduction to the Animal Kingdom (pages $55-560) SECTION REVIEW With this section you began your study of the animal kingdom.

More information

Name Class Date. After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions:

Name Class Date. After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: CHAPTER 14 3 Invertebrates SECTION Introduction to Animals BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What structures and systems perform basic life functions

More information

5/4/05 Biol 473 lecture

5/4/05 Biol 473 lecture 5/4/05 Biol 473 lecture animals shown: anomalocaris and hallucigenia 1 The Cambrian Explosion - 550 MYA THE BIG BANG OF ANIMAL EVOLUTION Cambrian explosion was characterized by the sudden and roughly simultaneous

More information

Chapter 8. Sponges Phylum Porifera Basic characteristics: simple asymmetric sessile

Chapter 8. Sponges Phylum Porifera Basic characteristics: simple asymmetric sessile Chapter 8 Key Concepts Sponges are asymmetric, sessile animals that filter food from the water circulating through their bodies. Sponges provide habitats for other animals. Cnidarians and ctenophores exhibit

More information

Chapter 18: Classification

Chapter 18: Classification Chapter 18: Classification Dichotomous Key A way to identify unknown organisms Contains major characteristics of groups of organisms Pairs of CONTRASTING descriptions 4. After each description key either

More information

12.1. KEY CONCEPT Fossils are a record of life that existed in the past. 68 Reinforcement Unit 4 Resource Book

12.1. KEY CONCEPT Fossils are a record of life that existed in the past. 68 Reinforcement Unit 4 Resource Book 12.1 THE FOSSIL RECORD KEY CONCEPT Fossils are a record of life that existed in the past. Fossils can form in several different ways: Permineralization occurs when water surrounds a hard structure such

More information

Fossils provide evidence of the change in organisms over time.

Fossils provide evidence of the change in organisms over time. Section 1: Fossils provide evidence of the change in organisms over time. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the similarities and differences between

More information

Animal Phyla: A Summary. Danilo V. Rogayan Jr. Faculty, College of Education, Arts and Sciences Ramon Magsaysay Technological University

Animal Phyla: A Summary. Danilo V. Rogayan Jr. Faculty, College of Education, Arts and Sciences Ramon Magsaysay Technological University Animal Phyla: A Summary Danilo V. Rogayan Jr. Faculty, College of Education, Arts and Sciences Ramon Magsaysay Technological University Phylum Platyhelminthes The phylum consists of four classes Turbellaria

More information

Biodiversity. The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life

Biodiversity. The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life Biodiversity The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life How the 6 kingdoms came about At first, only two kingdoms were recognized Then Haeckel proposed a third kingdom Protista (where protists had both plant

More information

Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages )

Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages ) Name Class Date Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages 417-422) Key Concepts What is the fossil record? What information do relative dating and radioactive dating provide about fossils? What are the main

More information

What is a Cnidarian?

What is a Cnidarian? Invertebrate What is a Cnidarian? 9000 species of jellyfishes, corals, sea anemones, hydras Mostly marine animals Radially symmetrical One body opening Two layers of cells organized into tissues with specific

More information

COWLEY COLLEGE & Area Vocational Technical School

COWLEY COLLEGE & Area Vocational Technical School COWLEY COLLEGE & Area Vocational Technical School COURSE PROCEDURE FOR GENERAL BIOLOGY II BIO4135 5 Credit Hours Student Level: This course is open to students on the college level in either the freshman

More information

A Brief History of Slime: 550 Million Years of Mollusks. David C. Campbell Gardner-Webb University

A Brief History of Slime: 550 Million Years of Mollusks. David C. Campbell Gardner-Webb University A Brief History of Slime: 550 Million Years of Mollusks David C. Campbell Gardner-Webb University pleuronaia@gmail.com What is a mollusk? Snails, slugs, clams, octopi, squid, etc. Common characteristics

More information

Biology 211 Fall 2013 Biodiversity, Ecology, and Conservation Biology

Biology 211 Fall 2013 Biodiversity, Ecology, and Conservation Biology Biology 211 Fall 2013 Biodiversity, Ecology, and Conservation Biology Dr. Bob Podolsky FINAL EXAM Study Guide This study guide condenses the set of questions I distributed on the midterm exam study guides.

More information

Study Guide. Biology 2101B. Science. Biodiversity. Adult Basic Education. Biology 2101A. Prerequisite: Credit Value: 1

Study Guide. Biology 2101B. Science. Biodiversity. Adult Basic Education. Biology 2101A. Prerequisite: Credit Value: 1 Adult Basic Education Science Biodiversity Prerequisite: Biology 2101A Credit Value: 1 Text: Biology. Bullard, Chetty, et al; McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2003. Biology Concentration Biology 1101 Biology 2101A

More information

EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION. An Overview

EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION. An Overview EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION An Overview 13.4 The study of fossils provides strong evidence for evolution The fossil record shows that organisms have evolved in a historical sequence The oldest known fossils

More information

Bossier Parish Community Master Syllabus. Course and Prefix Number: BLGY 102 Credit Hours: 3

Bossier Parish Community Master Syllabus. Course and Prefix Number: BLGY 102 Credit Hours: 3 Bossier Parish Community Master Syllabus Course and Prefix Number: BLGY 102 Credit Hours: 3 Course Title: General Biology II Course Prerequisites: BLGY 101 or equivalent Textbook: Mader, S. and M. Windelspecht;

More information

BIOLOGY. Classification & Phylogeny. Slide 1 / 92. Slide 2 / 92. Slide 3 / 92. Vocabulary Click on each word below to go to the definition.

BIOLOGY. Classification & Phylogeny. Slide 1 / 92. Slide 2 / 92. Slide 3 / 92. Vocabulary Click on each word below to go to the definition. Slide 1 / 92 Slide 2 / 92 BIOLOGY Classification & Phylogeny April 2013 www.njctl.org Vocabulary Click on each word below to go to the definition. Slide 3 / 92 acoelomate angiosperm bilateral symmetry

More information

Use Target Reading Skills

Use Target Reading Skills The Geologic Time Scale (pp. 286 297) This section tells why the geologic time scale is used to show Earth s history, and what the organisms were like and the major events that happened in the different

More information

b. By Proterozoic, - protected from solar radiation if about 10 M below surface of water - dominated by

b. By Proterozoic, - protected from solar radiation if about 10 M below surface of water - dominated by I. Diversification of Life A. Review 1. Hadean Eon a. b. 2. Archaean Eon a. Earliest fossils of b. Establishment of three major domains B. Proterozoic Eon (2.5 bya - 543 mya) 1. Emergence of the a. Rock

More information

Biology B. There are no objectives for this lesson.

Biology B. There are no objectives for this lesson. Biology B Course Summary This is the second of two courses that comprise Biology. This course is designed to prepare the student to confidently enter and complete college-level biology courses. The Glencoe

More information

McDougal Littell Science, Cells and Heredity MAZER PDF. IL Essential Lesson. IL Extend Lesson. Program Planning Guide LP page.

McDougal Littell Science, Cells and Heredity MAZER PDF. IL Essential Lesson. IL Extend Lesson. Program Planning Guide LP page. s7an-ppg-pc-il-002-012.indd 2 7/18/05 2:46:40 PM 2 McDougal Littell Science, Cells and Heredity Chapter 1: The Cell, pp. 6 37 1.1 The cell is the basic unit of living things. pp. 9 17 Explore: Activity

More information

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogenies Show Evolutionary Relationships

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogenies Show Evolutionary Relationships Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life You Must Know The taxonomic categories and how they indicate relatedness. How systematics is used to develop phylogenetic trees. How to construct a phylogenetic

More information

BI 101: Invertebrate Animals Announcements

BI 101: Invertebrate Animals Announcements BI 101: Invertebrate Animals Announcements Quiz #6 Friday Plants: Gymnosperms & Angiosperms Don t forget the prelab just the front page I have another lab to substitute the one in the packet--- food web

More information

Animal Body Plans. Aggregate Blind sac Tube-within-a-tube Segmented Molluscan Arthropod. Sponges. Acoelomate -Eucoelomate Annelid Mollusca Arthropoda

Animal Body Plans. Aggregate Blind sac Tube-within-a-tube Segmented Molluscan Arthropod. Sponges. Acoelomate -Eucoelomate Annelid Mollusca Arthropoda Animal Body Plans Aggregate Blind sac Tube-within-a-tube Segmented Molluscan Arthropod Sponges Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes Acoelomate -Eucoelomate Annelid Mollusca Arthropoda Size Constraints

More information

L IFE S CIENCE BASIC. NotB oring. Inventive Exercises to Sharpen Skills and Raise Achievement. Imogene Forte & Marjorie Frank

L IFE S CIENCE BASIC. NotB oring. Inventive Exercises to Sharpen Skills and Raise Achievement. Imogene Forte & Marjorie Frank The BASIC NotB oring SERIES SCIENCE SKILLS IP 403-0 MIDDLE GRADES L IFE S CIENCE Inventive Exercises to Sharpen Skills and Raise Achievement Series Concept & Development by Imogene Forte & Marjorie Frank

More information

BIOLOGY 144 MODULE OUTLINES AND STUDY OBJECTIVES

BIOLOGY 144 MODULE OUTLINES AND STUDY OBJECTIVES BIOLOGY 144 MODULE OUTLINES AND STUDY OBJECTIVES (2017) The module is based on the prescribed text (Biology:The Dynamic Science, 3 rd edition, Russell, Hertz, McMillan). The numbers in brackets represent

More information

Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 1 Chapter in class follow along lecture notes

Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 1 Chapter in class follow along lecture notes Ms.Sastry, AP Biology Unit 4/Chp 26 to 34/Diversity 1 Chapter 26 34 in class follow along lecture notes Chp 26 Origin of life: 1) When did earth form? 2) What is the order of evolution of life forms on

More information

Invertebrates 2. Cladograms. Cladograms. Cladograms. Cladistics example. Cladogram of Phyla covered in Bio 11

Invertebrates 2. Cladograms. Cladograms. Cladograms. Cladistics example. Cladogram of Phyla covered in Bio 11 Invertebrates 2 Cladogram of Phyla covered in Bio 11 Cladograms Cladograms are constructed using a method known as cladistics. This method analyzes a collection of heritable character data compiled by

More information

Architectural Pattern of an animal. Chapter 9

Architectural Pattern of an animal. Chapter 9 Architectural Pattern of an animal Chapter 9 What is an animal? Levels of organization and organismal complexity 5 major levels of complexity Unicellular Metazoan? Tissue Organ Organ systems Levels of

More information

Name: Date: ID: 3. What are some limitations to scientific models? - Most models include simplifications, approximations, and/or lack details

Name: Date: ID: 3. What are some limitations to scientific models? - Most models include simplifications, approximations, and/or lack details Name: Date: ID: 2 ND 9-WEEKS STUDY GUIDE Shared Answers Communication Skills 1. Define the term Scientific Model in your own terms. - A description of a system, theory, or phenomenon 2. List 5 things we

More information