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1 Instructor Information Dr. Anne Boettger Office: Schmucker North 475 Office hours: Monday 1-2 pm Tuesday/Thursday 9-11am otherwise by appointment All pertinent information may be found on the following website: InvertebrateZoology 1

2 Course Assignments 3 lecture exams = 30% Containing a mix of multiple choice, definition and short answer questions 3 lab exams = 30% Not cumulative, cafeteria style, details tdb 1 final exam = 15% Cumulative, containing a mix of multiple choice, definitions, short answer and essay questions 1 project = 10% Different project for each student to be handed out during lab on 1/28/2015, if you miss it you ARE responsible for getting the assignment from me assignments = 15% Mix of unannounced lecture and lab assignments either to be conducted during regular course time or as a homework assignment with a specific due date Total = 100% Syllabus Information 2

3 Course Readings Materials 3

4 Introduction Food Source Human health Research tool Biochemical compounds Invertebrate Classifications 1. Biological (Evolutionary) Relationships Taxis = arrangement, nomos = law Hierarchical Mono/poly/paraphyletic 4

5 Monophyletic Group - natural taxon (grouping), all organisms are derived from the same ancestor, sharing derived characteristics (synapomorphies) Paraphyletic Group - artificial taxon (grouping), one or more descendant from the common ancestor are excluded Polyphyletic Group - artificial taxon (grouping), one or more descendants from different ancestors are placed into the same grouping Invertebrate Classification 2. By Cell numbers Very basic Level of complexity rather than taxa 1. Protozoa Single celled, no tissues Animal like characteristics 2. Metazoa Multicellular, true animals, diploid Parazoa vs Eumetazoa 5

6 Protozoa Eukaryotes Metazoa Animal Classification 3. Absence/Presence of tissues Absence of true tissues = Porifera - multiple cells and cells of different structure - no aggregations into true tissues that make up distinct organs - no true embryonic tissue layers 6

7 Protozoa Metazoa Porifera Animalia Animal Classification 4. By germ layers 1. Diploblastic Ecto & endoderm e.g. Cnidaria, Ctenophora No mesoderm, mesoglea instead (generally non-cellular) 2. Triploblastic Ecto-, endo- & mesoderm more building material 7

8 Protozoa Porifera Metazoa Placozoa, Cnidaria, Ctenophora all other animals Invertebrate Classification 5. By body form (symmetry) a) Asymmetrical No patterns, protozoa & sponges b) Spherical Symmetrical halves Rare, certain protozoa c) Radial/Biradial 2 equal halves by any cut Radial: polyps Biradial: ctenophores d) Bilateral Right and left sides Arthropods, annelids, chordates 8

9 Protozoa Porifera Metazoa Placozoa, Cnidaria, Ctenophora all other animals Animal Classification 6. Lophotrochozoa versus Ecdysozoa Trochozoa = Adults are not alike = trochophore larva Lophophorates = lophophore = feeding structure 9

10 6. Lophotrochozoa versus Ecdysozoa Ecdysis = process of moulting, having an exoskeleton that needs to be shed in order to grow Invertebrate Classification 7. By body cavity Cavity = buffer, storage, expansion, medium 1. Acoelomate = lack body cavity, mesenchyme or mesoderm, e.g. platyhelminthes 2. Pseudocoelomate = Fluid filled, organs suspended, in fluid, e.g. rotifers, nematodes 3. Coelomates, Fluid-filled, tissue lined cavity, e.g. annelids, 10

11 Animal Classification 8. Prototomes vs Deuterostomes Protostome Deuterostome Cleavage Spiral, determinate Radial, indeterminate Mouth Blastopore Protostome Deuterostome Never near or at blastopore, anus at blastopore 11

12 Coelom Protostome Mesodermal origin Deuterostome Endodermal origin Coelom Protostome Annelids, Arthropods, Molluscs Deuterostome Echinoderms, Urochordata, Cephalochordata 12

13 Animal Classification 9. Molecular A B morphological, biochemical and behavioral characteristics not enough may portray what morphology predicted or may be completely different (A mitochondrial genes, B hox genes) 13

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