Number of Species. Taxonomy and Animal Phylogeny. Approx. 1.5 million species known. Taxonomy = Systematics = Phylogeny. Miller and Harley Chap.

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1 Taxonomy and Animal Phylogeny Miller and Harley Chap. 7 Number of Species Approx. 1.5 million species known Taxonomy = Systematics = Phylogeny 1

2 Taxonomic Hierarchy Carolus Linnaeus ( ) Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species Tab. 7.1 Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primate Hominidae Homo sapiens Binomial Nomenclature Ape Mi Feng Apis mellifera Abeille à miel Honeybee Honningbier Phylogenetic Trees Fig

3 Homologies Inheritance due to having shared a common ancestor Fig Analogies (Similarity due to Convergence) Shark: Class Chondricthyes Orca: Class Mammalia Grouping for Classification Fig

4 Protista: Polyphyletic! Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Chromalveolata Unikonta Bacteria Archaea Discicristata Excavata Alveolata Stramenopila Rhizaria Plantae Opisthokonta Amoebozoa Diplomonads Parabasalids Euglenids Ciliates Apicomplexa Dinoflagellates Oomycetes Diatoms Brown algae Foraminifera Glaucophyte algae Red algae Chlorarachniophytes Green algae Land plants Fungi Green plants Choanoflagellates Animals Lobose amoebae Cellular slime molds Plasmodial slime molds Paraphyletic = Opinion Hylabatidae Pongidae Hominidae Hyobates Pongo Gorilla Pan Homo Cladistic Approach Pongidae Hominidae Hominidae Gorilla Chimpanzee Human Gorilla Chimpanzee Human 4

5 Traditional vs. Cladistic Approach Class Reptilia is paraphyletic Traditional vs. Cladistic Approach Class Reptilia is monophyletic Protista Animalia Symplesiomorphies Plesiomorphie = ancestral Apomorphie = derived Porifera Cnidaria Ctenophora Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida Cycliophora Rotifera Annelida Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Bryozoa Brachiopoda Phoronida Arthropoda Onychophora Tardigrada Nematomorpha Nematoda Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Echinodermata Hemichordata Chordata Autapomorphies Synapomorphies 5

6 Apomorphies for Kingdom Animalia 1) Level of Organization Cellular Tissues Endoderm (digestive tract) Mesoderm (connective tissues, muscles, vascular system) Ectoderm (skin) Organs Organ systems digestive, reproductive, circulatory, respiratory 2 Body Symmetry Asymmetry Fig. 7.7 Radial Symmetry Can divide along radius (-ii) through oral-aboral axis Fig

7 Bilateral Symmetry Cephalization Céphalization Median Plane Fig. 7.9 Apomorphies for Kingdom Animalia 3) Embryonic Development Fertilized ovule give a zygote (1 single cell) Cellular division in zygote produces blastula, which is formed of blastomeres surrounding a blastocoel Apomorphies for Kingdom Animalia 3) Embryonic Development Invagination forms the gastric cavity (by the process of gastrulation) Opening to the invagination called the blastopore Becomes a gastrula, blastocoel eventually fills in Blastopore 7

8 Apomorphies for Kingdom Animalia 4) Tissues and Body Cavities Ectoderm Mesoglea Endoderm Fig Diploblastic Body Plan Apomorphies for Kingdom Animalia 4) Tissues and Body Cavities Acoelomate Pseudocoelomate Eucoelomate Fig Acoelomate Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm 8

9 Pseudocoelomate Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Eucoelomate Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm 5) Protostome Development Fig

10 5) Deuterostome Development Fig Protista Cellular Organization 7 unicellular (1) Parazoa, w/o tissues (2) Tissue Organization Diploblasts (3) Triploblastes (4) Bilateral Symmetry (5) Embryonic Development Protostomes (6) Deuterostomes (7) 1 Animalia Porifera Cnidaria Ctenophora Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida Cycliophora Rotifera Annelida Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Bryozoa Brachiopoda Phoronida Arthropoda Onychophora Tardigrada Nematomorpha Nematoda Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Echinodermata Hemichordata Chordata Next Class: Protozoa Miller and Harley Chap. 8 10

11 Questions? Photo A.Brown 11

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